如何建立通知訂閱How to create notification subscriptions

重要

已不再支援此版本的 Operations Manager,建議升級至 Operations Manager 2019This version of Operations Manager has reached the end of support, we recommend you to upgrade to Operations Manager 2019.

在 System Center - Operations Manager 中,當產生警示時,Operations Manager 可透過電子郵件、立即訊息 (IM) 或文字訊息 (SMS) 通知指定的個人。In System Center - Operations Manager, when an alert is generated, Operations Manager can notify designated individuals by email, instant message (IM), or text message (SMS). 通知也可以在受監視系統產生警示時自動執行命令。Notifications can also run commands automatically when an alert is raised on a monitored system. 通知需要通道、訂閱者和訂閱。A notification requires a channel, a subscriber, and a subscription.

這些程序將說明如何指定準則或條件,以便判斷會產生通知的警示、類別與群組的使用,以及您的訂閱中用來篩選並使通知符合您組織呈報路徑的準則或條件。These procedures will explain how to specify the criteria or conditions that determine the alerts that will generate a notification, use of classes and groups, and criteria or conditions in your subscriptions to filter and align notifications with your organizational escalation path. 訂閱也會定義通知要使用的通道,以及要接收通知的訂閱者。A subscription also defines the channel to be used for the notification and the subscribers to receive the notification. 您可以使用訂閱者和訂閱的組合來自訂哪些警示要傳送給個人或團隊。You can use the combination of subscriber and subscription to tailor which alerts are sent to individuals or teams.

在建立訂閱之前,必須設定通知通道和訂閱者。Notification channels and subscribers must be configured before you create a subscription.

訂閱篩選選項Subscription filtering options

建立訂閱之前,我們會檢閱您可以用來篩選警示通知的兩種方法,讓您可以傳遞符合特定條件的警示,例如,具有高優先順序的所有重大嚴重性警示會通知 IT 作業,或從受監視的特定物件,例如特定遠端位置的所有系統,通知現場 IT 支援小組。Before creating a subscription, we will review the two methods you can use to filter alert notifications so that you can deliver alerts that meet certain conditions, such as all critical severity alerts with high priority notify IT Operations or from specific monitored objects like all systems for a particular remote location notify that on-site IT support team.

指定產生通知的警示 (條件)Specifying which alerts generate notifications (Conditions)

當您建立訂閱以便在 Operations Manager 產生警示時收到通知時,必須指定準則或條件,以決定將會產生通知的警示。When you create a subscription to be notified when Operations Manager generates alerts, you must specify the criteria or conditions that determine the alerts that will generate a notification. 下圖顯示您可以從中選擇的條件。The following illustration shows the conditions you can choose from.

警示狀況的清單

您選取條件時,它會新增到 [準則描述] 中。When you select a condition, it is added to the Criteria description. 在 [準則描述] 方塊中,特定這個字為藍色並且有底線,它是條件值的預留位置。In the Criteria description box, the word specific is blue and underlined, and is a placeholder for the value for the condition. 按一下 [特定] 設定該條件的值。Click specific to set the value for that condition.

例如,針對 [特定嚴重性] 的條件,按一下 [特定] ,然後從可用的值選取︰[資訊] 、[警告] 和 [重大] 。For example, for the condition of a specific severity, click specific, and then select from the available values: Information, Warning, and Critical.

當您從已產生的警示建立通知訂閱時,訂閱的條件會以特定警示中的值自動設定。When you create a notification subscription from an alert that has been generated, the conditions for the subscription are configured automatically with values from the specific alert.

訂用帳戶篩選選項Subscription filter options

建立訂閱之前,我們會檢閱可以用來篩選警示通知的兩種方法,讓您可以傳遞符合特定條件的警示;例如具有高優先順序的所有重大嚴重性警示會通知 IT 作業,或從受監視的特定物件,例如特定遠端位置的所有系統,會通知現場 IT 支援小組。Before creating a subscription, we will review the two methods that you can use to filter alert notifications so that you can deliver alerts that meet certain conditions, such as all critical severity alerts with high priority notify IT Operations or from specific monitored objects like all systems for a particular remote location notify that on-site IT support team.

指定產生通知的警示 (條件)Specify the alerts that generate notifications (Conditions)

當您建立訂閱以便在 Operations Manager 產生警示時收到通知時,必須指定準則或條件,以決定將會產生通知的警示。When you create a subscription to be notified when Operations Manager generates alerts, you must specify the criteria or conditions that determine the alerts, which will generate a notification. 我們已強化了準則建立器,透過利用排除物件、使用 AND/OR 群組及使用規則運算式依必要準則通知的各項功能,讓您建置複雜且實用/有效率的訂用帳戶準則。Criteria builder has been enhanced to allow you to build complex yet useful/efficient subscription criteria by leveraging the ability to exclude objects, use AND/OR groupings and use regular expressions to notify based on the required criteria.

