叢集更新:常見問題集Cluster-Aware Updating: Frequently Asked Questions

適用於:Windows Server(以每年次管道)、Windows Server 2016、Windows Server 2012 R2、Windows Server 2012Applies to: Windows Server (Semi-Annual Channel), Windows Server 2016, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Server 2012

叢集更新(CAU) 是座標容錯移轉叢集不會影響服務的可用性任何多叢集節點計劃容錯移轉的方式在所有伺服器上的軟體更新的功能。Cluster-Aware Updating (CAU) is a feature that coordinates software updates on all servers in a failover cluster in a way that doesn't impact the service availability any more than a planned failover of a cluster node. 某些應用程式以持續可用的功能 \ (Hyper\ HYPER-V 的即時移轉,) 或 SMB 透明 Failover\ SMB 3.x 檔案伺服器,例如 CAU 可以調整叢集自動更新的服務的可用性不會影響。For some applications with continuous availability features (such as Hyper-V with live migration, or an SMB 3.x file server with SMB Transparent Failover), CAU can coordinate automated cluster updating with no impact on service availability.

並 CAU 支援更新的儲存空間直接存取叢集嗎?Does CAU support updating Storage Spaces Direct clusters?

[是]。Yes. CAU 支援更新儲存空間直接存取叢集無論部署類型:超匯集或匯集。CAU supports updating Storage Spaces Direct clusters regardless of the deployment type: hyper-converged or converged. 具體而言,CAU 協調流程確保的暫停每個叢集節點等待基礎叢集的儲存空間的健康狀態。Specifically, CAU orchestration ensures that suspending each cluster node waits for the underlying clustered storage space to be healthy.

「與 Windows Server 2008 R2 或 Windows 7 CAU 運作?Does CAU work with Windows Server 2008 R2 or Windows 7?

否。No. CAU 協調叢集更新只從執行 Windows Server 2016、Windows Server 2012 R2、Windows Server 2012、Windows 10、Windows 8.1 或 Windows 8 電腦操作。CAU coordinates the cluster updating operation only from computers running Windows Server 2016, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Server 2012, Windows 10, Windows 8.1, or Windows 8. 正在更新容錯移轉叢集必須執行 Windows Server 2016、Windows Server 2012 R2 或 Windows Server 2012。The failover cluster being updated must run Windows Server 2016, Windows Server 2012 R2, or Windows Server 2012.

是叢集的特定應用程式 CAU 有限嗎?Is CAU limited to specific clustered applications?

否。No. CAU 是以叢集應用程式類型。CAU is agnostic to the type of the clustered application. CAU 是外部 cluster\ 更新方案,這因為叢集 Api 和 PowerShell cmdlet 上方。CAU is an external cluster-updating solution that is layered on top of clustering APIs and PowerShell cmdlets. 因此,CAU 就可以調整設定 Windows Server 容錯移轉叢集任何叢集應用程式的更新。As such, CAU can coordinate updating for any clustered application that is configured in a Windows Server failover cluster.

注意

目前,在下列叢集工作負載測試及的 CAU: SMB Hyper\ HYPER-V、DFS 複寫、DFS 命名空間,iSCSI,以及 NFS。Currently, the following clustered workloads are tested and certified for CAU: SMB, Hyper-V, DFS Replication, DFS Namespaces, iSCSI, and NFS.

CAU 支援更新從 Microsoft Update 和 Windows 更新?Does CAU support updates from Microsoft Update and Windows Update?

[是]。Yes. 根據預設,CAU 設定與 plug\ 入叢集節點上使用 Windows Update 代理程式 (WUA) 公用程式的 Api。By default, CAU is configured with a plug-in that uses the Windows Update Agent (WUA) utility APIs on the cluster nodes. 您可以設定 WUA 基礎結構指向 Microsoft Update 和 Windows 更新或 Windows Server Update Services (WSUS) 做為來源的更新。The WUA infrastructure can be configured to point to Microsoft Update and Windows Update or to Windows Server Update Services (WSUS) as its source of updates.

