Operations Manager 重要概念Operations Manager key concepts

重要

已不再支援此版本的 Operations Manager,建議升級至 Operations Manager 2019This version of Operations Manager has reached the end of support, we recommend you to upgrade to Operations Manager 2019.

Operations Manager 軟體是 Microsoft System Center 的元件,它能協助您從單一主控台監視許多電腦的服務、裝置與運作狀態。Operations Manager, a component of Microsoft System Center, is software that helps you monitor services, devices, and operations for many computers from a single console. 本主題說明 Operations Manager 的基本概念,適合管理 Operations Manager 基礎結構的系統管理員和在企業中負責監視和支援 IT 服務的操作員閱讀。This topic explains basic concepts about Operations Manager for the administrator who manages the Operations Manager infrastructure and the operator who monitors and supports the IT services for your business.

Operations Manager 的功用為何What Operations Manager does

不論小型企業或大型企業,一般都需要仰賴運算環境提供的服務和應用程式。Businesses, small and large, are typically dependent on the services and applications provided by their computing environment. IT 部門負責確保這些重要服務和應用程式的效能和可用性。IT departments are responsible for ensuring the performance and availability of those critical services and applications. 這表示當問題發生時,IT 部門必須知道、必須識別發生問題的項目,以及必須找出導致問題發生的原因,最好是在應用程式的使用者遭遇問題之前。That means that IT departments need to know when there is a problem, identify where the problem is, and figure out what is causing the problem, ideally before the users of the applications encounter the problems. 企業中的電腦和裝置越多,這項工作就變得越困難。The more computers and devices in the business, the more challenging this task becomes.

在環境中使用 Operations Manager 能簡化眾多電腦、裝置、服務和應用程式的監視作業。Using Operations Manager in the environment makes it easier to monitor multiple computers, devices, services, and applications. 下圖中的 Operations 主控台能讓您查看環境中所有受監視物件的健全狀況、效能和可用性,協助您找出問題並加以解決。The Operations console, shown in the following image, enables you to check the health, performance, and availability for all monitored objects in the environment and helps you identify and resolve problems.

Operations 主控台

注意

若要深入了解 Operations Manager 主控台,請參閱《操作指南》中的比較 Operations Manager 主控台To learn more about the Operations Manager consoles, see Comparing the Operations Manager Consoles in the Operations Guide.

Operations Manager 能告知您哪個受監視的物件處於不良狀態、在識別問題時傳送警示,以及提供資訊來協助您找出問題的原因和可能的解決方案。Operations Manager will tell you which monitored objects are not healthy, send alerts when problems are identified, and provide information to help you identify the cause of a problem and possible solutions. 如果您是系統管理員,可以藉由選取要監視的電腦和裝置,以及匯入為特定功能和應用程式提供監視功能的管理組件來設定要監視的項目。As the administrator, you configure what will be monitored by selecting computers and devices to be monitored and importing management packs that provide monitoring for specific features and applications. 若要決定要監視的物件和要監視的狀況,您需要瞭解構成 Operations Manager 基礎結構的功能和 Operations Manager 的運作方式。To decide which objects to monitor and what to monitor for, you need to understand the features that comprise the Operations Manager infrastructure and how Operations Manager works.

Operations Manager 基礎結構The Operations Manager infrastructure

安裝 Operations Manager 會建立「管理群組」 。Installing Operations Manager creates a management group. 管理群組是基本的功能單位。The management group is the basic unit of functionality. 管理群組至少由一部「管理伺服器」 、「操作資料庫」 和「報表資料倉儲資料庫」 所組成。At a minimum, a management group consists of a management server, the operational database, and the reporting data warehouse database.

  • 「管理伺服器」 是掌管管理群組以及與資料庫通訊的焦點。The management server is the focal point for administering the management group and communicating with the database. 當您開啟 Operations 主控台並連線到管理群組時,實際上是連線到該管理群組的管理伺服器。When you open the Operations console and connect to a management group, you connect to a management server for that management group. 由於運算環境的大小不盡相同,管理群組可能會包含一部或多部管理伺服器。Depending on the size of your computing environment, a management group can contain a single management server or multiple management servers.

