執行個體組態Instance Configuration

請使用 安裝精靈的 [執行個體組態] [SQL Server]SQL Server 頁面,指定要建立 [SQL Server]SQL Server的預設執行個體還是具名執行個體。Use the Instance Configuration page of the [SQL Server]SQL Server Installation Wizard to specify whether to create a default instance or a named instance of [SQL Server]SQL Server. 如果尚未安裝 [SQL Server]SQL Server 的執行個體,則除非您指定具名執行個體,否則將會建立預設執行個體。If an instance of [SQL Server]SQL Server is not already installed, a default instance will be created unless you specify a named instance.

每個 [SQL Server]SQL Server 執行個體都包含一組不同的服務,而這些服務對於定序和其他選項具有特定設定。Each instance of [SQL Server]SQL Server consists of a distinct set of services that have specific settings for collations and other options. 目錄結構、登錄結構和服務名稱都反映出在 [SQL Server]SQL Server 安裝期間建立的執行個體名稱和特定的執行個體識別碼。The directory structure, registry structure, and service names all reflect the instance name and a specific instance ID created during [SQL Server]SQL Server Setup.

執行個體是預設執行個體或具名執行個體。An instance is either the default instance or a named instance. 預設執行個體名稱是 MSSQLSERVER。The default instance name is MSSQLSERVER. 它不需要用戶端指定執行個體名稱來進行連接。It does not require a client to specify the name of the instance to make a connection. 具名執行個體由使用者在安裝期間決定。A named instance is determined by the user during Setup. 您可以將 [SQL Server]SQL Server 安裝為具名執行個體,而不需要先安裝預設執行個體。You can install [SQL Server]SQL Server as a named instance without installing the default instance first. 一次只有一個 [SQL Server]SQL Server 安裝 (不論版本為何) 可以是預設執行個體。Only one installation of [SQL Server]SQL Server, regardless of version, can be the default instance at one time.

警示 !Alert! 透過 [SQL Server]SQL Server SysPrep,當您完成備妥的執行個體時,就可以在 [執行個體組態] 頁面上指定執行個體名稱。With [SQL Server]SQL Server SysPrep, you can specify the instance name when you complete a prepared instance on the Instance Configuration page. 如果電腦上沒有任何現有的 [SQL Server]SQL Server 預設執行個體,您就可以選擇將所完成的備妥執行個體設定為預設執行個體。You can choose to configure the prepared instance you are completing as a default instance if there is no existing default instance of [SQL Server]SQL Server on the machine.

多個執行個體Multiple Instances

[SQL Server]SQL Server 支援單一伺服器或處理器上的多個 [SQL Server]SQL Server 執行個體,但是只有一個執行個體可以是預設執行個體;supports multiple instances of [SQL Server]SQL Server on a single server or processor, but only one instance can be the default instance. 其他所有的執行個體都必須是具名執行個體。All others must be named instances. 電腦可同時執行 [SQL Server]SQL Server 的多個執行個體,每一個執行個體的執行與其他執行個體無關。A computer can run multiple instances of [SQL Server]SQL Server concurrently, and each instance runs independently of other instances.

如需詳細資訊,請參閱 Maximum Capacity Specifications for SQL ServerFor more information, see Maximum Capacity Specifications for SQL Server.

選項。Options

僅限容錯移轉叢集執行個體 - 指定 [SQL Server]SQL Server 容錯移轉叢集網路名稱。Failover cluster instances only - Specify the [SQL Server]SQL Server failover cluster network name. 這個名稱會在網路上識別容錯移轉叢集執行個體。This name identifies the failover cluster instance on the network.

預設或具名執行個體 - 在決定要安裝 [SQL Server]SQL Server 的預設執行個體還是具名執行個體時,請考量以下資訊:Default or Named instance - Consider the following information when you decide whether to install a default or named instance of [SQL Server]SQL Server:

  • 如果您計劃在資料庫伺服器上安裝單一 [SQL Server]SQL Server 執行個體,它應該是預設執行個體。If you plan to install a single instance of [SQL Server]SQL Server on a database server, it should be a default instance.

  • 當您打算在相同電腦上擁有多個執行個體時,請使用具名執行個體。Use a named instance for situations where you plan to have multiple instances on the same computer. 一個伺服器只能主控一個預設執行個體。A server can host only one default instance.

  • 安裝 SQL Server ExpressSQL Server Express 的任何應用程式都應該將它安裝為具名執行個體。Any application that installs SQL Server ExpressSQL Server Express should install it as a named instance. 這種作法可以減少將多個應用程式安裝在相同電腦時所造成的衝突。This will minimizes conflict when multiple applications are installed on the same computer.

預設執行個體Default instance
選取這個選項可安裝 [SQL Server]SQL Server 的預設執行個體。Select this option to install a default instance of [SQL Server]SQL Server. 電腦只能主控一個預設執行個體;所有其他執行個體都必須加以命名。A computer can host only one default instance; all other instances must be named. 不過,如果您已安裝 [SQL Server]SQL Server 的預設執行個體,您可將 Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services 的預設執行個體加入相同電腦中。However, if you have a default instance of [SQL Server]SQL Server installed, you can add a default instance of Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services to the same computer.

具名執行個體Named instance
選取這個選項可建立新的具名執行個體。Select this option to create a new named instance. 當您為 [SQL Server]SQL Server 的執行個體命名時,請注意以下事項:Be aware of the following when you name an instance of [SQL Server]SQL Server:

  • 執行個體名稱不區分大小寫。Instance names are not case sensitive.

  • 執行個體名稱不能以底線 () 開始或結束。Instance names cannot start or end with an underscore ().

