升級叢集作業系統Cluster operating system rolling upgrade

適用於:Windows Server(以每年次通道)、Windows Server 2016Applies to: Windows Server (Semi-Annual Channel), Windows Server 2016

作業系統循環升級叢集讓系統管理員可以而停止 HYPER-V 或延展檔案伺服器工作負載升級叢集節點作業系統。Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade enables an administrator to upgrade the operating system of the cluster nodes without stopping the Hyper-V or the Scale-Out File Server workloads. 使用這項功能,可避免當機損失針對服務層級合約 (SLA)。Using this feature, the downtime penalties against Service Level Agreements (SLA) can be avoided.

叢集 OS 循環升級有下列優點:Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade provides the following benefits:

  • 執行 HYPER-V 一樣和延展檔案伺服器 (SOFS) 工作負載容錯可以升級(叢集中的所有節點都執行),Windows Server 2012 R2 的 Windows Server 2016(叢集所有叢集節點都都執行),而中斷。Failover clusters running Hyper-V virtual machine and Scale-out File Server (SOFS) workloads can be upgraded from Windows Server 2012 R2 (running on all nodes in the cluster) to Windows Server 2016 (running on all cluster nodes of the cluster) without downtime. 其他叢集工作負載,例如 SQL Server 中,將不提供容錯移轉到 Windows Server 2016 所花費的時間(通常不會超過五分鐘)。Other cluster workloads, such as SQL Server, will be unavailable during the time (typically less than five minutes) it takes to failover to Windows Server 2016.
  • 它並不需要任何額外的硬體。It doesn't require any additional hardware. 雖然您可以新增額外叢集節點暫時小群集叢集 OS 循環升級期間改善可用性叢集來處理。Although, you can add additional cluster nodes temporarily to small clusters to improve availability of the cluster during the Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade process.
  • 停止或重新啟動不需要叢集。The cluster doesn't need to be stopped or restarted.
  • 不需要新的叢集。A new cluster is not required. 升級現有叢集。The existing cluster is upgraded. 此外,也會使用儲存在 Active Directory 現有叢集物件。In addition, existing cluster objects stored in Active Directory are used.
  • 升級程序,而且可還原之前客戶 choses」點-的-無-報酬「,所有叢集節點時正在執行 Windows Server 2016 Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel PowerShell cmdlet 執行時。The upgrade process is reversible until the customer choses the "point-of-no-return", when all cluster nodes are running Windows Server 2016, and when the Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel PowerShell cmdlet is run.
  • 叢集可支援修補和維護作業時混合 OS 模式執行。The cluster can support patching and maintenance operations while running in the mixed-OS mode.
  • 透過 PowerShell 和 WMI 自動化支援。It supports automation via PowerShell and WMI.
  • 叢集公用屬性ClusterFunctionalLevel屬性表示 Windows Server 2016 叢集節點上叢集的狀態。The cluster public property ClusterFunctionalLevel property indicates the state of the cluster on Windows Server 2016 cluster nodes. 此屬性可以使用 Windows Server 2016 叢集節點屬於容錯移轉叢集從 PowerShell cmdlet 查詢:This property can be queried using the PowerShell cmdlet from a Windows Server 2016 cluster node that belongs to a failover cluster:

    Get-Cluster | Select ClusterFunctionalLevel  
    

    8代表叢集正在執行 Windows Server 2012 R2 功能層級。A value of 8 indicates that the cluster is running at the Windows Server 2012 R2 functional level. 9代表叢集正在執行 Windows Server 2016 功能層級。A value of 9 indicates that the cluster is running at the Windows Server 2016 functional level.

本指南描述的各種階段叢集 OS 循環升級程序、安裝步驟、功能限制,以及常見問題的解答(常見問題集)與適用於在 Windows Server 2016 下列作業系統循環升級叢集案例:This guide describes the various stages of the Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade process, installation steps, feature limitations, and frequently asked questions (FAQs), and is applicable to the following Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade scenarios in Windows Server 2016:

  • HYPER-V 叢集Hyper-V clusters
  • 延展檔案伺服器叢集Scale-Out File Server clusters

Windows Server 2016 不支援下列案例:The following scenario is not supported in Windows Server 2016:

  • 使用 virtual 硬碟升級的客體 OS 循環叢集叢集 (.vhdx file) 為共用存放裝置Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade of guest clusters using virtual hard disk (.vhdx file) as shared storage

叢集 OS 循環升級完全支援的系統中心一樣管理員 (SCVMM) 2016 年。Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade is fully supported by System Center Virtual Machine Manager (SCVMM) 2016. 如果您使用 SCVMM 2016,請查看升級 Windows Server 2012 R2 叢集 Windows Server 2016 中 VMM 以指導方針升級叢集和自動化本文件中所述的步驟。If you are using SCVMM 2016, see Upgrading Windows Server 2012 R2 clusters to Windows Server 2016 in VMM for guidance on upgrading the clusters and automating the steps that are described in this document.

