選取管理組件檔案Select a management pack file

重要

已不再支援此版本的 Operations Manager,建議升級至 Operations Manager 2019This version of Operations Manager has reached the end of support, we recommend you to upgrade to Operations Manager 2019.

當您在 Operations 主控台中建立任何監視時,您必須為要建立的元素指定管理組件檔案。When you create any monitoring in the Operations console, you have to specify a management pack file for the elements that you are creating. 此主題說明您可以遵循的基本策略,並提供其他詳細資料,以協助您了解建議策略的邏輯。This topic describes a basic strategy that you can follow and provides additional details to help you understand the logic of the recommended strategy.

一般策略General strategy

針對已經安裝密封的管理組件的應用程式,通常管理組件是從管理組件類別目錄安裝的:For applications that already have a sealed management pack installed, typically management packs installed from the Management Pack Catalog:

  • 建立個別的管理組件檔案,以儲存該應用程式的覆寫和新的監視。Create a separate management pack file to store overrides and new monitoring for that application.

針對未安裝密封的管理組件的應用程式,通常是您自行建立的管理組件:For applications that do not have a sealed management pack installed, typically management packs that you created yourself:

  • 為每個應用程式建立個別的管理組件檔案。Create a separate management pack file for each application. 使用此檔案來儲存覆寫,以及該應用程式的任何新監視。Use this file to store overrides and any new monitoring for that application.

針對其他管理組件檔案所使用的通用元素,例如群組:For common elements that are used by other management pack files, such as groups:

  • 為每個元素的邏輯集合建立個別的管理組件檔案。Create a separate management pack file for each logical set of elements. 請先密封此管理組件檔案,然後再進行安裝。Seal this management pack file before installing it.

    注意

    如果您已在 Operations 主控台中建立管理組件檔案,您必須將它匯出至 .xml 檔案,然後將它密封。If you created the management pack file in the Operations console, you must export it to an .xml file, and then seal it. 然後,在安裝密封的管理組件檔案之前,您必須先從管理群組解除安裝未密封的管理組件檔案。You must then uninstall the unsealed management pack file from the management group before you install the sealed management pack file.

預設管理組件Default Management Pack

預設管理組件檔案包含常見的元素,例如 [監視] 工作區最上層的檢視。The Default Management Pack file contains common elements such as views at the top level of the Monitoring workspace. 這是未密封的管理組件檔案,因此您可以在此等級建立檢視和資料夾。This is an unsealed management pack file so that you can create views and folders at this level. 它不應該用於任何其他用途。It should not be used for any other purpose. 若要建立監視和規則等元素,請建立新的管理組件檔案。For creating elements such as monitors and rules, create a new management pack file.

以邏輯方式分組元素Logically grouping elements

雖然您可以只建立單一管理組件檔案來儲存您所建立的所有自訂元素,但並不是最佳做法。Although you could simply create a single management pack file to store all custom elements that you create, it is not a best practice. 雖然管理組件元素是由執行它們的代理程式個別處理,但管理群組可與管理組件檔案搭配使用。While management pack elements are treated individually by the agents that run them, the management group works with the management pack file. 當管理組件檔案安裝在管理群組中或從中移除時,它會包含其所有管理組件元素。When a management pack file is installed in the management group or removed from it, it includes all of its management pack elements.

當您決定如何分組不同的元素時,請考慮下列事項:When you determine how to group different elements, take the following considerations into account:

  • 系統會將管理組件檔案傳遞至檔案中至少需要一個元素的任何代理程式電腦。Management pack files are delivered to any agent computer that requires at least one element in the file. 如果您針對不同的應用程式使用單一管理組件檔案,元素可能會傳遞給不需要它們的代理程式。If you use a single management pack file for different applications, elements might be delivered to agents that do not require them. 代理程式只會針對已安裝的應用程式實際載入元素,但會傳遞整個管理組件檔案。The agent only actually loads the elements for the applications that it has installed, but the entire management pack file is delivered. 根據與單一應用程式相關的元素來細分管理組件檔案,可確保將檔案以最有效率的方式傳遞至代理程式。Breaking up management pack files according to the elements that are relevant to a single application ensures the most efficient delivery of the files to agents.
  • 您可以從您的環境移除應用程式,不再需要其管理組件。You can remove an application from your environment and no longer require its management pack. 或者,您也可以取得應用程式的新管理組件,並想要移除您所實作的自訂監視。Or you can obtain a new management pack for an application and want to remove custom monitoring that you implemented. 在這種情況下,您可以藉由移除特定應用程式的任何管理組件檔案來解除安裝所有元素。In cases like these, you can uninstall all of the elements for a particular application by removing any of its management pack files. 如果您結合多個應用程式的元素,就會限制管理單一應用程式監視邏輯的能力。If you combine elements for multiple applications, you limit your ability to manage the monitoring logic for a single application.
  • 您可以在實驗室環境中開發及測試一些監視邏輯,然後再將它移入生產管理群組。You can develop and test some monitoring logic in a lab environment before moving it into a production management group. 將特定應用程式的元素結合成單一管理組件,可讓您透過不同的環境來管理該檔案,而不會影響其他應用程式的監視。Combining elements for a particular application into a single management pack lets you manage that file through the different environments without affecting the monitoring for other applications.

藉由遵循邏輯分組管理組件元素的建議策略,您可以確保您的管理群組盡可能有效率地執行,而且能夠最有效地處理未來的變更。By following the recommend strategy for logically grouping management pack elements, you can ensure that your management group runs as efficiently as possible and can most effectively handle future changes.

密封與未密封的管理組件檔案Sealed and unsealed Management Pack Files

選取管理組件檔案時,您必須考慮密封和未密封管理組件的含義。When selecting a management pack file, you must consider the implications of sealed and unsealed management packs. 如果所參考的檔案不是密封的,一個管理組件檔案中的元素就無法參考另一個檔案中的元素。An element in one management pack file cannot refer to an element in another file if the file being referenced is not sealed. 基於這個理由,您可能需要在單一管理組件檔案中分組相關元素,或密封一般用途的管理組件檔案。For this reason, you might have to group-related elements in a single management pack file or seal management pack files meant for general use. 有關密封管理組件之效果的詳細資訊,請參閱密封的管理組件檔案For more information about the effects of sealing a management pack, see Sealed Management Pack Files.

由於密封的管理組件檔案無法修改,因此您只能將新的管理組件元素儲存在未密封的檔案中。Because a sealed management pack file cannot be modified, you can only store new management pack elements in unsealed files. 在 Operations 主控台中建立的任何管理組件都未密封,而且提示您提供管理組件的所有對話方塊僅包含未密封的檔案。Any management pack created in the Operations console is unsealed, and any dialog box prompting you for a management pack only includes unsealed files.

例如,您可以建立一組群組來代表運算環境的不同層面,例如特定電腦所在的資料中心、管理特定電腦的支援人員,或其他電腦支援的應用程式。For example, you might create a set of groups that represent different aspects of your computing environment such as the data center that certain computers reside in, the support personnel that manage particular computers, or the applications that different computers support. 您想要使用這些群組來覆寫您在不同管理組件檔案中建立的監視和規則。You want to use those groups to override monitors and rules that you created in different management pack files.

如果您在此範例中使用 Operations 主控台在未密封管理組件檔案中建立群組,則無法將其與其他管理組件檔案搭配使用。If you used the Operations console to create the groups in this example in an unsealed management pack file, you could not use them with other management pack files. 您必須使用下列兩種策略的其中一種來實作此解決方案:You have to use one of the following two strategies to implement this solution:

  • 使用覆寫在每個管理組件檔案中建立群組。Create groups in each management pack file with the overrides. 這麼做的優點是,不需要密封管理組件檔案就能輕鬆地實作,但它的缺點是需要您建立相同群組的多個複本。This has the advantage of being easy to implement without any requirement to seal a management pack file, but it has the disadvantage of requiring you to potentially create multiple copies of the same group.
  • 針對群組建立個別的管理組件檔案。Create a separate management pack file for the groups. 在 Operations 主控台中建立群組之後,請將管理組件匯出至 .xml 檔案,然後使用此文章稍早所述的處理序來密封 .xml 檔案。After you create the groups in the Operations console, export the management pack to an .xml file, and then seal the .xml file by using the process described earlier in this article. 接著,您可以安裝密封版本的管理組件檔案,讓其他任何管理組件都可以使用這些群組。You can then install the sealed version of the management pack file so that the groups are available to any other management pack.

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