  • 執行個體名稱不得包含 "Default" 一詞或其他保留關鍵字。Instance names cannot contain the term "Default" or other reserved keywords. 如果在執行個體名稱中使用了保留關鍵字,會發生安裝程式錯誤。If a reserved keyword is used in an instance name, a Setup error will occur. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱保留關鍵字 (Transact-SQL)For more information, see Reserved Keywords (Transact-SQL).

  • 如果您為執行個體名稱指定 MSSQLServer,將會建立預設執行個體。If you specify MSSQLServer for the instance name, a default instance will be created.

  • 安裝 Microsoft SQL Server 2014 PowerPivot for SharePointMicrosoft SQL Server 2014 PowerPivot for SharePoint 時,一律會安裝成 'PowerPivot' 的具名執行個體。An installation of Microsoft SQL Server 2014 PowerPivot for SharePointMicrosoft SQL Server 2014 PowerPivot for SharePoint is always installed as a named instance of 'PowerPivot'. 您無法針對這個功能角色指定不同的執行個體名稱。You cannot specify a different instance name for this feature role.

  • 執行個體名稱限制為 16 個字元。Instance names are limited to 16 characters.

  • 執行個體名稱中的第一個字元必須是字母。The first character in the instance name must be a letter. 可接受的字母是由 Unicode Standard 2.0 所定義的字母。Acceptable letters are those defined by the Unicode Standard 2.0. 這些包括拉丁字元 a-z、A-Z 及其他語言的字母字元。These include Latin characters a-z, A-Z, and letter characters from other languages.

  • 後續字元可以是 Unicode 標準 2.0 定義的字母、基本拉丁文或其他國家 (地區) 指令碼中的十進位數字、錢幣符號($) 或底線 ()。Subsequent characters can be letters defined by the Unicode Standard 2.0, decimal numbers from Basic Latin or other national scripts, the dollar sign ($), or an underscore ().

  • 執行個體名稱中不允許內嵌空格或其他特殊字元。Embedded spaces or other special characters are not allowed in instance names. 此外,也不允許反斜線 (\)、逗號 (,)、冒號 (:)、分號 (;)、單引號 (')、& 符號 (&)、連字號 (-) 和 At 符號 (@)。The backslash (\), comma (,), colon (:), semi-colon (;), single quote ('), ampersand (&), hyphen (-), and at sign (@) are also not allowed.

  • 只有在目前的 Windows 字碼頁中有效的字元可以用於[SQL Server]SQL Server執行個體名稱。如果使用不支援的 Unicode 字元時,會發生安裝錯誤。Only characters that are valid in the current Windows code page can be used in [SQL Server]SQL Server instance names. If an unsupported Unicode character is used, a Setup error will occur.

偵測到的執行個體和功能Detected instances and features
在執行 [SQL Server]SQL Server 安裝程式的電腦上檢視已安裝的 [SQL Server]SQL Server 執行個體和元件的清單。View a list of installed [SQL Server]SQL Server instances and components on the computer where [SQL Server]SQL Server Setup is running.

執行個體識別碼 :依預設,此執行個體名稱會當作執行個體識別碼使用。Instance ID - By default, the instance name is used as the Instance ID. 這是用來識別 [SQL Server]SQL Server執行個體的安裝目錄和登錄機碼。This is used to identify installation directories and registry keys for your instance of [SQL Server]SQL Server. 這是預設執行個體和具名執行個體的狀況。This is the case for default instances and named instances. 如果是預設執行個體,執行個體名稱和執行個體識別碼將會是 MSSQLSERVER。For a default instance, the instance name and instance ID would be MSSQLSERVER. 若要使用非預設的執行個體識別碼,請在 [執行個體識別碼] 欄位中指定它。To use a non-default instance ID, specify it in the Instance ID field.

重要

透過 [SQL Server]SQL Server SysPrep,顯示在這個頁面上的執行個體識別碼就是 [SQL Server]SQL Server SysPrep 程序之準備映像步驟期間所指定的執行個體識別碼。With [SQL Server]SQL Server SysPrep, the Instance ID displayed on this page is the Instance ID specified during the prepare image step of the [SQL Server]SQL Server SysPrep process. 您無法在完成映像步驟期間指定不同的執行個體識別碼。You will not be able to specify a different Instance ID during the complete image step.

注意

不支援以底線 () 為開頭或是包含數字符號 (#) 或貨幣符號 ($) 的執行個體識別碼。Instance IDs that begin with an underscore () or that contain the number sign (#) or the dollar sign ($) are not supported.

如需目錄、檔案位置和執行個體識別碼命名的詳細資訊,請參閱 SQL Server 的預設和具名執行個體的檔案位置For more information about directories, file locations, and instance ID naming, see File Locations for Default and Named Instances of SQL Server.

給定 [SQL Server]SQL Server 執行個體的所有元件都會當做一個單位來管理。All components of a given instance of [SQL Server]SQL Server are managed as a unit. 所有的 [SQL Server]SQL Server Service Pack 和升級項目都會套用至 [SQL Server]SQL Server執行個體的每一個元件。All [SQL Server]SQL Server service packs and upgrades will apply to every component of an instance of [SQL Server]SQL Server.

所有共用相同執行個體名稱之 [SQL Server]SQL Server 的所有元件,都必須符合下列準則:All components of [SQL Server]SQL Server that share the same instance name must meet the following criteria:

  • 相同的版本Same version

  • 相同的版本Same edition

  • 相同語言設定Same language settings

  • 相同叢集狀態Same clustered state

    注意

    Reporting ServicesReporting Services 無法識別叢集。is not cluster-aware.

  • 相同作業系統Same operating system