管理 Service Manager 發行記錄Manage Service Manager release records

重要

此版本的 Service Manager 已達到終止支援,建議您 升級至 Service Manager 2019This version of Service Manager has reached the end of support, we recommend you to upgrade to Service Manager 2019.

若要瞭解 System Center-Service Manager 中的 release management,您可以瞭解物件(例如變更要求和活動)如何在發行記錄所促成的情況下互動。The key to understanding release management in System Center - Service Manager is realizing how objects, such as change requests and activities, interact when facilitated by release records. 發行管理使用父發行記錄和子發行記錄自動化升級變更要求狀態,以及並行活動、序列活動及其內含活動間狀態傳播的程序。Release management uses parent and child release records to help automate the process of updating the status of change requests and the status propagation between parallel activities, sequential activities, and the activities within them.

專案通常包含數個部分,也有多個可在不同時間點部署且可能影響專案的變更要求。Often, there are multiple parts of a project, and there is more than one change request that can be deployed at different times that can affect a project. 變更管理和發行管理的整體目標是要防止生產環境中有任何非必要的變更,因此每個變更都必須先經過核准。The overall goal of change management and release management is to protect the production environment from unnecessary changes, so that every change to it must first be approved. 發行管理只會處理經過核准的變更。Release management deals only with approved changes.

當變更經過核准後,將由發行管理程序負責將變更分組、進行排程和開發。When changes are approved, it is up to release management processes to group the changes together, schedule them, and develop them. 依據變更的性質,開發程序可能在專案階段進行,也可能在發行管理階段進行。Depending on the nature of the change, sometimes development can occur in the project phase and other times it can occur in the release management phase. 無論開發程序在哪個階段進行,發行管理都會確保變更均經過測試且可安全部署。Regardless of when development occurs, release management ensures that changes are tested and that they are safe to deploy. 此外,發行管理可用來針對不同發行版次進行評估,並將其封裝在一起,協助讓基礎結構停機時間縮到最短。Additionally, release management is used to evaluate and package various releases together to help minimize infrastructure downtime. 發行封裝將一起進行測試,確認其中並無可能影響基礎結構可用性的技術或資源衝突。The package of releases is tested together to verify that no technical or resource conflicts exist that could affect infrastructure availability. 多個變更會配套在一起,並且規劃在下個排定的發行時程或維護時間點進行部署。Multiple changes are bundled together and planned for deployment together during the next scheduled release or maintenance window. 使用發行記錄管理發行內容的功能不但可彙整多個變更,還可以最安全且最有效率的方法進行部署。The function of release management using release records is to consolidate multiple changes and deploy them in the safest and most efficient method possible.

將變更配套在一起以後,發行管理員會利用發行活動定義發行所需動作的順序。After changes have been bundled together, a release manager defines the sequence of actions needed for a release with release activities. 例如,不同的變更可能包含基礎結構更新工作、資料庫修改工作、應用程式更新工作,或其他個別的工作。For example, different changes might have infrastructure update tasks, database modification tasks, tasks to update applications, or other individual tasks. 在某些情況下,將某些工作與基礎架構更新,或是執行資料庫更新或應用程式更新歸類在一起可能是有意義的。In some cases, it might make sense to group some tasks together with infrastructure updates or perform database updates or application updates. 某些工作可以同時進行部署,而某些工作則必須依序或個別進行部署。Some tasks can be deployed simultaneously, while other tasks must be deployed sequentially or separately.

發行記錄進程Release record process

負責發行的發行管理員或其他人員會透過發行記錄定義動作順序。The release manager or other person responsible for the release defines the sequence of actions with a release record. 發行記錄可能會使用並行活動、序列活動或其他活動描述不同變更的部署順序。The release record might depict the deployment sequence of different changes using parallel activities, sequential activities, and other activities. 發行管理員可將活動責任委派給他人。The release manager can delegate the responsibility for activities to others. 活動經過委派後,負責該活動的人員即可修改活動,並且更新其狀態。When an activity is delegated, the person responsible for the activity can modify the activity and update its status.

當您修改活動時,其狀態不會立即更新。When you modify an activity, its status is not immediately updated. 活動狀態的更新會延遲到工作流程啟動以後。There is a delay after until the workflow activates and the activity status is updated. 在重新更新項目檢視後,通常經過 30 到 60 秒,您才會看到主控台中的活動狀態更新。Often, 30 to 60 seconds might elapse before you see the updated status of the activity in the console after you refresh your view of an item. 發行記錄中的其他相依活動可能需要更長的時間才會更新。Other dependent activities in the release record might take longer to update. 例如,假設您的發行記錄包含數十個活動。For example, assume that you have a release record containing a dozen activities. 如果您更新清單最上方的項目,可能需要 30 秒主控台才會更新。If you update an item near the top of the list, it might take 30 seconds to update in the console. 接著,發行記錄的下個活動可能會在 30 秒後自動更新,依此類推。Then, the next activity in the release record might automatically get updated 30 seconds later, and so on. 因此,您的原始變更可能需要一些時間才會傳播到發行記錄中所有受影響的活動。Therefore, the update that you originally made might take some time to propagate to all affected activities in the release record.

發行記錄的元件Parts of release records

由於發行通常會組合在一起,因此您可以使用父子式關聯性將多個發行記錄群組在一起 - 。Because releases are often bundled together, you can group multiple release records together by using a parent-child relationship. 基本上,父發行記錄是多個子發行記錄的容器。Essentially, a parent release record serves as a container for multiple child release records. 不過,新建的發行記錄預設不是父發行記錄。However, a newly created release record is not a parent release record by default. 您必須將發行記錄轉換成父發行記錄,才能加入子發行記錄。You must convert a release record to a parent release record in order to add child release records.