  • 「操作資料庫」 是 SQL Server 資料庫,它含有管理群組的所有設定資料,也能儲存所有為管理群組收集和處理的監視資料。The operational database is a SQL Server database that contains all configuration data for the management group and stores all monitoring data that is collected and processed for the management group. 操作資料庫會保存短期資料,預設為 7 天。The operational database retains short-term data, by default 7 days.

  • 「資料倉儲資料庫」 是 SQL Server 資料庫,它能儲存監視和警示資料以供追溯歷程之用。The data warehouse database is a SQL Server database that stores monitoring and alerting data for historical purposes. 寫入 Operations Manager 資料庫的資料也會寫入資料倉儲資料庫,因此報表一律包含最新的資料。Data that is written to the Operations Manager database is also written to the data warehouse database, so reports always contain current data. 資料倉儲資料庫會保存長期資料。The data warehouse database retains long-term data.

如果您安裝 Operations Manager 報表功能,管理群組另會包含「報表伺服器」 ,它能利用資料倉儲資料庫中的資料來建立和提供報表。When Operations Manager reporting functionality is installed, the management group also contains a Reporting server which builds and presents reports from data in the data warehouse database.

管理群組的核心元件可以位在單一伺服器上或分散在多部伺服器上,如下圖所示。These core components of a management group can exist on a single server, or they can be distributed across multiple servers, as shown in the following image.

基本管理群組

如需安裝管理群組功能的詳細資訊,請參閱 Operations Manager 部署指南For information about installing management group features, see Operations Manager Deployment Guide.

管理伺服器Management servers

管理伺服器的角色負責掌管管理群組設定、管理代理程式及與其通訊,以及與管理群組中的資料庫通訊。The role of the management server is to administer the management group configuration, administer and communicate with agents, and communicate with the databases in the management group.

管理群組可包含多部管理伺服器,以提供額外的容量和不間斷的可用性。The management group can contain multiple management servers to provide additional capacity and continuous availability. 當您將兩部或多部管理伺服器加入管理群組時,管理伺服器便成為「資源集區」 的一部分,而工作量則會分散到集區的成員上。When two or more management servers are added to a management group, the management servers become part of a resource pool and work is spread across the members of the pool. 當資源集區的成員失敗時,資源集區中的其他成員將會接管該成員的工作負載。When a member of the resource pool fails, other members in the resource pool will pick up that member’s workload. 當您加入新管理伺服器時,新管理伺服器會自動接管資源集區中現有成員的某些工作。When a new management server is added, the new management server automatically picks up some of the work from existing members in the resource pool. 資源集區中的所有成員都會管理不同的一組遠端物件;在任何指定時間內,同一集區中的兩個成員不會同時管理相同的物件。All members in the resource pool will manage a distinct set of remote objects; at any given time, two members in the same pool will not manage the same object at the same time.

「閘道伺服器」 是特殊的管理伺服器類型。A specialized type of management server is the gateway server. 閘道伺服器可讓您監視未受信任網域中的電腦。A gateway server enables the monitoring of computers in untrusted domains. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱規劃管理群組設計For more information, see Planning a management group design.

AgentsAgents

Operations Manager「代理程式」 是安裝在電腦上的服務。An Operations Manager agent is a service that is installed on a computer. 代理程式可收集資料、比較取樣的資料與預先定義的值、建立警示和執行回應。The agent collects data, compares sampled data to predefined values, creates alerts, and runs responses. 管理伺服器會接收設定,並將設定散發給受監視電腦上的代理程式。A management server receives and distributes configurations to agents on monitored computers.

每個代理程式都會向管理群組中的管理伺服器報告。Every agent reports to a management server in the management group. 此管理伺服器稱為代理程式的主要管理伺服器。This management server is referred to as the agent's primary management server.

