SQL Server 版本的計算容量限制Compute Capacity Limits by Edition of SQL Server

本主題討論不同 SQL Server 2014SQL Server 2014 版本的計算容量限制以及它們在具有超執行緒處理器的實體和虛擬化環境中有何差異。This topic discusses compute capacity limits for different editions of SQL Server 2014SQL Server 2014 and how they differ in physical and virtualized environments with hyperthreaded processors.

對應至計算容量限制Mappings to compute capacity limits

下表描述上圖所使用的註解:The following table describes the notations being used in the above diagram:

Value 描述Description
0..10..1 零個或一個Zero or one
11 只有一個Exactly one
1..*1..* 一個或多個One or more
0..*0..* 零個或多個Zero or more
1..21..2 一個或兩個One or two

重要

詳細說明:To elaborate further:

  1. 一個虛擬機器會被配置一個或多個虛擬處理器。A virtual machine is allocated one or more virtual processors.

  2. 一個或多個虛擬處理器只會配置給一個虛擬機器。One or more virtual processors are allocated to exactly one virtual machine.

  3. 零個或一個虛擬處理器會對應至零個或多個邏輯處理器。Zero or one virtual processor is mapped to zero or more logical processors. 當虛擬處理器與邏輯處理器的對應為:When the virtual processor to logical processor mapping is:

    • 一對零時,表示客體作業系統並未使用的未繫結邏輯處理器。One-to-zero, it represents an unbound logical processor not used by the guest operating systems.
    • 一對多時,表示過度認可。One-to-many, it represents an overcommit.
    • 零對多時,表示虛擬機器不存在主機系統上,因此 VM 並未使用任何邏輯處理器。Zero-to-many, it represents the absence of virtual machine on the host system, so no logical processors are used by VMs.
  4. 一個插槽會對應至零個或多個核心。A socket is mapped to zero or more cores. 當插槽與核心的對應為:When the socket to core mapping is:

    • 一對零時,表示空的插槽 (未安裝晶片)。One-to-zero, it represents an empty socket (no chip installed).
    • 一對一時,表示安裝至插槽的單核心晶片 (目前非常少見)。One-to-one, it represents a single-core chip installed into the socket (very rare these days).
    • 一對多時,表示安裝至插槽的多核心晶片 (一般的值為 2、4、8)。One-to-many, it represents a multi-core ship installed into the socket (typical values are 2,4,8).
  5. 一個核心會對應至一個或兩個邏輯處理器。A core is mapped to one or two logical processors. 當核心與邏輯處理器的對應為:When the core to logical processor mapping is:

    • 一對一時,表示超執行緒已關閉。One-to-one, hyperthreading is off.
    • 一對二時,表示超執行緒已開啟。One-to-two, hyperthreading is on.

下列定義適用於本主題中使用的詞彙:The following definitions apply to the terms used throughout this topic:

  • [SQL Server]SQL Server、作業系統、應用程式或驅動程式的觀點而言,執行緒或邏輯處理器都是單一邏輯運算引擎。A thread or logical processor is one logical computing engine from the perspective of [SQL Server]SQL Server, the operating system, an application or driver.

  • 一個核心是指一個處理處理器單元,可能是由一個或多個邏輯處理器組成。A core is a processor unit, which can consist of one or more logical processors.

  • 一個實體處理器可能是由一個或多個核心組成。A physical processor can consist of one or more cores. 實體處理器與處理器封裝或插槽相同。A physical processor is the same as a processor package, or a socket.

具有多個實體處理器的系統或是具有多核心及/或超執行緒之實體處理器的系統可讓作業系統同時執行多個工作。Systems with more than one physical processor or systems with physical processors that have multiple cores and/or hyperthreads enable the operating system to execute multiple tasks simultaneously. 每個執行的執行緒都會顯示成邏輯處理器。Each thread of execution appears as a logical processor. 例如,如果您有已啟用超執行緒和每個核心的兩個執行緒的兩個四核心處理器的電腦,您會有 16 個邏輯處理器:每個核心的處理器 x 2 執行緒每 2 個處理器 x 4 核心數。For example, if you have a computer that has two quad-core processors with hyper-threading enabled and two threads per core, you have 16 logical processors: 2 processors x 4 cores per processor x 2 threads per core. 請注意:It is worth noting that:

  • 來自超執行緒核心之單一執行緒的邏輯處理器計算容量小於來自停用超執行緒之相同核心的邏輯處理器計算容量。The compute capacity of a logical processor from a single thread of a hyperthreaded core is less than the compute capacity of a logical processor from that same core with hyperthreading disabled.

  • 但是,超執行緒核心中 2 個邏輯處理器的計算容量大於停用超執行緒之相同核心的計算容量。But the compute capacity of the 2 logical processors in the hyperthreaded core is greater than the compute capacity of the same core with hyperthreading disabled.

[SQL Server]SQL Server 的每個版本都有兩個計算容量限制:Each edition of [SQL Server]SQL Server has two compute capacity limits:

  1. 插槽的數目上限 (與實體處理器、插槽或處理器封裝相同)。A maximum number of Sockets (Same as Physical processor or Socket or Processor package).

  2. 作業系統所報告的核心數目上限。A maximum number of cores as reported by the operating system.