範圍中,您可以選取特定群組或類別,來選擇訂用帳戶的範圍。In Scope, you can choose the scope for a subscription by selecting the specific group(s) or class(es). 您可以自行選擇是否要定義範圍,若未定義,則下個畫面 (準則) 中定義的條件不會納入任何群組/類別的範圍中。Defining a scope is optional, if scope is not defined, then the conditions defined in the next screen (Criteria) will not be scoped to any groups/classes.

準則中,您可以針對要傳送給指定訂閱者的通知設定各項條件。In Criteria, you can set the conditions for the notifications to be sent to the specified subscribers. 如果未設定條件,將針對所有警示傳送通知。If you do not set the conditions, notifications will be sent for all alerts. 這些條件會套用到稍早畫面中定義的範圍,以便將通知傳送給指定的訂閱者;若您未在稍早畫面中定義範圍,這些條件就不會納入任何群組/類別的範圍中。These conditions will be applied on the scope defined in the earlier screen to send notification to the specified subscribers, if scope is not defined in the earlier screen, then these conditions will not be scoped to any groups/classes.

下列準則建立器範例會展示單一運算式和一組運算式:The following are the examples of the criteria builder showcasing single expression and groups of expressions:

範例 - 單一運算式Example - single expression

準則建立器單一運算式

範例 - 一組運算式Example - groups of expressions

準則建立器單一運算式

使用類別和群組包含特定的警示Using classes and groups to include specific alerts

您可以使用類別和群組來設定訂閱。You can use classes and groups to configure the subscription. 您可以針對訂閱選取的兩種警示條件是︰Two of the conditions for alerts that you can select for a subscription are:

  • 由特定群組的任何執行個體所產生。Raised by any instance in a specific group.

  • 由特定類別的任何執行個體所產生。Raised by any instance in a specific class.

當您設定其中一個條件的值時,您可以選取多個群組或類別。You can select multiple groups or classes when you set the value for either condition.

注意

Operations Manager 2019 不支援「範圍」索引標籤中的「不等於」或「非其中成員」選項。Operations Manager 2019 does not support "not equal to" or "not a member of" options in Scope tab.

[群組]Groups

群組是物件的邏輯集合,如 Windows 電腦、硬碟或 Microsoft SQL Server 執行個體。Groups are logical collections of objects, such as Windows-based computers, hard disks, or instances of Microsoft SQL Server. 某些群組是由 Operations Manager 建立,例如 [Operations Manager 代理程式管理的電腦群組] 和 [所有 Windows 電腦] 群組。Some groups are created by Operations Manager, such as the Operations Manager Agent Managed Computer Group and the All Windows Computers group. 您可以建立群組,以符合您特定的監視需求,例如特定組織單位 (OU) 中的所有 Windows 電腦。You can create groups to meet your specific monitoring needs, such as all Windows computers in a specific organizational unit (OU). 如需建立群組的詳細資訊,請參閱建立和管理群組For more information on creating groups, see Creating and Managing Groups.

群組可以擁有明確或動態成員資格。Groups can have explicit or dynamic membership. 假設您想要建立訂閱,將五部特定伺服器所產生的警示通知所產生的警示通知傳送給一位使用者,並將五部不同伺服器所產生的警示通知傳送給另一位使用者。Suppose you wanted to create a subscription that would send notifications for alerts generated by five specific servers to one person and notifications for alerts generated by a different five servers to a second person. 您可以建立兩個群組,明確指派每一部伺服器給其中一個群組,然後再建立訂閱,將每個群組的通知傳送至適當的人員。You could create two groups and explicitly assign each server to one of the groups, and then create a subscription that would send notifications for each group to the appropriate person.

當您選取特定的群組作為警示通知的條件時,會針對指定群組的任何成員所產生的警示傳送通知。When you select a specific group as a condition for an alert notification, notifications are sent for alerts raised by any member of the specified group.

類別Classes

類別代表一種物件,Operations Manager 中的每個物件都視為特定類別的執行個體。A class represents a kind of object, and every object in Operations Manager is considered an instance of a particular class. 類別的所有執行個體有一組共通的內容。All instances of a class share a common set of properties. 每個物件各有其內容值,這些值會在探索到物件時決定。Each object has its own values for these properties which are determined when the object is discovered. 大多數管理組件都會定義描述組成受監視應用程式之不同元件的一組類別,以及這些類別之間的關聯性。Most management packs define a set of classes that describe the different components that make up the application that is being monitored and to the relationships between those classes.