代理程式可監看受監視電腦上的資料來源,以及根據管理伺服器傳送給它的設定來收集資訊。Agents watch data sources on the monitored computer and collect information according to the configuration that is sent to it from its management server. 代理程式也能計算受監視電腦和受監視電腦上物件的健全狀況狀態,然後再向管理伺服器回報。The agent also calculates the health state of the monitored computer and objects on the monitored computer and reports back to the management server. 當受監視物件的健全狀況狀態變更或符合其他準則時,可由代理程式產生警示。When the health state of a monitored object changes or other criteria are met, an alert can be generated from the agent. 如此可讓操作員知道有問題需要處理。This lets operators know that something requires attention. 藉由將受監視物件的健全狀況資料提供給管理伺服器,代理程式可提供裝置和其裝載的所有應用程式的最新健全狀況。By providing health data about the monitored object to the management server, the agent provides an up-to-date picture of the health of the device and all the applications that it hosts.

您可以設定代理程式作為「Proxy 代理程式」 。An agent can be configured to act as a proxy agent. Proxy 代理程式是代替主機電腦之外的電腦或網路裝置,將資料轉寄給管理伺服器的代理程式。A proxy agent is an agent that can forward data to a management server on behalf of a computer or network device other than its host computer. 例如,您可以使安裝在 SQL 叢集實體節點上的代理程式成為 Proxy,以便監視叢集資源。For example, an agent that is installed on the physical node of an SQL cluster can be enabled to act as proxy to monitor the cluster resource. Proxy 代理程式可讓您監視無法安裝代理程式的電腦和裝置。Proxy agents enable monitoring of computers and devices on which an agent cannot be installed. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱 Agentless Monitoring (無代理程式監視)For more information, see Agentless Monitoring.

服務Services

在受監視的電腦上,Operations Manager 代理程式會列為 Microsoft Monitoring Agent 服務。On a monitored computer, the Operations Manager agent is listed as the Microsoft Monitoring Agent service. Microsoft Monitoring Agent 服務會收集效能資料、執行工作等。The Microsoft Monitoring Agent service collects performance data, executes tasks, and so on. 即使當服務無法與報告的管理伺服器通訊時,它仍會繼續執行並將收集到的資料和事件佇列在受監視電腦的磁碟上。Even when the service is unable to communicate with the management server it reports to, the service continues to run and queues the collected data and events on the disk of the monitored computer. 當連線恢復後,Microsoft Monitoring Agent 服務便會將收集的資料和事件傳送給管理伺服器。When the connection is restored, the Microsoft Monitoring Agent service sends collected data and events to the management server.

注意

Microsoft Monitoring Agent 服務有時稱為「健全狀況服務」。The Microsoft Monitoring Agent service is sometimes referred to as the Health Service.

Microsoft Monitoring Agent 服務也會在管理伺服器上執行。The Microsoft Monitoring Agent service also runs on management servers. 在管理伺服器上,此服務會執行監視工作流程及管理認證。On a management server, the service runs monitoring workflows and manages credentials. 為了執行工作流程,此服務會使用指定的認證起始 MonitoringHost.exe 處理序。To run workflows, the service initiates MonitoringHost.exe processes using specified credentials. 這些處理序會監視和收集事件記錄資料、效能計數器資料、Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) 資料,以及執行如指令碼等動作。These processes monitor and collect event log data, performance counter data, Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) data, and run actions such as scripts.

管理伺服器還會執行 System Center 資料存取服務和 System Center 管理設定服務。Management servers also run the System Center Data Access service and the System Center Management Configuration service.

System Center 資料存取服務會將操作資料庫的存取權限提供給 Operations 主控台,以及將資料寫入資料庫。The System Center Data Access service provides access for the Operations console to the operational database and writes data to the database.

System Center 管理設定服務可管理管理群組的關聯性和拓撲。The System Center Management Configuration service manages the relationships and topology of the management group. 它也能將管理組件散發給受監視的物件。It also distributes management packs to monitored objects.

管理組件Management packs

System Cente 管理服務執行的工作流程是由「管理組件」 所定義的。The workflows that the System Center Management service runs are defined by management packs. 管理組件可定義代理程式針對特定應用程式或技術而收集的資訊,以及傳回給管理伺服器的資訊。Management packs define the information that the agent collects and returns to the management server for a specific application or technology. 例如,BizTalk Server 管理組件包含的規則和監視可收集和評估確保 BizTalk Server 應用程式健全狀況和效率的重要事件和操作。For example, the BizTalk Server Management Pack contains rules and monitors that collect and evaluate events and operations that are important to ensuring the health and efficiency of the BizTalk Server application.