如同變更要求,發行記錄包含需核准的活動,以及手動作業。Like change requests, release records contain activities for approval and manual actions. 此外,發行記錄可能包含並行和序列活動。In addition, release records can contain parallel and sequential activities. 並行和序列活動是其他活動的容器,而且會定義組成活動的執行方式:平行活動可以同時執行,而其他並行活動也正在進行中。Parallel and sequential activities are containers for other activities, and they define how constituent activities must be implemented-parallel activities can be implemented simultaneously, while other parallel activities are also in progress. 序列活動則必須按照安排的順序逐一完成。Sequential activities must be completed in the order they are organized, one after another.

範例情節Sample scenario

Service Manager 的這個範例案例可協助您以端對端使用多個案例,以達到管理發行記錄的目標。This sample scenario for Service Manager helps you achieve your goal of managing release records by using multiple scenarios end to end. 您可以將此範例案例視為個案研究,以便於將個別案例和程序置於內容中。You can think of this sample scenario as a case study that helps put the individual scenarios and procedures in context.

( ) Woodgrove Bank 的資訊技術 IT 管理員會同時管理多個專案。Information Technology (IT) managers at Woodgrove Bank administer multiple projects simultaneously. 通常,組織中的 IT 專案團隊無法存取受到管制的生產環境。Usually, IT project teams in the organization do not have access to the controlled production environment. 此外,預先生產環境的存取權限也受到限制。Additionally, the preproduction environment is limited with restricted access. IT 組織負責執行專案、開發財務應用程式以及開發基礎結構改進功能。The IT organization runs projects, develops financial applications, and develops infrastructure improvements. 當有必要修改受管制生產環境的某個部分,IT 專案團隊會提交要求更新基礎結構的變更要求、更新應用程式、部署產品,或實作一組新的處理序。When it is necessary to modify some part the controlled environment production environment, the IT project team submits change requests asking to update infrastructure, update an application, deploy a product, or implement a set of new processes.

發行管理就是從有核准的變更開始。Release management starts when there are approved changes. 根據公司原則,變更必須透過發行管理程序部署。According to company policies, the changes must be deployed through release management processes. 發行管理員 Garret 會建立父發行記錄,然後他釋出發行的高階圖表, - 並將高階 - 活動連結至變更要求。The release manager, Garret, creates a parent release record, and then he drafts a high-level diagram of the release and links high-level activities to a change request. 發行記錄中的發行活動會與變更要求中的現有部署活動連結。The release activity in a release record is linked to an existing deployment activity in a change request. Garret 或指定的活動設計人員接著視需要將子發行記錄和新活動新增到發行記錄,詳述部署變更所需完成的步驟。Garret or a delegated activity designer then adds child release records and new activities as necessary to the release record that detail the steps needed to be completed to deploy the change. 視所需的詳細程度而定,此程序會針對每個變更要求重複。This process is repeated for each change request to allow any level of detail needed. 因此,根據組織的需求,可以在發行記錄中包含任何數目的變更要求。Therefore, any number of change requests can be included in the release record, depending on the need of the organization. 當變更要求準備好進行實作時,變更實施者會將對應的活動標示為「已完成」。When a change request is ready for implementation, the change implementer marks corresponding activities as Completed.

Woodgrove Bank 通常會每月一次部署更新到生產環境,也稱為發行。Woodgrove Bank normally deploys updates to its production environment, also called a release, once a month. Garret 想要將他定義的數個發行封裝在六月發行、七月發行,以此類推。Garret wants to package several releases that he defined in the June release, in the July release, and so on. 他將這些發行定義為父發行版本,並將所有網路 - 相關和資料庫 - 相關發行連結到六月父發行版本,並將應用程式 - 相關發行連結到七月父發行版本。He defines those releases as parent releases, and he links all network-related and database-related releases into the June parent release, and he links an application-related release into the July parent release. 他也將新的「測試網路與資料庫整合」活動新增至六月版本,以確保兩個 subreleases 函式一起運作。He also adds a new "Test Network with Database Integration" activity into the June release to ensure that both subreleases function together.

Woodgrove Bank 的下一個重要發行是部署新版本的 HRWeb Web 應用程式。The next major release for Woodgrove Bank is a deployment of a new version of its HRWeb web application. HRWeb 開發人員已將新版本的 HRWeb 應用程式提供給發行管理團隊。HRWeb developers have given the Release Management team a new build of the HRWeb application. Woodgrove 發行管理團隊在測試環境中評估此版本時,發現此版本有重大問題,然後要求開發人員解決問題並提供新版本。The Woodgrove Release Management team evaluates the build in its testing environment, finds a critical problem in the build, and then asks developers to fix the problem and provide a new build. 開發團隊提供新版本,然後發行管理團隊順利在測試環境中重新測試此版本。The development team provides a new build, and the Release Management team successfully retests it in the test environment. 此版本接著移至預先生產環境,在預先生產環境中測試和使用兩週。The build then moves to the preproduction environment, where it is tested and used in the preproduction environment for two weeks. 當測試順利完成時,便會將此版本部署到生產環境。When testing is completed successfully, the build is deployed to the production environment. 在此程序期間,Garret 會建立新版本設定項目、將其連結到 HRWeb 軟體設定項目,然後將版本設定項目連結到發行記錄發行封裝。During this process, Garret creates a new build configuration item, links it to the HRWeb software configuration item, and links the build configuration item to the release record release package. 當最新版本部署到生產環境中時,Garret 會在 HRWeb 軟體設定項目中更新版本資訊,然後關閉發行記錄。When the last build is deployed into the production environment, Garret updates the version information in the HRWeb software configuration item, and he closes the release record.