CAU 不支援 WSUS 更新嗎?Does CAU support WSUS updates?

[是]。Yes. 根據預設,CAU 設定與 plug\ 入叢集節點上使用 Windows Update 代理程式 (WUA) 公用程式的 Api。By default, CAU is configured with a plug-in that uses the Windows Update Agent (WUA) utility APIs on the cluster nodes. 您可以設定 WUA 基礎結構指向 Microsoft Update 和 Windows 更新或 Windows Server Update Services (WSUS) 本機伺服器做為來源的更新。The WUA infrastructure can be configured to point to Microsoft Update and Windows Update or to a local Windows Server Update Services (WSUS) server as its source of updates.

CAU 套用有限的 distribution 發行的更新?Can CAU apply limited distribution release updates?

[是]。Yes. 讓他們無法透過 Windows Update 代理程式 (WUA) plug\ 下載有限的 distribution 版本 (LDR) 更新也稱為 hotfix,不會透過 Microsoft 更新或 Windows Update 發行-,CAU 使用預設。Limited distribution release (LDR) updates, also called hotfixes, are not published through Microsoft Update or Windows Update, so they cannot be downloaded by the Windows Update Agent (WUA) plug-in that CAU uses by default.

不過,CAU 包含第二個 plug-,您可以選取套用 hotfix 更新。However, CAU includes a second plug-in that you can select to apply hotfix updates. 您也可以自訂 plug\ 在此 hotfix 套用 non\ 的 Microsoft 驅動程式、韌體和 BIOS 更新。This hotfix plug-in can also be customized to apply non-Microsoft driver, firmware, and BIOS updates.

可以使用 CAU 套用累積更新嗎?Can I use CAU to apply cumulative updates?

[是]。Yes. 如果的累積更新一般 distribution 發行的更新或 LDR 更新,可套用 CAU 它們。If the cumulative updates are general distribution release updates or LDR updates, CAU can apply them.

排程更新?Can I schedule updates?

[是]。Yes. CAU 支援下列更新模式,這兩種允許排定的更新:CAU supports the following updating modes, both of which allow updates to be scheduled:

Self\ 更新更新本身根據定義的設定檔和定期,例如每月維護期間叢集可讓。Self-updating Enables the cluster to update itself according to a defined profile and a regular schedule, such as during a monthly maintenance window. 您也可以開始 Self\ 更新依需要執行任何時間。You can also start a Self-Updating Run on demand at any time. 若要讓 self\ 更新模式,您必須叢集新增 CAU 叢集的角色。To enable self-updating mode, you must add the CAU clustered role to the cluster. CAU self\ 更新功能執行任何其他叢集工作負載,例如,並可以順暢地進行工作計劃與計畫錯誤後移轉更新協調器的電腦使用。The CAU self-updating feature performs like any other clustered workload, and it can work seamlessly with the planned and unplanned failovers of an update coordinator computer.

Remote\ 更新可讓您的電腦執行的是 Windows 或 Windows Server 隨時開始更新執行。Remote-updating Enables you to start an Updating Run at any time from a computer running Windows or Windows Server. 更新執行透過叢集更新視窗或使用 [開始] Invoke-CauRun PowerShell cmdlet。You can start an Updating run through the Cluster-Aware Updating window or by using the Invoke-CauRun PowerShell cmdlet. Remote\ 更新是針對 CAU 更新模式預設值。Remote-updating is the default updating mode for CAU. 您可以使用工作排程器來執行叫用-CauRun cmdlet 上您想要從遠端電腦不是其中一個節點叢集排程。You can use Task Scheduler to run the Invoke-CauRun cmdlet on a desired schedule from a remote computer that is not one of the cluster nodes.

排程更新適用於在 [備份期間?Can I schedule updates to apply during a backup?