Operations Manager 中的每個類別都有「基底類別」。Every class in Operations Manager has a base class. 類別具有其基底類別的所有內容,而且可能還加上其他內容。A class has all the properties of its base class and potentially adds more. 安裝在管理群組中不同管理組件的所有類別都可以排列在樹狀目錄中,並置於其基底類別底下。All of the classes from the different management packs installed in your management group can be arranged in a tree with each class positioned under its base class. 如果您從任何類別開始,在樹狀結構中循著其基底類別查看,再循著該類別的基底類別,一直下去,最後會到達 Object 類別,即 System Center 類別庫的根。If you start at any class, and then walk up the tree following its base class, and then the base class of that class, and so on, you eventually reach the Object class which is the root of the System Center class library.

當您選取特定的類別作為警示通知的條件時,會針對指定類別的任何執行個體所產生的警示傳送通知。When you select a specific class as a condition for an alert notification, notifications are sent for alerts raised by any instance of the specified class.

範例Examples

範例 1: 若要將 UNIX 電腦的警示通知傳送給您的 UNIX 系統管理員,請使用條件 [由特定群組的任何執行個體所產生] 建立訂閱、選取 [UNIX/Linux 電腦群組] 作為條件的值,並選取 UNIX 系統管理員作為訂閱者。Example 1: To send notifications of alerts for UNIX computers to your UNIX administrator, you create a subscription using the condition Raised by any instance in a specific group, select the UNIX/Linux Computer Group as the value for the condition, and select the UNIX administrator as the subscriber.

範例 2: 若要傳送重大嚴重性與高優先順序的新警示通知給 IT 營運小組,請使用條件 [重大嚴重性] 、[高優先順序] 、[具有新解決狀態] (with New (0) resolution state) 建立訂閱,然後選取代表 IT 營運小組的訂閱者。Example 2: To send notifications of new alerts with a critical severity and high priority to your IT Operations team, you create a subscription using the condition of Critical severity, of a High priority, with New (0) resolution state, and select your subscriber representing the IT Operations team.

在第一個範例中,UNIX 系統管理員會收到 UNIX 電腦上作業系統所產生的警示通知,以及任何其他由 UNIX 電腦所產生的警示通知。In the first example, the UNIX administrator would be notified of alerts raised by the operating system on a UNIX computer, as well as any other alerts that are raised by a UNIX computer. 在第二個範例中,將只會在產生具有重大嚴重性和高優先順序的新警示時傳送通知。In the second example, the notifications would only be sent when new alerts are raised with critical severity and high priority.

以系統管理員身分建立通知訂閱To create a notification subscription as an administrator

  1. 使用屬於 Operations Manager 系統管理員角色成員的帳戶登入電腦。Log on to the computer with an account that is a member of the Operations Manager Administrators role.

  2. 在 Operations 主控台中,按一下 [系統管理] 。In the Operations console, click Administration.

  3. 在 [系統管理] 工作區中,展開 [通知] ,在 [訂閱] 上按一下滑鼠右鍵,然後按一下 [新增訂閱] 。In the Administration workspace, expand Notifications, right-click Subscriptions, and then click New subscription. [通知訂閱精靈] 隨即啟動。The Notification Subscription Wizard starts.

  4. 在 [描述] 頁面上的 [訂閱名稱] 中,輸入訂閱的描述性名稱,並輸入簡短描述,然後按一下 [下一步] 。On the Description page, in Subscription name, type a descriptive name for the subscription, type a short description, and then click Next.

  5. 在 [訂閱準則] 頁面上,您可以設定決定何時傳送通知給指定訂閱者的條件。On the Subscription Criteria page, you can set conditions that will determine when notifications will be sent to specified subscribers. 如果您未設定條件,將針對所有的警示傳送通知。If you do not set conditions, notifications will be sent for all alerts. 按一下 {3}[下一步]{4}來建立應用程式和部署類型。Click Next.

    注意

    警示更新時,您也會收到通知。You will also receive notifications when an alert is updated.

  6. 在 [訂閱者] 頁面上,按一下 [新增] ,新增已定義的訂閱者,或是按一下 [新建] ,新增新的訂閱者。On the Subscribers page, click Add to add subscribers who are already defined, or click New to add new subscribers. 如需定義訂閱者的詳細資訊,請參閱如何建立通知訂閱者For more information on defining subscribers, see How to Create Notification Subscribers.