在 Woodgrove Bank,Garret 會設定發行的管理設定,並建立父發行記錄。At Woodgrove Bank, Garret configures administrative settings for releases, and he creates a parent release record. 他還會建立並行活動和循序活動的範本。He also creates templates for parallel and sequential activities. 接著,Phil 根據 Garret 建立的範本建立發行記錄。Then, Phil creates release records, based on the templates that Garret created. Phil 選擇要部署的變更,然後視需要新增、刪除或修改每個發行的發行活動,以更新發行活動。Phil chooses which changes to deploy, and then he updates release activities by adding, deleting, or modifying them for each release, as necessary. Garret 設定發行記錄的通知來通知使用者。Garret configures notifications for release records to notify users. Garret 和 Phil 現在便可以隨時檢閱發行的變更要求狀態和進度。Garret and Phil can review the status and the progress of change requests for a release whenever they need to.

建立發行記錄Create a release record

發行管理員會使用下列程式,在 Service Manager 中建立發行記錄。The Release Manager creates a release record in Service Manager using the following procedure.

建立發行記錄To create a release record

  1. 在 Service Manager 主控台中,開啟 [ 工作專案 ] 工作區,然後在 [ 工作專案 ] 窗格中,展開 [ Release Management]。In the Service Manager console, open the Work Items workspace, and in the Work Items pane, expand Release Management.
  2. 在 [工作] 窗格中,按一下 [建立發行記錄]。In the Tasks pane, click Create Release Record.
  3. 在 [ 選取範本 ] 對話方塊中,選取 [發行記錄] 範本,然後按一下 [確定] 以開啟它。In the Select Template dialog box, select a release record template, and then click OK to open it.
  4. 在 [ 一般 ] 索引標籤的 [發行記錄] 表單中,輸入任何必要的資訊,然後按一下 [ 活動 ] 索引標籤。In the release record form on the General tab, enter any necessary information, and then click the Activities tab.
  5. 修改從發行記錄範本新增的預設發行活動集(如果有的話)。Modify the default set of release activities that are added from the release record template, if any are present. 您可以新增、刪除或修改發行記錄的一組活動,包括下列動作:You can add, delete, or modify sets of activities to the release record, including the following actions:
    • 從現有活動範本的清單中新增活動。Add activities from the list of existing activity templates.
    • 依照完成的順序,向上或向下移動活動。Move activities up and down in the order in which they are completed.
    • 移動流程清單中的活動,並將它們放在容器活動內。Move activities in the process list, and place them inside container activities.
    • 移動容器活動中的活動,並將其放在流程清單中的任何位置。Move activities from container activities, and place them anywhere in the process list.
    • 刪除活動。Delete activities.
  6. 當您加入活動時,就會開啟活動表單。As you add an activity, the activity form opens. 輸入必要資訊,然後按一下 [確定] 以儲存活動。Enter necessary information, and then click OK to save the activity.
  7. 當您新增所有想要的活動之後,請按一下 [確定] 以儲存發行記錄並加以關閉。When you have added all the activities you want, click OK to save the release record and close it. 發行記錄接著會出現在 [ 發行記錄:全部 ] 視圖中。The release record then appears in the Release Records: All view.

建立發行記錄範本Create a release record template

發行記錄範本可用來建立新的發行記錄。A release record template is used to create new release records. 發行記錄範本可以包含預先定義的發行活動。A release record template can include predefined release activities. 當您針對新的發行記錄使用範本時,新版本記錄的建立速度會比從頭建立新的發行記錄更快。When you use a template for new release records, new release records are created faster than when you create them from scratch.

範本作者藉由完成下列程式來建立發行記錄的範本。The template author creates a template for release records by completing the following procedure.

建立發行記錄範本To create a release record template

  1. 在 Service Manager 主控台中,開啟 [連結 ] 工作區,然後在 [連結 ] 窗格中選取 [ 範本]。In the Service Manager console, open the Library workspace, and in the Library pane, select Templates.
  2. 範本清單中,選取 [ 預設發行記錄],然後在 [工作] 窗格的 [範本] 底下,按一下 [建立範本]。In the Templates list, select Default Release Record, and then in the Tasks pane under Templates, click Create Template.
  3. 在 [ 建立範本 ] 對話方塊中,輸入範本的名稱和適用于範本的描述。In the Create Template dialog box, type a name for the template and a description of what the template applies.
  4. 在 [ 類別] 底下,按一下 [流覽],然後在 [ 選取類別 ] 方塊中,選取 [ 發行記錄],然後按一下 [確定] 以關閉 [ 選取類別 ] 方塊。Under Class, click Browse, and in the Select a Class box, select Release Record, and then click OK to close the Select a Class box.
  5. 按一下 [確定 ] 關閉 [ 建立範本 ] 對話方塊,[新的發行記錄] 範本表單隨即出現。Click OK to close the Create Template dialog box, and the New Release Record Template form appears.
  6. 在 [ 一般 ] 索引標籤上的方塊中輸入資訊,然後按一下 [ 活動 ] 索引標籤。Enter information in the boxes on the General tab, and then click the Activities tab.
  7. 您可以新增、刪除或修改發行記錄範本中的一組活動,包括下列動作:You can add, delete, or modify sets of activities to the release record template, including the following actions:
    • 從現有活動範本的清單中新增活動。Add activities from the list of existing activity templates.
    • 依照完成的順序,向上或向下移動活動。Move activities up and down in the order in which they are completed.
    • 移動流程清單中的活動,並將它們放在容器活動內。Move activities in the process list, and place them inside container activities.
    • 移動容器活動中的活動,並將其放在流程清單中的任何位置。Move activities from container activities, and place them anywhere in the process list.
    • 刪除活動。Delete activities.
  8. 當您加入活動時,就會開啟活動表單。As you add an activity, the activity form opens. 輸入必要資訊,然後按一下 [確定] 以儲存活動。Enter necessary information, and then click OK to save the activity.
  9. 當您新增所有想要的活動之後,請按一下 [確定] 儲存發行記錄範本並加以關閉。When you have added all the activities you want, click OK to save the release record template and close it. 發行記錄範本接著會出現在 [ 範本 ] 清單中。The release record template then appears in Templates list.