當 Operations Manager 在電腦上安裝代理程式後,它會傳送初始設定給代理程式。After Operations Manager installs an agent on a computer, it sends an initial configuration to the agent. 初始設定包括來自管理組件的「物件探索」 。The initial configuration includes object discoveries from management packs. 管理組件會定義要在 Operations Manager 探索到的電腦上監視的物件類型 (如應用程式和功能)。The management pack defines the types of objects, such as applications and features, that will be monitored on computers that have been discovered by Operations Manager. 代理程式會將在電腦上探索到的物件執行個體的識別資料傳送給管理伺服器。Agents send data to the management server that identifies the instances of objects discovered on the computer. 管理伺服器接著會將適用於每部電腦上已探索物件的管理組件元素 (如規則和監視) 傳送給代理程式。The management server then sends the agents the elements of management packs that apply to the discovered objects for each computer, such as rules and monitors.

「規則」 會定義要從電腦收集哪些事件和效能資料,以及在收集後要對資訊採取哪些動作。A rule defines the events and performance data to collect from computers and what to do with the information after it is collected. 簡單來說,我們可以將規則視為「若/則」陳述式。A simple way to think about rules is as an If/Then statement. 例如,應用程式的管理組件可能包含如下所示的規則:For example, a management pack for an application might contain rules such as the following:

  • 如果指出應用程式即將關閉的訊息出現在事件記錄檔中,則建立警示。If a message indicating that the application is shutting down appears in the event log, create an alert.

  • 如果來源檔案上傳失敗,則收集指出此項失敗的事件。If upload of a source file fails, collect the event that indicates this failure.

如以上範例所示,規則可建立警示及收集事件或效能資料 (亦即代理程式傳送給管理伺服器的內容)。As these examples show, rules can create alerts and collect events or performance data, which the agent sends to the management server. 規則也可執行指令碼,例如允許某個規則嘗試重新啟動失敗的應用程式。Rules can also run scripts, such as allowing a rule to attempt to restart a failed application.

已探索的物件會有健全狀況狀態,這些狀態反映在 Operations 主控台內會是綠色 (成功或狀況良好)、黃色 (警告) 或紅色 (重大或狀況不良)。Discovered objects have a health state, which is reflected in the Operations console as green (successful or healthy), yellow (warning), or red (critical or unhealthy). 「監視」 會定義受監視物件某些層面的健全狀況狀態。Monitors define the health states for particular aspects of the monitored object. 例如,磁碟機容量的監視可能會將低於 85% 的已滿程度定義為綠色、將超過 85% 的已滿程度定義為黃色,並將超過 90% 的已滿程度定義為紅色。For example, a monitor for disk drive capacity might define green as less than 85 percent full, yellow as over 85 percent full, and red as over 90 percent full. 您可以將監視設定成在發生狀態變更時產生警示。A monitor can be configured to generate an alert when a state change occurs.

物件的探索和監視方式How objects are discovered and monitored

下圖是探索和監視物件的方式的簡要說明。The following image is a simplified illustration of how objects are discovered and monitored.

探索和監視概觀

  1. 系統管理員設定 Operations Manager 以搜尋要管理的電腦。The administrator configures Operations Manager to search for computers to manage. 如需探索電腦的詳細資訊,請參閱代理程式部署規劃For more information about discovering computers, see Agent deployment planning.

  2. 系統識別符合指定準則但尚未受到管理的電腦。Computers that meet the specified criteria and are not already managed are identified.

  3. 系統將 Operations Manager 代理程式安裝在探索到的電腦上。An Operations Manager agent is installed on the discovered computer.

  4. 代理程式要求設定資料,然後管理伺服器將已安裝之管理組件中的設定資料 (包括要探索的類別) 傳送給代理程式。The agent requests configuration data, and then the management server sends the agent configuration data from installed management packs that includes classes to be discovered. 例如,如果您已安裝 Windows Server 作業系統管理組件,管理伺服器會將作業系統類別傳送給代理程式。For example, if the Windows Server operating system management packs are installed, the management server will send the agent the operating system classes.