需求Requirements

叢集 OS 循環升級程序開始之前,請完成下列需求:Complete the following requirements before you begin the Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade process:

  • 開始執行 Windows Server(以每年次通道)、Windows Server 2016 或 Windows Server 2012 R2 容錯移轉叢集。Start with a Failover Cluster running Windows Server (Semi-Annual Channel), Windows Server 2016, or Windows Server 2012 R2.
  • 升級到 Windows Server 的儲存空間直接存取叢集,不支援 1709 年版本。Upgrading a Storage Spaces Direct cluster to Windows Server, version 1709 isn't supported.
  • 如果 HYPER-V Vm 中或延展檔案伺服器叢集工作負載,您可以預期的中斷零升級。If the cluster workload is Hyper-V VMs, or Scale-Out File Server, you can expect zero-downtime upgrade.
  • 請確認 HYPER-V 節點有 Cpu 支援第二層級位址表格(造板條)使用其中一項下列方法。Verify that the Hyper-V nodes have CPUs that support Second-Level Addressing Table (SLAT) using one of the following methods;
    -檢視您會造板條相容?WP8 SDK 秘訣 01描述兩種方法來檢查是否 CPU 支援 SLATs 文件- Review the Are you SLAT Compatible? WP8 SDK Tip 01 article that describes two methods to check if a CPU supports SLATs
    -下載Coreinfo v3.31若要判斷是否 CPU 支援造板條工具。- Download the Coreinfo v3.31 tool to determine if a CPU supports SLAT.

叢集狀態轉換期間叢集 OS 循環升級Cluster transition states during Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade

本節升級到 Windows Server 2016 使用叢集 OS 循環升級的 Windows Server 2012 R2 叢集各種轉換狀態。This section describes the various transition states of the Windows Server 2012 R2 cluster that is being upgraded to Windows Server 2016 using Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade.

為了持續在叢集 OS 循環升級過程中,將叢集工作負載的 Windows Server 2012 R2 節點從移到 Windows Server 2016 上執行的叢集工作負載節點適用於為兩個節點執行 Windows Server 2012 R2 的作業系統。In order to keep the cluster workloads running during the Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade process, moving a cluster workload from a Windows Server 2012 R2 node to Windows Server 2016 node works as if both nodes were running the Windows Server 2012 R2 operating system. Windows Server 2016 節點新增至叢集時, 他們在 Windows Server 2012 R2 相容模式運作。When Windows Server 2016 nodes are added to the cluster, they operate in a Windows Server 2012 R2 compatibility mode. 新的概念叢集模式,稱為「混合 OS 模式」可讓在於相同不同版本的節點叢集(查看圖 1)。A new conceptual cluster mode, called "mixed-OS mode", allows nodes of different versions to exist in the same cluster (see Figure 1).

顯示叢集 OS 循環升級的三個階段的圖例:所有節點 Windows Server 2012 R2、混合 OS 模式和 Windows Server 2016 的所有節點
圖 1:叢集作業系統狀態轉換Figure 1: Cluster operating system state transitions

Windows Server 2012 R2 叢集進入混合 OS 模式,當叢集加入 Windows Server 2016 節點。A Windows Server 2012 R2 cluster enters mixed-OS mode when a Windows Server 2016 node is added to the cluster. 程序完全復原-叢集可以會從 Windows Server 2016 節點,而且可在此模式下叢集加入 Windows Server 2012 R2 節點。The process is fully reversible - Windows Server 2016 nodes can be removed from the cluster and Windows Server 2012 R2 nodes can be added to the cluster in this mode. 「點的無報酬「發生於 Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel PowerShell cmdlet 已叢集上執行。The "point of no return" occurs when the Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel PowerShell cmdlet is run on the cluster. 為了讓這個 cmdlet 成功,所有節點都必須 Windows Server 2016 和都必須 online 所有節點。In order for this cmdlet to succeed, all nodes must be Windows Server 2016, and all nodes must be online.

在執行作業系統循環升級時的四個節點叢集的轉換狀態Transition states of a four-node cluster while performing Rolling OS Upgrade

本章節示範,並描述叢集共用其節點從 Windows Server 2012 R2 升級至 Windows Server 2016 的儲存空間不同的四個階段。This section illustrates and describes the four different stages of a cluster with shared storage whose nodes are upgraded from Windows Server 2012 R2 to Windows Server 2016.