將發行記錄合併成父子式群組Combine release records into parent-child groups

版本通常會依您定義的間隔部署到生產環境。Releases are normally deployed to production environments at intervals you define. 例如,您可以將數個發行版本封裝到每月批次中。For example, you can package several releases into monthly batches. 您可以將每個批次定義為父發行版本,將其他較小的專案特定版本合併並連結 - 到每月套件。You can define each batch as a parent release, which consolidates and links other smaller project-specific releases into a monthly package. 此程序可協助您確認所有子發行版本均一起進行評估。This process can help you verify that all child releases are evaluated together.

升級發行記錄Promote a release record

發行管理員可以使用下列程式,將發行記錄升階為父發行記錄。The Release Manager can promote a release record to parent release record using the following procedure. 父發行記錄可作為數個版本的容器。A parent release record serves as a container for several releases.

下列程式執行于不是父發行記錄的發行記錄,也不是子發行記錄。The following procedure is performed on a release record that is neither a parent release record nor a child release record.

將發行記錄升階為父發行記錄To promote a release record to a parent release record

  1. 在 Service Manager 主控台中,開啟 [ 工作專案 ] 工作區,然後在 [ 工作專案 ] 窗格中,展開 [ Release Management]。In the Service Manager console, open the Work Items workspace, and in the Work Items pane, expand Release Management.
  2. 選取任何 Release Management 視圖,然後選取發行記錄。Select any Release Management view, and then select a release record.
  3. 在 [ 工作] 窗格中,按一下 [ 編輯 ] 以開啟發行記錄。In the Tasks pane, click Edit to open the release record.
  4. 在 [工作] 窗格中,按一下 [轉換] 或 [還原為父系]。In the Tasks pane, click Convert or Revert to Parent.
  5. 在 [ 批註 ] 方塊中輸入批註,指出您已將發行記錄轉換成父發行記錄,然後按一下 [確定] 以關閉 [ 批註 ] 方塊。In the Comments box, type a comment indicating that you have converted the release record to a parent release record, and then click OK to close the Comments box.
  6. [ 子專案 ] 索引標籤會出現在表單中,您可以在其中加入子發行記錄。The Child Items tab appears in the form where you can add child release records.
  7. 在 [發行記錄] 表單中,按一下 [確定] 將其關閉。In the release record form, click OK to close it.

降級父發行記錄Demote a parent release record

發行管理員可以使用下列程式,將父發行記錄降級。The Release Manager can demote a parent release record using the following procedure. 如果父發行記錄包含子發行記錄,它所包含的所有子發行記錄都會從父系取消連結,而且不再是子發行記錄。If a parent release record contains child release records, all the child release records that it contains are unlinked from the parent and are no longer child release records.

下列程式是在可能或可能沒有與其連結的子發行記錄的父發行記錄上執行。The following procedure is performed on a parent release record that may or may not have child release records linked to it.

降級父發行記錄To demote a parent release record

  1. 在 Service Manager 主控台中,開啟 [ 工作專案 ] 工作區,然後在 [ 工作專案 ] 窗格中,展開 [ Release Management]。In the Service Manager console, open the Work Items workspace, and in the Work Items pane, expand Release Management.
  2. 選取包含您想要降級之父發行的任何 Release Management 視圖,然後選取發行記錄。Select any Release Management view that contains a parent release that you want to demote, and then select the release record.
  3. 在 [ 工作] 窗格中,按一下 [ 編輯 ] 以開啟發行記錄。In the Tasks pane, click Edit to open the release record.
  4. 在 [工作] 窗格中,按一下 [轉換] 或 [還原為父系]。In the Tasks pane, click Convert or Revert to Parent.
  5. 如果您要降級的發行記錄包含子發行記錄,將會出現一則訊息,指出將會移除所有子記錄的連結。If the release record that you are demoting contains child release records, a message appears stating that all links to child records will be removed. 如果是,請按一下 [確定] ,取消連結任何子發行記錄。If so, click OK to unlink any child release records.
  6. 在 [ 批註 ] 方塊中輸入批註,指出您已從父發行記錄還原發行記錄,然後按一下 [確定] 以關閉 [ 批註 ] 方塊。In the Comments box, type a comment indicating that you have reverted the release record from a parent release record, and then click OK to close the Comments box.
  7. [ 子專案 ] 索引標籤不會再出現在表單中。The Child Items tab no longer appears in the form.
  8. 在 [發行記錄] 表單中,按一下 [確定] 將其關閉。In the release record form, click OK to close it.

當您使用下列程式編輯父發行記錄時,發行管理員可以連結子發行記錄。The Release Manager can link a child release record while editing a parent release record using the following procedure.

  1. 在 Service Manager 主控台中,開啟 [ 工作專案 ] 工作區,然後在 [ 工作專案 ] 窗格中,展開 [ Release Management]。In the Service Manager console, open the Work Items workspace, and in the Work Items pane, expand Release Management.
  2. 選取包含您要連結至子發行記錄之父發行記錄的任何 Release Management 視圖。Select any Release Management view that contains a parent release record where you want link to a child release record.
  3. 在 [ 工作] 窗格中,按一下 [ 編輯],然後在 [父發行記錄] 表單中,按一下 [ 子專案 ] 索引標籤。In the Tasks pane, click Edit, and then in the parent release record form, click the Child Items tab.
  4. 在 [ 子專案 ] 索引標籤上,按一下 [ 新增]。On the Child Items tab, click Add.
  5. 在 [ 選取物件 ] 對話方塊中,選取您要連結到父系的發行記錄,然後按一下 [ 新增]。In the Select objects dialog box, select the release record that you want to link to a parent, and then click Add. 按一下 [確定 ] 以關閉 [ 選取物件 ] 對話方塊。Click OK to close the Select objects dialog box.
  6. 在 [父發行記錄] 表單中,按一下 [確定] 將其關閉。In the parent release record form, click OK to close it.

