Windows 10 上的 Hyper-V 簡介Introduction to Hyper-V on Windows 10

無論您是軟體開發人員、IT 專業人員還是科技愛好者,都很有可能需要執行多個作業系統。Whether you are a software developer, an IT professional, or a technology enthusiast, many of you need to run multiple operating systems. Hyper-V 可讓您在 Windows 上將多個作業系統執行為虛擬機器。Hyper-V lets you run multiple operating systems as virtual machines on Windows.

執行 Windows 的虛擬機器

Hyper-V 專門提供硬體虛擬化。Hyper-V specifically provides hardware virtualization. 這表示每個虛擬機器都是在虛擬硬體上執行。That means each virtual machine runs on virtual hardware. Hyper-V 可讓您建立虛擬硬碟、虛擬交換器,以及許多其他虛擬裝置,這些全都可以加入虛擬機器。Hyper-V lets you create virtual hard drives, virtual switches, and a number of other virtual devices all of which can be added to virtual machines.

使用虛擬化的原因Reasons to use virtualization

虛擬化可讓您:Virtualization allows you to:

  • 執行需要舊版 Windows 或非 Windows 作業系統的軟體。Run software that requires an older versions of Windows or non-Windows operating systems.

  • 試用其他作業系統。Experiment with other operating systems. 透過 Hyper-V,要建立或移除不同的作業系統,都非常容易。Hyper-V makes it very easy to create and remove different operating systems.

  • 使用多部虛擬機器在多個作業系統上測試軟體。Test software on multiple operating systems using multiple virtual machines. 有了 Hyper-V,只要在一部桌上型或膝上型電腦就能全部加以執行。With Hyper-V, you can run them all on a single desktop or laptop computer. 這些虛擬機器可在匯出後匯入任何其他 Hyper-V 系統中,包括 Azure。These virtual machines can be exported and then imported into any other Hyper-V system, including Azure.

系統需求System requirements

Hyper-V 適用於 64 位元版的 Windows 10 專業版、企業版和教育版。Hyper-V is available on 64-bit versions of Windows 10 Pro, Enterprise, and Education. 但不適用於家用版。It is not available on the Home edition.

請開啟 [設定] > [更新與安全性] > [啟用] ,將 Windows 10 家用版升級為 Windows 10 專業版。Upgrade from Windows 10 Home edition to Windows 10 Pro by opening Settings > Update and Security > Activation. 您可以在此瀏覽市集並購買升級。Here you can visit the store and purchase an upgrade.

大部分電腦都能執行 Hyper-V,不過每部虛擬機器會執行完全不同的作業系統。Most computers run Hyper-V, however each virtual machine runs a completely separate operating system. 您通常可以在配備 4GB RAM 的電腦上,執行一或多個虛擬機器,但是您需要更多資源,才能執行額外的虛擬機器,或是安裝及執行耗用大量資源的軟體,例如遊戲、視訊編輯或工程設計軟體。You can generally run one or more virtual machines on a computer with 4GB of RAM, though you'll need more resources for additional virtual machines or to install and run resource intense software like games, video editing, or engineering design software.

如需 Hyper-V 系統需求以及如何驗證電腦上有執行 Hyper-V 的詳細資訊,請參閱 Hyper-V 需求參考資料For more information about Hyper-V's system requirements and how to verify that Hyper-V runs on your machine, see the Hyper-V Requirements Reference.

可在虛擬機器中執行的作業系統Operating systems you can run in a virtual machine

Windows 上的 Hyper-V 可在虛擬機器中支援許多不同的作業系統,包括多種不同版本的 Linux、FreeBSD 和 Windows。Hyper-V on Windows supports many different operating systems in a virtual machine including various releases of Linux, FreeBSD, and Windows.

提醒您,您在 VM 中使用的任何作業系統,都必須是經過有效授權的。As a reminder, you'll need to have a valid license for any operating systems you use in the VMs.

若要了解 Windows 上的 Hyper-V 中可支援哪些作業系統做為客體,請參閱支援的 Windows 客體作業系統支援的 Linux 客體作業系統For information about which operating systems are supported as guests in Hyper-V on Windows, see Supported Windows Guest Operating Systems and Supported Linux Guest Operating Systems.

Windows 上的 Hyper-V 與 Windows Server 上的 Hyper-V 有何差異Differences between Hyper-V on Windows and Hyper-V on Windows Server

有些功能在 Windows 上的 Hyper-V 中和在 Windows Server 上執行的 Hyper-V 之中,會有不同的運作方式。There are some features that work differently in Hyper-V on Windows than they do in Hyper-V running on Windows Server.

僅適用於 Windows Server 的 Hyper-V 功能:Hyper-V features only available on Windows Server:

  • 不同主機之間的虛擬機器即時移轉Live migration of virtual machines from one host to another
  • Hyper-V 複本Hyper-V Replica
  • 虛擬光纖通道Virtual Fiber Channel
  • SR-IOV 網路功能SR-IOV networking
  • 共用 .VHDXShared .VHDX

僅適用於 Windows 10 的 Hyper-V 功能:Hyper-V features only available on Windows 10:

  • 快速建立和 VM 資源庫Quick Create and the VM Gallery
  • 預設網路 (NAT 交換器)Default network (NAT switch)

Windows 上的 Hyper-V 有不同的記憶體管理模型。The memory management model is different for Hyper-V on Windows. 在伺服器上管理 Hyper-V 記憶體時,會假設只有虛擬機器在伺服器上執行。On a server, Hyper-V memory is managed with the assumption that only the virtual machines are running on the server. 在 Windows 上的 Hyper-V 中,管理記憶體時會假設大部分的用戶端機器除了執行虛擬機器以外,還會在主機上執行軟體。In Hyper-V on Windows, memory is managed with the expectation that most client machines are running software on host in addition to running virtual machines.

限制Limitations

依賴特定硬體的程式,將無法在虛擬機器中正常運作。Programs that depend on specific hardware will not work well in a virtual machine. 例如,需要以 GPU 處理的遊戲或應用程式可能無法正常運作。For example, games or applications that require processing with GPUs might not work well. 此外,應用程式若依賴低於 10 毫秒的計時器 (如即時混音應用程式) 或高精確度的時間,在虛擬機器中執行時可能會有問題。Also, applications relying on sub-10ms timers such as live music mixing applications or high precision times could have issues running in a virtual machine.

此外,如果您啟動 Hyper-V,對延遲性敏感、高精確性的應用程式在主機中執行時可能也會發生問題。In addition, if you have Hyper-V enabled, those latency-sensitive, high-precision applications may also have issues running in the host. 這是因為啟動虛擬化後,主機 OS 也會在 Hyper-V 虛擬化層頂端執行,就像客體作業系統一樣。This is because with virtualization enabled, the host OS also runs on top of the Hyper-V virtualization layer, just as guest operating systems do. 不過,和客體不同,主機 OS 的特殊之處在於其可以直接存取所有的硬體,這表示具有特殊硬體需求的應用程式仍然可以在主機 OS 中執行而不發生問題。However, unlike guests, the host OS is special in that it has direct access to all the hardware, which means that applications with special hardware requirements can still run without issues in the host OS.

後續步驟Next step

在 Windows 10 上安裝 Hyper-VInstall Hyper-V on Windows 10