  5. 代理程式比對設定資料和電腦、識別探索到的任何物件,然後將資訊傳回給管理伺服器。The agent compares the configuration data to the computer, identifies any objects that it discovers, and returns the information to the management server. 例如,代理程式會將電腦上有 Windows Server 2016 作業系統執行個體的資訊傳回給管理伺服器。For example, the agent will return to the management server that an instance of Windows Server 2016 operating system is on the computer.

  6. 管理伺服器將已安裝的管理組件中所有適用於探索到之物件的監視邏輯傳送給代理程式。The management server sends the agent all monitoring logic from installed management packs that applies to the discovered objects. 例如,代理程式會收到適用於 Windows Server 2016 的所有監視邏輯。For example, the agent will receive all monitoring logic that applies to Windows Server 2016.

  7. 代理程式套用監視邏輯 (如規則和監視)、執行工作流程,以及將資料傳回給管理伺服器。The agent applies the monitoring logic, such as rules and monitors, runs workflows, and returns data to the management server.

  8. 當探索到的物件發生變更時 (例如新增或解除安裝應用程式),代理程式會將更新的資訊傳送給管理伺服器,而管理伺服器則會傳送更新的監視邏輯。As changes occur to discovered objects, such as applications being added or uninstalled, the agent sends the updated information to the management server, which then sends updated monitoring logic.

注意

Operations Manager 也可以探索及監視網路裝置,以及執行 UNIX 和 Linux 作業系統的電腦,並提供無代理程式監視。Operations Manager can also discover and monitor network devices, computers running UNIX and Linux operating systems, and provide agentless monitoring. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱操作指南中的 Operations Manager Monitoring Scenarios (Operations Manager 監視案例)For more information, see Operations Manager Monitoring Scenarios in the Operations Guide.

代理程式與管理伺服器之間的通訊Communication between agents and management servers

Operations Manager 代理程式會傳送警示和探索資料到主要管理伺服器,由後者將資料寫入操作資料庫。The Operations Manager agent sends alert and discovery data to the primary management server, which writes the data to the operational database. 代理程式也會傳送事件、效能和狀態資料到該代理程式的主要管理伺服器,再由後者將資料同時寫入操作和資料倉儲資料庫。The agent also sends events, performance, and state data to the primary management server for that agent, which writes the data to the operational and data warehouse databases simultaneously.

代理程式會根據每個規則和監視的排程參數來傳送資料。The agent sends data according to the schedule parameters for each rule and monitor. 使用最佳化集合規則時,只有當計數器的取樣與先前取樣之差異達到指定的容錯 (如 10%) 時,才會傳輸資料。For optimized collection rules, data is only transmitted if a sample of a counter differs from the previous sample by a specified tolerance, such as 10%. 這將有助於減少網路流量,以及儲存在操作資料庫中的資料量。This helps reduce network traffic and the volume of data stored in the operational database.

此外,所有代理程式都會將稱為「活動訊號」 的資料封包,定期 (預設為每 60 秒) 傳送到管理伺服器。Additionally, all agents send a packet of data, called a heartbeat, to the management server on a regular schedule, by default every 60 seconds. 傳送活動訊號的目的是要驗證代理程式以及代理程式與管理伺服器之間通訊的可用性。The purpose of the heartbeat is to validate the availability of the agent and communication between the agent and the management server. 如需活動訊號的詳細資訊,請參閱 How Heartbeats Work in Operations Manager (活動訊號在 Operations Manager 中的運作方式)For more information on heartbeats, see How Heartbeats Work in Operations Manager.

Operations Manager 會針對每個代理程式執行「健全狀況服務監看員」 ,這項功能會從管理伺服器的角度,監視遠端健全狀況服務。For each agent, Operations Manager runs a health service watcher, which monitors the state of the remote Health Service from the perspective of the management server.

Operations Manager 的其他資源Other resources for Operations Manager