發行管理員可以使用下列程式,將子發行記錄取消連結。The Release Manager can unlink a child release record using the following procedure.

  1. 在 Service Manager 主控台中,開啟 [ 工作專案 ] 工作區,然後在 [ 工作專案 ] 窗格中,展開 [ Release Management]。In the Service Manager console, open the Work Items workspace, and in the Work Items pane, expand Release Management.
  2. 選取包含您想要與其父發行記錄取消連結之子發行記錄的任何 Release Management 視圖。Select any Release Management view that contains a child release record that you want to unlink from its parent release record.
  3. 在 [ 工作] 窗格中,按一下 [連結] 或 [取消連結 現有的父發行記錄],然後在 [飛 - 出] 清單中,按一下 [ 取消連結]。In the Tasks pane, click Link or Unlink to Existing Parent Release Record, and then in the fly-out list, click Unlink.
  4. 在 [ 批註 ] 方塊中輸入批註,指出您已將子發行記錄與其父發行記錄取消連結,然後按一下 [確定] 以關閉 [ 批註 ] 方塊。In the Comments box, type a comment indicating that you have unlinked the child release record from its parent release record, and then click OK to close the Comments box.

當您使用下列程式編輯父發行記錄時,發行管理員可以取消連結子發行記錄。The Release Manager can unlink a child release record while editing a parent release record using the following procedure.

  1. 在 Service Manager 主控台中,開啟 [ 工作專案 ] 工作區,然後在 [ 工作專案 ] 窗格中,展開 [ Release Management]。In the Service Manager console, open the Work Items workspace, and in the Work Items pane, expand Release Management.

  2. 選取包含您要取消連結子發行記錄之父發行記錄的任何 Release Management 視圖。Select any Release Management view that contains a parent release record where you want unlink to a child release record.

  3. 在 [ 工作] 窗格中,按一下 [ 編輯],然後在 [父發行記錄] 表單中,按一下 [ 子專案 ] 索引標籤。In the Tasks pane, click Edit, and then in the parent release record form, click the Child Items tab.

  4. 在 [ 子專案 ] 索引標籤上,選取要取消連結的子發行記錄,然後按一下 [ 移除]。On the Child Items tab, select the child release records to unlink, and then click Remove.

    注意

    您可以按下 Shift 鍵來選取多個子專案 + 。You can select multiple child items by pressing Shift+Click.

  5. 在 [父發行記錄] 表單中,按一下 [確定] 將其關閉。In the parent release record form, click OK to close it.

定義發行套件設定專案Define release package configuration items

發行套件通常包含組建和發行測試所使用的環境。Release packages normally contain a build and an environment that the release is tested with. 本節中的主題說明如何建置包含在版本套件中的設定項目組件,以及這些組件如何新增到版本套件中。The topics in this section describe how to build the configuration item parts that are contained in a release package and how they are added to the release package.

建立組建設定項目Create a build configuration item

發行管理員可以藉由執行下列程式,建立定義組建所包含之軟體和版本的組建設定專案。The release manager can create a build configuration item that defines the software and version that a build consists of by performing the following procedure. 建立組建之後,通常會將它新增至發行記錄的發行封裝。After a build is created, it is normally added to the release package of a release record.

建立組建設定專案To create a build configuration item

  1. 在 Service Manager 主控台中,按一下 [設定項目]****。In the Service Manager console, click Configuration Items.
  2. 展開 [設定 專案 ] 窗格中的 [設定 專案],然後按一下 [ 組建]。In the Configuration Items pane, expand Configuration Items, and then click Builds.
  3. 在 [工作] 窗格的 [組建] 底下,按一下 [建立組建]。In the Tasks pane, under Builds, click Create Build.
  4. 在表單的 [ 一般 ] 索引標籤上,執行下列動作:On the General tab in the form, do the following:
    1. 在 [ 標題 ] 方塊中,輸入組建的名稱。In the Title box, type a name for the build. 例如,針對將用來部署新的 HRWeb 軟體的組建,請輸入 HRWeb 2017 年7月For example, for the build that will be used to deploy the new HRWeb software, type HRWeb July 2017.
    2. 在 [ 版本 ] 方塊中,輸入版本號碼或其他指定。In the Version box, type a version number or other designation. 例如,輸入 0.2For example, type 0.2.
    3. 按一下 [確定]。Click OK.
  5. 在 [ 相關專案 ] 索引標籤的 [設定 專案:電腦、服務及人員] 底下,按一下 [ 新增 ] 以建立軟體設定專案的關聯,然後針對您要新增的每個軟體專案執行下列動作:On the Related Items tab, under Configuration Items: Computers, Services and People, click Add to associate a software configuration item, and then do the following for each software item that you want to add:
    1. 在 [依類別篩選] 清單下的 [選取物件] 對話方塊中,按一下下拉 - 箭號,然後選取 [軟體專案]。In the Select objects dialog box under Filter by class list, click the drop-down arrow, and then select Software Items.
    2. 在 [ 可用的物件 ] 清單中,選取您要與組建產生關聯的軟體設定專案,然後按一下 [ 新增],再按一下 [確定 ],關閉 [ 選取物件 ] 對話方塊。In the Available objects list, select the software configuration item that you want to associate with the build, click Add, and then click OK to close the Select objects dialog box.
  6. 按一下 [確定] 關閉組建表單。Click OK to close the build form.

建立環境組態項目Create an environment configuration item

發行管理員可以藉由執行下列程式,建立定義環境所組成之電腦、服務和人員的環境設定專案。The release manager can create an environment configuration item that defines the computers, services, and people that the environment consists of by performing the following procedure. 建立環境之後,通常會將它新增至發行記錄的發行套件。After an environment is created, it is normally added to the release package of a release record.