「階段 1」的初始狀態-我們開始與 Windows Server 2012 R2 叢集。"Stage 1" is the initial state - we start with a Windows Server 2012 R2 cluster.

圖的顯示的初始狀態:Windows Server 2012 R2 的所有節點
圖 2 所示:起始狀態:Windows Server 2012 R2 容錯移轉叢集(1 階段)Figure 2: Initial State: Windows Server 2012 R2 Failover Cluster (Stage 1)

在「步驟 2」,有兩個節點已暫停、耗盡、收回、格式化,並安裝 Windows Server 2016。In "Stage 2", two nodes have been paused, drained, evicted, reformatted, and installed with Windows Server 2016.

顯示叢集混合 OS 模式中的圖例:退出範例 4 節點叢集、兩個節點執行 Windows Server 2016 和兩個節點執行 Windows Server 2012 R2
圖 3 所示:中繼狀態:模式混合作業系統:Windows Server 2012 R2 和 Windows Server 2016 容錯移轉叢集 (第 2 階段)Figure 3: Intermediate State: Mixed-OS mode: Windows Server 2012 R2 and Windows Server 2016 Failover cluster (Stage 2)

在「步驟 3」、節點叢集中的所有已升級至 Windows Server 2016 和叢集已準備好升級的 Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel PowerShell cmdlet。At "Stage 3", all of the nodes in the cluster have been upgraded to Windows Server 2016, and the cluster is ready to be upgraded with Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel PowerShell cmdlet.

注意

這個階段程序可以完全還原,且 Windows Server 2012 R2 節點可以新增至此叢集。At this stage, the process can be fully reversed, and Windows Server 2012 R2 nodes can be added to this cluster.

顯示叢集已完全升級到 Windows Server 2016,並將操之在 Windows Server 2016 的叢集功能層級可供 Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel cmdlet 的圖例
圖 4:中繼狀態:所有節點升級到 Windows Server 2016 供 Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel (階段 3)Figure 4: Intermediate State: All nodes upgraded to Windows Server 2016, ready for Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel (Stage 3)

Update-ClusterFunctionalLevelcmdlet 執行之後,叢集進入「步驟 4」,可以使用 Windows Server 2016 叢集的新功能的地方。After the Update-ClusterFunctionalLevelcmdlet is run, the cluster enters "Stage 4", where new Windows Server 2016 cluster features can be used.

顯示已成功完成升級作業系統叢集; 的圖例所有節點已都升級至 Windows Server 2016 和叢集正在執行的 Windows Server 2016 叢集功能層級。
圖 5 所示:最終狀態:Windows Server 2016 容錯移轉叢集(階段 4)Figure 5: Final State: Windows Server 2016 Failover Cluster (Stage 4)

叢集 OS 循環升級程序Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade Process

本節適用於執行叢集 OS 循環升級流程。This section describes the workflow for performing Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade.

顯示適用於升級叢集工作流程的圖例
圖 6:叢集 OS 循環升級程序工作流程Figure 6: Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade Process Workflow

叢集 OS 循環升級包含下列步驟:Cluster OS Rolling upgrade includes the following steps:

  1. 準備叢集作業系統升級,如下所示:Prepare the cluster for the operating system upgrade as follows:

    1. 作業系統循環升級叢集需要一次移除叢集一個節點。Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade requires removing one node at a time from the cluster. 檢查是否有容量不足時其中一個節點叢集移除作業系統升級叢集維持哈 Sla 叢集上。Check if you have sufficient capacity on the cluster to maintain HA SLAs when one of the cluster nodes is removed from the cluster for an operating system upgrade. 亦即,您需要到另一個節點容錯移轉工作負載的功能的叢集 OS 循環升級程序期間移除一個節點時嗎?In other words, do you require the capability to failover workloads to another node when one node is removed from the cluster during the process of Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade? 叢集有一個節點中移除的叢集 OS 循環升級時,請執行所需的工作負載的容量嗎?Does the cluster have the capacity to run the required workloads when one node is removed from the cluster for Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade?
    2. HYPER-V 工作負載,查看所有的 Windows Server 2016 HYPER-V 主機有 CPU 支援第二層級地址表格(造板條)。For Hyper-V workloads, check that all Windows Server 2016 Hyper-V hosts have CPU support Second-Level Address Table (SLAT). 僅限造板條能力的電腦可以使用 Windows Server 2016 HYPER-V 角色。Only SLAT-capable machines can use the Hyper-V role in Windows Server 2016.
    3. 檢查任何工作負載的備份完成後,請考慮將備份叢集。Check that any workload backups have completed, and consider backing-up the cluster. 將節點新增至叢集時停止備份作業。Stop backup operations while adding nodes to the cluster.
    4. 查看所有叢集節點都是 online/執行/上使用Get-ClusterNode cmdlet(看到圖 7 所示)。Check that all cluster nodes are online /running/up using the Get-ClusterNode cmdlet (see Figure 7).