  7. 按一下 {3}[下一步]{4}來建立應用程式和部署類型。Click Next.

  8. 在 [通道] 頁面上,按一下 [新增] 新增已定義的通道,或按一下 [新建] 新增新的通道。On the Channels page, click Add to add a channel that is already defined, or click New to add a new channel. 如需定義通道的詳細資訊,請參閱如何啟用電子郵件通知通道如何啟用立即訊息通知通道如何啟用文字訊息通知通道,和如何啟用命令通知通道For more information on defining channels, see How to Enable an Email Notification Channel, How to Enable an Instant Message Notification Channel, How to Enable a Text Message Notification Channel, and How to Enable a Command Notification Channel.

  9. 在 [通道] 頁面上的 [警示過時] 區段中,選取要傳送通知而不延遲,還是設定以分鐘為單位的值,除非條件維持不變,否則便應該延遲通知,然後按一下 [下一步] 。In the Alert aging section on the Channels page, select to send notifications without delay or set a value in minutes that notification should be delayed unless conditions remain unchanged, and then click Next.

  10. 檢閱 [摘要] 頁面上的設定,然後依序按一下 [完成] 和 [關閉] 。Review the settings on the Summary page, click Finish, and then click Close.

以操作員身分建立通知訂閱To create a notification subscription as an operator

  1. 使用屬於 Operations Manager 操作員或進階操作員角色成員的帳戶登入電腦。Log on to the computer with an account that is a member of the Operations Manager Operators or Advanced Operators role.

  2. 在 Operations 主控台中,按一下最上層功能表列中的 [工具] ,然後按一下 [我的訂閱] 。In the Operations console, click Tools in the top menu bar, and then click My Subscriptions.

    操作員工具子功能表Operator Tools sub menu

  3. 在 [通知訂閱] 視窗中,按一下 [新增] 。In the Notification Subscriptions window, click New.

  4. 在 [描述] 頁面上的 [訂閱名稱] 中,輸入訂閱的描述性名稱,並輸入簡短描述,然後按一下 [下一步] 。On the Description page, in Subscription name, type a descriptive name for the subscription, type a short description, and then click Next.

  5. 在 [訂閱準則] 頁面上,您可以設定決定何時傳送通知給指定訂閱者的條件。On the Subscription Criteria page, you can set conditions that will determine when notifications will be sent to specified subscribers. 如果您未設定條件,將針對所有的警示傳送通知。If you do not set conditions, notifications will be sent for all alerts. 按一下 {3}[下一步]{4}來建立應用程式和部署類型。Click Next.

    注意

    警示更新時,您也會收到通知。You will also receive notifications when an alert is updated.

  6. 在 [訂閱者] 頁面上,按一下 [新增] 新增已定義的訂閱者,或在 [選取的訂閱者] 方塊中選取訂閱者,然後按一下 [編輯] 來變更此訂閱的設定。On the Subscribers page, click Add to add subscribers who are already defined, or select a subscriber in the Selected subscribers box and click Edit to change the settings for this subscription. 如需定義訂閱者的詳細資訊,請參閱如何建立通知訂閱者For more information on defining subscribers, see How to Create Notification Subscribers.

  7. 按一下 {3}[下一步]{4}來建立應用程式和部署類型。Click Next.

  8. 在 [通道] 頁面上,按一下 [新增] 新增已定義的通道,或按一下 [新建] 建立現有通道的自訂複本。On the Channels page, click Add to add a channel that is already defined, or click New to create a customized copy of an existing channel. 如需定義通道的詳細資訊,請參閱如何啟用電子郵件通知通道如何啟用立即訊息通知通道如何啟用文字訊息 (SMS) 通知通道,和如何啟用命令通知通道For more information on defining channels, see How to Enable an Email Notification Channel, How to Enable an Instant Message Notification Channel, How to Enable a Text Message (SMS) Notification Channel, and How to Enable a Command Notification Channel.

  9. 在 [通道] 頁面上的 [警示過時] 區段中,選取要傳送通知而不延遲,還是設定以分鐘為單位的值,除非條件維持不變,否則便應該延遲通知,然後按一下 [下一步] 。In the Alert aging section on the Channels page, select to send notifications without delay or set a value in minutes that notification should be delayed unless conditions remain unchanged, and then click Next.

  10. 檢閱 [摘要] 頁面上的設定,然後依序按一下 [完成] 和 [關閉] 。Review the settings on the Summary page, click Finish, and then click Close.

後續步驟Next steps