建立環境設定專案To create an environment configuration item

  1. 在 Service Manager 主控台中,按一下 [設定項目]****。In the Service Manager console, click Configuration Items.
  2. 展開 [設定 專案 ] 窗格中的 [設定 專案],然後按一下 [ 環境]。In the Configuration Items pane, expand Configuration Items, and then click Environments.
  3. 在 [工作] 窗格的 [環境] 下,按一下 [建立環境]。In the Tasks pane, under Environments, click Create Environment.
  4. 在表單的 [ 一般 ] 索引標籤上,執行下列動作:On the General tab in the form, do the following:
    1. 在 [ 標題 ] 方塊中,輸入環境的名稱。In the Title box, type a name for the environment. 例如,針對 - 將用來測試新的 HRWeb 軟體的預備環境,請在 2011 年7月輸入適用于 hrweb 的環境。For example, for the pre-environment that will be used to test the new HRWeb software, type Environment for HRWeb July 2011.
    2. (選擇性)在 [] 索引標籤的其他方塊中,輸入或選取可協助您輕鬆識別所建立環境的資訊。Optionally, in other boxes on the tab, type or select information that might help you easily identify the environment that you are creating. 例如,將 類別 設定為 [ 預備生產]。For example, set the Category to Pre Production.
    3. 按一下 [確定]。Click OK.
  5. 在 [ 相關專案 ] 索引標籤的 [設定 專案:電腦、服務及人員] 下,您可以新增對環境很重要的設定專案。On the Related Items tab, under Configuration Items: Computers, Services and People, you can add configuration items that are important to the environment. 範例可能包括下列各項:Examples might include the following:
    • 軟體Software
    • 使用者Users
    • 電腦Computers
  6. 按一下 [確定] 關閉環境表單。Click OK to close the environment form.

將發行封裝資訊新增至發行記錄Add release package information to a release record

發行管理員可以使用下列程式,為發行記錄新增發行封裝資訊。The Release Manager can add release package information for a release record using the following procedure. 發行套件通常包含用來測試發行的組建和環境。The release package normally contains the build and environment that the release is tested with.

將發行封裝資訊新增至發行記錄To add release package information to a release record

  1. 在 Service Manager 主控台中,開啟 [ 工作專案 ] 工作區,然後在 [ 工作專案 ] 窗格中,展開 [ Release Management]。In the Service Manager console, open the Work Items workspace, and in the Work Items pane, expand Release Management.
  2. 選取包含發行記錄的任何 Release Management 視圖,您要在其中加入發行封裝資訊。Select any Release Management view that contains a release record where you want to add release package information.
  3. 在 [ 工作] 窗格中,按一下 [ 編輯],然後在 [發行記錄] 表單中,按一下 [ 發行封裝 ] 索引標籤。In the Tasks pane, click Edit, and then in the release record form, click the Release Package tab.
  4. 在 [ 發行封裝 ] 索引標籤的 [ 要修改的設定專案] 底下,按一下 [ 新增]。On the Release Package tab, under Configuration Items to Modify, click Add.
  5. 在 [ 選取物件 ] 對話方塊中,選取 - 您要新增至發行封裝的電腦相關設定專案,按一下 [ 新增],然後按一下 [確定 ] 以關閉 [ 選取物件 ] 對話方塊。In the Select objects dialog box, select the computer-related configuration items that you want to add to the release package, click Add, and then click OK to close the Select objects dialog box.
  6. 在 [ 受影響的服務] 下,按一下 [ 新增]。Under Affected Services, click Add.
  7. 在 [ 選取物件 ] 對話方塊中,選取您要加入發行封裝的商務服務專案,然後按一下 [ 加入],再按一下 [確定 ],關閉 [ 選取物件 ] 對話方塊。In the Select objects dialog box, select the business service items that you want to add to the release package and click Add, and then click OK to close the Select objects dialog box.
  8. 在 [發行記錄] 表單中,按一下 [確定] 將其關閉。In the release record form, click OK to close it.

在 Service Manager 中建立平行和序列活動的範本Create a template for parallel and sequential activities in Service Manager

平行和先後順序活動的發行記錄範本可用來建立新的活動,其中包含應群組在一起以形成某種進程的預先定義活動集合。Release record templates for parallel and sequential activities are used to create new activities that contain a collection of predefined activities that should be grouped together to form some kind of process. 您可以將並行和連續活動視為容器活動,因為它們的主要功能是包含個別活動。You can think of parallel and sequential activities as container activities because their primary function is to contain individual activities.

範本作者藉由執行下列程式來建立平行活動的範本。The template author creates a template for a parallel activity by performing the following procedure. 之後,會遵循相同的步驟來建立連續活動的範本。Afterward, the same steps are followed to create a template for a sequential activity.