這些限制適用於單一 [SQL Server]SQL Server執行個體。These limits apply to a single instance of [SQL Server]SQL Server. 它們代表單一執行個體將會使用的計算容量上限。They represent the maximum compute capacity that a single instance will use. 但是,它們不會限制可部署執行個體的伺服器。They do not constrain the server upon which the instance may be deployed. 實際上,在相同的實體伺服器上部署多個 [SQL Server]SQL Server 執行個體可以有效地使用插槽及/或核心數目超過下列容量限制之實體伺服器的運算容量。In fact deploying multiple instances of [SQL Server]SQL Server on the same physical server is an efficient way to use the compute capacity of a physical server with more sockets and/or cores than the capacity limits below.

下表指定每個 SQL Server 2014SQL Server 2014版本之單一執行個體的計算容量限制:The following table specifies the compute capacity limits for a single instance of each edition of SQL Server 2014SQL Server 2014:

[SQL Server]SQL Server 版本Edition 單一執行個體所使用的計算容量上限 ([SQL Server]SQL ServerDatabase EngineDatabase Engine)Maximum Compute Capacity Used by a Single Instance ([SQL Server]SQL ServerDatabase EngineDatabase Engine) 單一執行個體所使用的計算容量上限 (AS、RS)Maximum Compute Capacity Used by a Single Instance (AS, RS)
Enterprise Edition:核心授權1Enterprise Edition: Core-based Licensing1 作業系統最大值Operating system maximum 作業系統最大值Operating system maximum
DeveloperDeveloper 作業系統最大值Operating system maximum 作業系統最大值Operating system maximum
EvaluationEvaluation 作業系統最大值Operating system maximum 作業系統最大值Operating system maximum
Business IntelligenceBusiness Intelligence 限制為 4 個插槽或 16 個核心的較小者Limited to lesser of 4 Sockets or 16 cores 作業系統最大值Operating system maximum
StandardStandard 限制為 4 個插槽或 16 個核心的較小者Limited to lesser of 4 Sockets or 16 cores 限制為 4 個插槽或 16 個核心的較小者Limited to lesser of 4 Sockets or 16 cores
WebWeb 限制為 4 個插槽或 16 個核心的較小者Limited to lesser of 4 Sockets or 16 cores 限制為 4 個插槽或 16 個核心的較小者Limited to lesser of 4 Sockets or 16 cores
ExpressExpress 限制為 1 個插槽或 4 個核心的較小者Limited to lesser of 1 Socket or 4 cores 限制為 1 個插槽或 4 個核心的較小者Limited to lesser of 1 Socket or 4 cores
Express with ToolsExpress with Tools 限制為 1 個插槽或 4 個核心的較小者Limited to lesser of 1 Socket or 4 cores 限制為 1 個插槽或 4 個核心的較小者Limited to lesser of 1 Socket or 4 cores
Express with Advanced ServicesExpress with Advanced Services 限制為 1 個插槽或 4 個核心的較小者Limited to lesser of 1 Socket or 4 cores 限制為 1 個插槽或 4 個核心的較小者Limited to lesser of 1 Socket or 4 cores

1 Enterprise Edition,含伺服器 + 用戶端存取授權 (CAL) 授權 (不適用於新的協議) 僅限於最多 20 個核心每[SQL Server]SQL Server執行個體。1 Enterprise Edition with Server + Client Access License (CAL) based licensing (not available for new agreements) is limited to a maximum of 20 cores per [SQL Server]SQL Server instance. 核心伺服器授權模式之下沒有任何限制。There are no limits under the Core-based Server Licensing model.

在虛擬化環境中,計算容量限制是以邏輯處理器 (而非核心) 的數目為基礎,因為客體應用程式看不見處理器架構。In a virtualized environment, the compute capacity limit is based on the number of logical processors, not cores, because the processor architecture is not visible to the guest applications. 例如,如果一部伺服器的四個插槽都插入四核心處理器,而且能夠針對每個核心啟用兩個超執行緒,則在啟用超執行緒的情況下,總共包含 32 個邏輯處理器,但是在停用超執行緒的情況下,只包含 16 個邏輯處理器。For example, a server with four sockets populated with quad-core processors and the ability to enable two hyperthreads per core contains 32 logical processors with hyperthreading enabled but only 16 logical processors with hyperthreading disabled. 這些邏輯處理器可對應至伺服器上對應至主機伺服器中實體處理器上執行的執行緒該邏輯處理器的虛擬機器計算負載的虛擬機器。These logical processors can be mapped to virtual machines on the server with the virtual machines' compute load on that logical processor mapped into a thread of execution on the physical processor in the host server.

當每個虛擬處理器的效能都很重要時,您可能會想要停用超執行緒。You may want to disable hyperthreading when the performance per virtual processor is important. 雖然您可以在 BIOS 設定期間使用處理器的 BIOS 設定來啟用或停用超執行緒,不過這種伺服器範圍的作業通常會影響伺服器上執行的所有工作負載。One can enable or disable hyperthreading using a BIOS setting for the processor during the BIOS setup, but it is typically a server scoped operation that will impact all workloads running on the server. 因此,建議您分隔在虛擬化環境中執行的工作負載以及實體作業系統環境中可從超執行緒效能提升獲益的工作負載。This may suggest separating workloads that will run in virtualized environments from those that would benefit from the hyperthreading performance boost in a physical operating system environment.

另請參閱See Also

SQL Server 2014 的版本和元件 Editions and Components of SQL Server 2014
SQL Server 2014 各版本所支援的功能 Features Supported by the Editions of SQL Server 2014
SQL Server 的最大容量規格 Maximum Capacity Specifications for SQL Server
SQL Server 2014 快速入門安裝Quick-Start Installation of SQL Server 2014