[是]。Yes. 在這方面 CAU 不加上任何限制。CAU doesn't impose any constraints in this regard. 但是,在伺服器上執行的軟體更新 \(相關潛在 restarts) 伺服器備份時進行不 IT 最好的作法。However, performing software updates on a server (with the associated potential restarts) while a server backup is in progress is not an IT best practice. 請注意,CAU 只依賴叢集判斷資源錯誤後的移轉和 failbacks; Api 因此,CAU 是不知道的伺服器備份狀態。Be aware that CAU relies only on clustering APIs to determine resource failovers and failbacks; thus, CAU is unaware of the server backup status.

CAU 能使用 System Center Configuration Manager 嗎?Can CAU work with System Center Configuration Manager?

CAU 是座標叢集節點上的軟體更新的工具與 Configuration Manager 也會執行伺服器的軟體更新。CAU is a tool that coordinates software updates on a cluster node, and Configuration Manager also performs server software updates. 請務必設定這些工具,以便他們未重疊的涵蓋範圍的任何資料中心部署,包括使用不同的 Windows Server Update Services 伺服器在相同的伺服器。It's important to configure these tools so that they don't have overlapping coverage of the same servers in any datacenter deployment, including using different Windows Server Update Services servers. 這樣可確保使用 CAU 背後的目標不小心失敗,因為設定 Manager\ 導向更新不會納入叢集感知。This ensures that the objective behind using CAU is not inadvertently defeated, because Configuration Manager-driven updating doesn't incorporate cluster awareness.

我需要執行 CAU 管理的認證嗎?Do I need administrative credentials to run CAU?

[是]。Yes. 適用於執行這些 CAU 工具,CAU 需要管理認證本機伺服器,或需要後驗證模擬 Client上本機伺服器或 client 電腦所執行的使用者。For running the CAU tools, CAU needs administrative credentials on the local server, or it needs the Impersonate a Client after Authentication user right on the local server or the client computer on which it is running. 不過,協調叢集節點上的軟體更新,CAU 需要在每個節點叢集管理認證。However, to coordinate software updates on the cluster nodes, CAU requires cluster administrative credentials on every node. 雖然不認證可以開始 CAU UI,它會提示用於叢集管理認證連接之後叢集執行個體預覽或套用更新。Although the CAU UI can start without the credentials, it prompts for the cluster administrative credentials when it connects to a cluster instance to preview or apply updates.

可以指令碼 CAU 嗎?Can I script CAU?

[是]。Yes. CAU 隨附 PowerShell cmdlet 提供一組豐富的指令碼選項。CAU comes with PowerShell cmdlets that offer a rich set of scripting options. 這些是 CAU UI 呼叫 CAU 執行相同 cmdlet。These are the same cmdlets that the CAU UI calls to perform CAU actions.

事情叢集作用中的角色?What happens to active clustered roles?

叢集角色 \(先前稱為應用程式和 services\)節點上使用,無法透過其他節點之前,才能開始軟體更新。Clustered roles (formerly called applications and services) that are active on a node, fail over to other nodes before software updating can commence. CAU 使用維護模式,會暫停,以及清空叢集作用中的角色所有的節點協調這些錯誤後的移轉。CAU orchestrates these failovers by using the maintenance mode, which pauses and drains the node of all active clustered roles. 軟體更新完成時,CAU 繼續節點和叢集的角色失敗回更新節點。When the software updates are complete, CAU resumes the node and the clustered roles fail back to the updated node. 這樣可確保的叢集角色節點和目的地的相對的散發保持不變 CAU 更新回合的叢集。This ensures that the distribution of clustered roles relative to nodes stays the same across the CAU Updating Runs of a cluster.

如何 CAU 選取目標節點叢集角色?How does CAU select target nodes for clustered roles?

CAU 依賴叢集協調錯誤後的移轉 Api。CAU relies on clustering APIs to coordinate the failovers. 叢集 API 實作依賴內部計量和智慧位置 heuristics 選取目標節點 \(例如工作負載 levels) 上的目標節點。The clustering API implementation selects the target nodes by relying on internal metrics and intelligent placement heuristics (such as workload levels) across the target nodes.