若要建立平行活動的範本To create a template for a parallel activity

  1. 在 Service Manager 主控台中,開啟 [連結 ] 工作區,然後在 [連結 ] 窗格中選取 [ 範本]。In the Service Manager console, open the Library workspace, and in the Library pane, select Templates.
  2. 範本 清單中,選取 [ 預設平行活動 ], 然後在 [工作] 窗格的 [ 範本] 底下,按一下 [ 建立範本]。In the Templates list, select Default Parallel Activity, and then in the Tasks pane under Templates, click Create Template.
  3. 在 [ 建立範本 ] 對話方塊中,輸入範本的名稱和適用于範本的描述。In the Create Template dialog box, type a name for the template and a description of what the template applies.
  4. 在 [ 類別] 底下,按一下 [ 流覽],在 [ 選取類別 ] 方塊中選取 [ 平行活動],然後按一下 [確定] 以關閉 [ 選取類別 ] 方塊。Under Class, click Browse, in the Select a Class box, select Parallel Activity, and then click OK to close the Select a Class box.
  5. 按一下 [確定 ] 關閉 [ 建立範本 ] 對話方塊,[新的容器活動範本] 表單隨即出現。Click OK to close the Create Template dialog box, and the New Container Activity Template form appears.
  6. 在 [ 一般 ] 索引標籤上的方塊中輸入資訊,然後按一下 [ 活動 ] 索引標籤。Enter information in the boxes on the General tab, and then click the Activities tab.
  7. 您可以新增、刪除或修改平行活動範本的一組活動,包括下列動作:You can add, delete, or modify sets of activities to the parallel activity template, including the following actions:
    1. 從現有活動範本的清單中新增活動。Add activities from the list of existing activity templates.
    2. 從現有活動範本的清單中新增平行或序列活動。Add parallel or sequential activities from the list of existing activity templates.
    3. 依照完成的順序,向上或向下移動活動。Move activities up and down in the order in which they are completed.
    4. 移動流程清單中的活動。Move activities in the process list.
    5. 刪除活動。Delete activities.
  8. 當您加入活動時,就會開啟活動表單。As you add an activity, the activity form opens. 輸入必要資訊,然後按一下 [確定] 以儲存活動。Enter necessary information, and then click OK to save the activity.
  9. 當您已新增所有想要的活動之後,請按一下 [確定] 儲存 [parallel] 活動範本,並將它關閉。When you have added all the activities you want, click OK to save the parallel activity template and close it. [平行活動] 範本接著會出現在 [ 範本 ] 清單中。The parallel activity template then appears in Templates list.
  10. 針對連續活動重複此程式,並以「連續活動」取代「平行活動」的實例。Repeat this procedure for a sequential activity, replacing instances of "parallel activity" with "sequential activity."

選擇要在 Service Manager 中部署的變更Choose changes to deploy in Service Manager

發行管理員會藉由執行下列程式,為發行選取核准的變更。The release manager selects approved changes for release by performing the following procedure. 發行管理員會使用此程式,將發行記錄中的手動活動連結到變更要求中的相依活動,然後完成發行記錄中的手動活動。Using this process, the release manager links a manual activity in the release record to a dependent activity in a change request and then completes the manual activity in the release record. 因此,此程式會將變更要求中的相依活動標示為已完成。As a result, this process marks the dependent activity in the change request as completed.

在您繼續之前,您應該已經完成建立相依活動以將其新增至變更要求的程式。The procedure to create a dependent activity to add it to a change request should already be completed before you proceed.

選擇要部署的變更To choose changes to deploy

  1. 在 Service Manager 主控台中,開啟 [ 工作專案 ] 工作區,在 [ 工作專案 ] 窗格中,展開 [ Release Management],然後選取 [ Release Management]。In the Service Manager console, open the Work Items workspace, in the Work Items pane, expand Release Management, and then select Release Management.

  2. 在 [ 工作專案 ] 窗格中,選取 [ Release Management ] 底下的視圖,以顯示包含可供部署之變更的發行記錄,然後按兩下 - 發行記錄。In the Work Items pane, select a view under Release Management that displays a release record that comprises changes that are ready for deployment, and then double-click the release record.

  3. 按一下 [ 活動 ] 索引標籤。Click the Activities tab.

  4. 在出現的清單中,以滑鼠右鍵 - 按一下手動活動,將變更要求相依活動連結到,然後選取 [ 連結至變更要求活動]。In the list that appears, right-click a manual activity to link a change request dependent activity to, and then select Link to Change Request Activity.

  5. 在 [ 選取變更要求活動 ] 對話方塊中,選取要連結的變更要求、加以展開,然後選取一或多個相依活動,然後按一下 [確定] 兩次。In the Select Change Request Activity dialog box, select the change request to link to, expand it, and then select one or more dependent activities, and then click OK twice.

    提示

    當您已連結活動時,選取的活動會顯示類似于連鎖圖示的連結指標。When you have linked the activity, the selected activity shows a linking indicator that resembles a chain icon. 所選活動的工具提示會顯示連結的變更要求相依活動的識別碼。The tooltip for the selected activity shows IDs for the linked change request dependent activities.

  6. 流覽至 [ 活動管理],展開 [ 手動活動],然後選取 [ ** - 進行中活動**]。Navigate to Activity Management, expand Manual Activities, and then select In-Progress Activities.

  7. 選取 [手動] 活動,然後在 [工作 ] 清單中,按一下 [ 標示為已完成]。Select the manual activity and then in the Tasks list click Mark as Completed.

  8. 流覽至 [ 變更管理],展開 [ 所有變更要求],然後開啟連結至發行記錄的變更要求。Navigate to Change Management, expand All Change Requests, and then open the change request that is linked to the release record.

  9. 按一下 [ 活動 ] 索引標籤,並注意相依活動現在已標示為 [ 已完成]。Click the Activities tab and notice that the dependent activity is now marked Completed.

規劃 Service Manager 中的發行活動Plan release activities in Service Manager

發行管理員會藉由執行下列程式來建立及修改發行活動的結構。The Release Manager creates and modifies the structure of release activities by performing the following procedure.

規劃發行活動To plan release activities

  1. 在 Service Manager 主控台中,開啟 [ 工作專案 ] 工作區,然後在 [ 工作專案 ] 窗格中,展開 [ Release Management],然後選取 [ Release Management]。In the Service Manager console, open the Work Items workspace, and in the Work Items pane, expand Release Management, and then select Release Management.
  2. 在 [ 工作專案 ] 窗格中,選取 [ Release Management ] 下的 [視圖],以顯示發行記錄,其中包含您想要新增或修改活動的發行活動,然後按兩下 - 記錄以開啟它。In the Work Items pane, select a view under Release Management that displays a release record that includes release activities that you want to add or modify activities for, and then double-click the record to open it.
  3. 按一下 [活動] **** 索引標籤,檢視其包含的建議變更和相依活動清單。Click the Activities tab to view the list of proposed changes and dependent activities they contain.
  4. (選擇性)您可以按一下 [ 圖表 ] 或 [ 清單視圖] 來變更活動的觀點。Optionally, you can change the activities view by clicking either Diagram View or List View.
  5. 選取相依的變更管理活動,然後將其移至發行管理活動清單或圖表的頂端。Select a dependent change management activity, and then move it to the top of release management activity list or diagram. 相依指標會出現在發行管理活動中,類似于鏈中的連結。A dependent indicator appears on release management activities, which resembles the link in a chain.