會 CAU 負載平衡叢集的角色嗎?Does CAU load balance the clustered roles?

CAU 不負載的平衡叢集的節點,但它嘗試保留散發叢集角色。CAU doesn't load balance the clustered nodes, but it attempts to preserve the distribution of clustered roles. 當 CAU 完成更新叢集節點時,它會嘗試失敗返回先前裝載到該節點叢集的角色。When CAU finishes updating a cluster node, it attempts to fail back previously hosted clustered roles to that node. CAU 依賴叢集 Api 回復資源暫停程序的開頭。CAU relies on clustering APIs to fail back the resources to the beginning of the pause process. 因此在缺少意外的錯誤後移轉和慣用的擁有者的設定的叢集角色散發應維持不變。Thus in the absence of unplanned failovers and preferred owner settings, the distribution of clustered roles should remain unchanged.

如何 CAU 選取節點順序更新?How does CAU select the order of nodes to update?

根據預設,CAU 選取更新節點順序型活動的層級。By default, CAU selects the order of nodes to update based on the level of activity. 節點裝載少叢集的角色是第一次更新。The nodes that are hosting the fewest clustered roles are updated first. 不過,系統管理員可以指定特定讓參數指定對更新執行 CAU UI 或使用 PowerShell cmdlet 更新節點。However, an administrator can specify a particular order for updating the nodes by specifying a parameter for the Updating Run in the CAU UI or by using the PowerShell cmdlets.

萬一叢集節點是離線?What happens if a cluster node is offline?

開始更新執行的系統管理員可以指定數目離線節點接受臨界值。The administrator who initiates an Updating Run can specify the acceptable threshold for the number of nodes that can be offline. 因此,更新執行可以繼續在叢集上即使叢集節點不 online。Therefore, an Updating Run can proceed on a cluster even if all the cluster nodes are not online.

可以使用 CAU 更新只有一個節點嗎?Can I use CAU to update only a single node?

否。No. CAU 是 cluster\ 範圍更新的工具,讓它只可讓您選取叢集更新。CAU is a cluster-scoped updating tool, so it only allows you to select clusters to update. 如果您想要更新的單一節點,您可以使用現有更新 CAU 獨立工具的伺服器。If you want to update a single node, you can use existing server updating tools independently of CAU.

可以 CAU 報告的車載機起始外 CAU 的更新?Can CAU report updates that are initiated from outside CAU?

否。No. CAU 可以僅限報告更新執行的從在 CAU 車載機起始。CAU can only report Updating Runs that are initiated from within CAU. 不過時後續 CAU 更新執行,, 透過 CAU non\ 的方法已安裝的更新的適當地被視為判斷的額外更新,可能適用的每個節點叢集。However, when a subsequent CAU Updating Run is launched, updates that were installed through non-CAU methods are appropriately considered to determine the additional updates that might be applicable to each cluster node.

可以我唯一 IT 程序會需要 CAU 支援?Can CAU support my unique IT process needs?

[是]。Yes. CAU 提供下列尺寸彈性符合的企業針對的唯一 IT 程序會需要:CAU offers the following dimensions of flexibility to suit enterprise customers' unique IT process needs:

指令碼更新執行可以指定 PowerShell 指令碼 pre\ 更新和更新 post\ PowerShell 指令碼。Scripts An Updating Run can specify a pre-update PowerShell script and a post-update PowerShell script. Pre\ 更新指令碼執行每個叢集節點上之前暫停節點。The pre-update script runs on each cluster node before the node is paused. Post\ 更新指令碼執行每個叢集節點上之後安裝的更新,節點。The post-update script runs on each cluster node after the node updates are installed.

注意

必須在每個您想要執行 pre\ 更新及更新 post\ 指令碼的叢集節點安裝.NET framework 4.6 或 4.5 和 PowerShell。.NET Framework 4.6 or 4.5 and PowerShell must be installed on each cluster node on which you want to run the pre-update and post-update scripts. 您必須也可讓遠端 PowerShell 服務叢集節點。You must also enable PowerShell remoting on the cluster nodes. 對於詳細的系統需求,請查看需求與最佳做法叢集更新For detailed system requirements, see Requirements and Best Practices for Cluster-Aware Updating.

進階更新執行選項]系統管理員可以此外指定的一組大型進階更新執行的選項,例如更新程序會在每個節點重試次數最大。Advanced Updating Run options The administrator can additionally specify from a large set of advanced Updating Run options such as the maximum number of times that the update process is retried on each node. 可使用 CAU UI 或 CAU PowerShell cmdlet 來指定這些選項。These options can be specified using either the CAU UI or the CAU PowerShell cmdlets. 儲存更新執行設定檔中,針對較新的更新執行其他這些自訂的設定。These custom settings can be saved in an Updating Run Profile and reused for later Updating Runs.

公開 plug\ 中架構CAU 包含功能登記、取消註冊,並選取 plug\ 寫 CAU 隨附兩個預設 plug\ 增益集:其中每個叢集節點; 座標 Windows Update 代理程式 (WUA) Api 第二個適用於 hotfix 手動複製到叢集節點可以存取檔案共用。Public plug-in architecture CAU includes features to Register, Unregister, and Select plug-ins. CAU ships with two default plug-ins: one coordinates the Windows Update Agent (WUA) APIs on each cluster node; the second applies hotfixes that are manually copied to a file share that is accessible to the cluster nodes. 如果企業具有獨特的需求,無法使用這些兩個 plug\ 單元符合,企業可以建置新 CAU plug\ 入公用 API 規格依據。If an enterprise has unique needs that cannot be met with these two plug-ins, the enterprise can build a new CAU plug-in according to the public API specification. 如需詳細資訊,請查看Cluster\ 感知更新參考 Plug\ 在For more information, see Cluster-Aware Updating Plug-in Reference.

設定及自訂 CAU 相關資訊的 plug\ 單元支援不同更新案例中,查看Plug\ 集的運作方式For information about configuring and customizing CAU plug-ins to support different updating scenarios, see How Plug-ins Work.

如何匯出 CAU 預覽和更新結果?How can I export the CAU preview and update results?

CAU 提供 command\ 列介面,直到 UI 匯出選項。CAU offers export options through the command-line interface and through the UI.

Command\ 列介面選項:Command-line interface options:

  • 透過 PowerShell cmdlet 預覽結果Invoke-CauScan |ConvertTo\ XmlPreview results by using the PowerShell cmdlet Invoke-CauScan | ConvertTo-Xml. 輸出:XMLOutput: XML

  • 透過 PowerShell cmdlet 報告結果Invoke-CauRun |ConvertTo\ XmlReport results by using the PowerShell cmdlet Invoke-CauRun | ConvertTo-Xml. 輸出:XMLOutput: XML

  • 透過 PowerShell cmdlet 報告結果Get-CauReport |Export-CauReportReport results by using the PowerShell cmdlet Get-CauReport | Export-CauReport. 輸出:HTML CSVOutput: HTML, CSV

UI 選項:UI options:

  • 複製報告結果從更新的預覽畫面。Copy the report results from the Preview updates screen. 輸出:CSVOutput: CSV

  • 複製報告結果從產生報告畫面。Copy the report results from the Generate report screen. 輸出:CSVOutput: CSV

  • 匯出報告結果從產生報告畫面。Export the report results from the Generate report screen. 輸出:HTMLOutput: HTML

我該如何安裝 CAU?How do I install CAU?

CAU 安裝是順暢整合的容錯功能。A CAU installation is seamlessly integrated into the Failover Clustering feature. 安裝 CAU,如下所示:CAU is installed as follows:

  • 當叢集節點上安裝容錯時,自動安裝 CAU Windows 管理檢測 (WMI) 提供者。When Failover Clustering is installed on a cluster node, the CAU Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) provider is automatically installed.