在 Service Manager 中略過失敗的活動Skip a failed activity in Service Manager

發行管理員會執行下列程式,以略過失敗的活動。The release manager skips a failed activity by performing the following procedure.

略過失敗的活動To skip a failed activity

  1. 在 Service Manager 主控台中,開啟 [ 工作專案 ] 工作區,在 [ 工作專案 ] 窗格中,展開 [ Release Management],然後選取 [ Release Management]。In the Service Manager console, open the Work Items workspace, in the Work Items pane, expand Release Management, and then select Release Management.
  2. 在 [ 工作專案 ] 窗格中,選取 [ Release Management ] 下的 [顯示],以顯示包含 [失敗的發行] 活動或您想要跳過之活動的發行記錄,然後按兩下 - 該記錄以開啟它。In the Work Items pane, select a view under Release Management that displays a release record that includes a failed release activity or an activity in progress that you want to skip, and then double-click the record to open it.
  3. 按一下 [活動] **** 索引標籤,檢視其包含的建議變更和相依活動清單。Click the Activities tab to view the list of proposed changes and dependent activities they contain. (選擇性)您可以按一下 [ 圖表 ] 或 [ 清單視圖] 來變更活動的觀點。Optionally, you can change the activities view by clicking either Diagram View or List View.
  4. 以滑鼠右鍵 - 按一下失敗的活動或您想要跳過的活動,然後按一下 [ 略過活動]。Right-click the failed activity or the activity in progress that you want to skip, and then click Skip Activity.
  5. 在 [ 批註 ] 方塊中,輸入您略過活動的原因,然後按一下 [確定] 關閉該方塊。In the Comments box, enter the reason why you are skipping the activity, and then click OK to close the box. 您略過的活動會顯示類似藍色向下箭號的圖示, - 以指出活動標示為已略過。The activity that you skipped displays an icon resembling a blue down-pointing arrow to indicate that the activity is marked as skipped.

判斷發行記錄中 Service Manager 變更要求的狀態和進度Determine status and progress for a Service Manager change request in the release record

變更管理員會在目前開啟的發行記錄中,檢查變更要求的狀態和進度。The change manager reviews the status and progress of a change request in the currently opened release record. 變更管理員知道變更要求的識別碼,或至少知道標題的幾個關鍵字,He knows the ID of the change request and its title, or at least a few of the keywords of the title. 且可藉由執行下列程序檢閱變更要求的狀態。He can review the status of the change request by performing the following procedure.

若要判斷發行記錄中變更要求的狀態和進度To determine status and progress for a change request in a release record

  1. 在 Service Manager 主控台中,開啟 [ 工作專案 ] 工作區,在 [ 工作專案 ] 窗格中,展開 [ Release Management],然後選取 [ Release Management]。In the Service Manager console, open the Work Items workspace, in the Work Items pane, expand Release Management, and then select Release Management.
  2. 在 [ 工作專案 ] 窗格中的 [ Release Management] 底下,選取 [ 發行記錄:進行中]。In the Work Items pane, under Release Management, select the Release Records: In Progress.
  3. 在 [ 發行記錄:進行中 ] 視圖中,按兩下 - 感興趣的記錄來開啟它。In the Release Records: In Progress view, double-click the record of interest to open it.
  4. 按一下 [活動] **** 索引標籤,檢視其包含的建議變更和相依活動清單。Click the Activities tab to view the list of proposed changes and dependent activities they contain. 您也可以按一下 [圖表檢視] **** 或 [清單檢視] ****,變更活動檢視方式。Optionally, you change the activities view by clicking either Diagram View or List View.
  5. 您可以使用以下任一種方式來檢視記錄:You can view records by using any of the following methods:
    • 捲動滑鼠:Mouse scrolling:
      • 使用圖表檢視或清單檢視時,您可藉由尋找指標圖示並檢視其內容,以尋找顯示其與特定變更要求連結的發行管理活動。You can find the release management activity showing that it is linked to the specific change request by looking for an indicator icon and viewing its properties while in either diagram view or list view.
      • 所有活動都會顯示下列資訊:The following information is shown for all activities:
        • 活動識別碼Activity IDs
        • 活動標題Activity titles
        • 活動狀態指標圖示,可能隨活動狀態而異Activity status indicator icons, which vary based on the state of the activity
    • 使用圖表檢視:Using the diagram view:
      • 當您使用圖表檢視時,您可以使用 [縮放] **** 來選擇不同的活動縮放比例。When you are using the diagram view, you can use Zoom to choose different for activities.
    • 在 Service Manager 主控台中的任何地方使用搜尋:Using search anywhere in the Service Manager console:
      • 您可以藉由搜尋以下任何資訊尋找並檢視活動:You can search for and view an activity by searching with any of the following information:
        • 變更要求識別碼Change request ID
        • 連結之變更要求標題中的關鍵字Keywords from the linked change request's title
        • 變更活動的識別碼Change activity's ID
        • 相依活動標題中的關鍵字Keywords from the dependent activity's title
      • 篩選:Filtering:
        • 您可以使用關鍵字,以及如類別、上次修改日期和名稱等準則,篩選任何傳回的搜尋結果。You can filter any returned search results by keywords and also by criteria such as class, last modified dates, and name.
  6. 您可以按兩下 - 活動以查看其狀態和進度的詳細資料。You can double-click an activity to view its status and the details of its progress.

後續步驟Next steps