  • 當伺服器或 client 的電腦上安裝的容錯移轉叢集工具功能時,會自動安裝更新的叢集 UI 和 PowerShell cmdlet。When the Failover Clustering Tools feature is installed on a server or client computer, the Cluster-Aware Updating UI and PowerShell cmdlets are automatically installed.

CAU 需要更新叢集節點上執行元件嗎?Does CAU need components running on the cluster nodes that are being updated?

CAU 不需要叢集節點上執行的服務。CAU doesn't need a service running on the cluster nodes. 不過,CAU 需要軟體元件 \ 叢集節點安裝 (WMI provider)。However, CAU needs a software component (the WMI provider) installed on the cluster nodes. 安裝這個元件容錯功能。This component is installed with the Failover Clustering feature.

要 self\ 更新模式,請也必須叢集加入 CAU 叢集的角色。To enable self-updating mode, the CAU clustered role must also be added to the cluster.

有何不同之間 CAU 和 VMM?What is the difference between using CAU and VMM?

  • System Center 一樣管理員 (VMM) 的焦點是在更新只 Hyper\ HYPER-V 叢集,而 CAU 可以更新任何類型的支援容錯移轉叢集,包括 Hyper\ HYPER-V 叢集。System Center Virtual Machine Manager (VMM) is focused on updating only Hyper-V clusters, whereas CAU can update any type of supported failover cluster, including Hyper-V clusters.

  • VMM 需要額外的授權,但 CAU 授權適用於所有 Windows Server。VMM requires additional licensing, whereas CAU is licensed for all Windows Server. 安裝 CAU 功能、工具及 UI 容錯元件。The CAU features, tools, and UI are installed with Failover Clustering components.

  • 如果您已經擁有的 System Center 授權,您可以繼續使用 VMM 更新 Hyper\ HYPER-V 叢集,因為它提供的整合式的管理和軟體更新的體驗。If you already own a System Center license, you can continue to use VMM to update Hyper-V clusters because it offers an integrated management and software updating experience.

  • CAU 只有群集執行 Windows Server 2016、Windows Server 2012 R2,以及 Windows Server 2012 的支援。CAU is supported only on clusters that are running Windows Server 2016, Windows Server 2012 R2, and Windows Server 2012. VMM 也支援 Hyper\ HYPER-V 群集上執行 Windows Server 2008 R2 或 Windows Server 2008。VMM also supports Hyper-V clusters on computers running Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows Server 2008.

我可以使用 remote\ 更新設定叢集上 self\ 更新嗎?Can I use remote-updating on a cluster that is configured for self-updating?

[是]。Yes. 可以透過 remote\ 更新 on\ 需求,更新容錯移轉叢集 self\ 更新設定,就像即使 Windows Update 設定為自動安裝更新,您可以對您的電腦,實施在任何時候掃描 Windows Update。A failover cluster in a self-updating configuration can be updated through remote-updating on-demand, just as you can force a Windows Update scan at any time on your computer, even if Windows Update is configured to install updates automatically. 不過,您必須先確認的更新執行不已在進行中。However, you need to make sure that an Updating Run is not already in progress.

我是否可以在群集上重複使用我叢集更新設定?Can I reuse my cluster update settings across clusters?

[是]。Yes. CAU 支援許多判斷更新執行時的處理方式它更新叢集更新執行選項。CAU supports a number of Updating Run options that determine how the Updating Run behaves when it updates the cluster. 這些選項可被儲存成更新執行設定檔,並在任何叢集重複使用。These options can be saved as an Updating Run Profile, and they can be reused across any cluster. 我們建議您儲存,並在容錯有類似的更新需求重複使用您的設定。We recommend that you save and reuse your settings across failover clusters that have similar updating needs. 例如,您可能會建立的」Business\ 重大 SQL 伺服器叢集更新執行設定檔」所有的 Microsoft SQL Server 叢集支援 business\ 重要的服務。For example, you might create a "Business-Critical SQL Server Cluster Updating Run Profile" for all Microsoft SQL Server clusters that support business-critical services.

何處是規格 plug\ 中 CAU?Where is the CAU plug-in specification?

也了See also