      顯示的執行 Get-ClusterNode cmdlet 結果 Screencap
      圖 7 所示:判斷使用 Get-ClusterNode cmdlet 節點狀態Figure 7: Determining node status using Get-ClusterNode cmdlet

    5. 如果您執行叢集注意更新 (CAU),請確認如果 CAU 目前執行的是,使用更新叢集-Aware的 UI,或Get-CauRun cmdlet(看到圖 8)。If you are running Cluster Aware Updates (CAU), verify if CAU is currently running by using the Cluster-Aware Updating UI, or the Get-CauRun cmdlet (see Figure 8). 停止 CAU 使用Disable-CauClusterRole cmdlet 為防止任何節點暫停和耗盡,CAU 叢集 OS 循環升級程序期間的(查看圖 9)。Stop CAU using the Disable-CauClusterRole cmdlet (see Figure 9) to prevent any nodes from being paused and drained by CAU during the Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade process.

      Screencap 顯示 Get-CauRun cmdlet 的輸出
      使用圖 8: Get-CauRuncmdlet 來判斷是否叢集上執行叢集注意更新Figure 8: Using the Get-CauRun cmdlet to determine if Cluster Aware Updates is running on the cluster

      Screencap 顯示 Disable-CauClusterRole cmdlet 的輸出
      圖 9:停用叢集注意更新角色使用Disable-CauClusterRole cmdletFigure 9: Disabling the Cluster Aware Updates role using the Disable-CauClusterRole cmdlet

  2. 用於叢集中每個節點,完成下列動作:For each node in the cluster, complete the following:

    1. 使用叢集管理員 UI,請選取 [節點,使用暫停 |耗盡功能表選項,來耗盡節點(看到圖 10)或使用Suspend-ClusterNode cmdlet(看到圖 11)。Using Cluster Manager UI, select a node and use the Pause | Drain menu option to drain the node (see Figure 10) or use the Suspend-ClusterNode cmdlet (see Figure 11).

      Screencap 顯示如何耗盡 UI 叢集管理員角色
      圖 10:耗盡使用容錯移轉叢集管理員節點角色Figure 10: Draining roles from a node using Failover Cluster Manager

      Screencap 顯示 Suspend-ClusterNode cmdlet 的輸出
      圖 11:耗盡角色節點,使用Suspend-ClusterNode cmdletFigure 11: Draining roles from a node using the Suspend-ClusterNode cmdlet

    2. 使用叢集管理員 UI,收回叢集或使用來自 [暫停] 節點Remove-ClusterNode cmdlet。Using Cluster Manager UI, Evict the paused node from cluster, or use the Remove-ClusterNode cmdlet.

      Screencap 顯示 Remove-ClusterNode cmdlet 的輸出
      圖 12:移除節點叢集使用Remove-ClusterNode cmdletFigure 12: Remove a node from the cluster using Remove-ClusterNode cmdlet

    3. 格式化系統磁碟機,並節點使用執行 Windows Server 2016 的「全新作業系統安裝」自訂:只安裝 Windows(進階),中 setup.exe 安裝 (看到圖 13) 選項。Reformat the system drive and perform a "clean operating system install" of Windows Server 2016 on the node using the Custom: Install Windows only (advanced) installation (See Figure 13) option in setup.exe. 避免選取升級:安裝 Windows 並保留檔案、設定和應用程式選項,因為 OS 循環升級叢集無法鼓勵就地升級。Avoid selecting the Upgrade: Install Windows and keep files, settings, and applications option since Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade doesn't encourage in-place upgrade.

      Windows Server 2016 安裝精靈中顯示自訂的 Screencap 安裝選取選項
      Windows Server 2016 圖 13:安裝可用的選項Figure 13: Available installation options for Windows Server 2016

    4. 將節點新增至適當的 Active Directory domain。Add the node to the appropriate Active Directory domain.

    5. 系統管理員群組新增適當的使用者。Add the appropriate users to the Administrators group.
    6. 使用伺服器管理員 UI 或 Install-WindowsFeature PowerShell cmdlet、安裝您需要例如 HYPER-V 的任何伺服器角色。Using the Server Manager UI or Install-WindowsFeature PowerShell cmdlet, install any server roles that you need, such as Hyper-V.

      Install-WindowsFeature -Name Hyper-V  
      
    7. 使用伺服器管理員 UI 或 Install-WindowsFeature PowerShell cmdlet、安裝容錯功能。Using the Server Manager UI or Install-WindowsFeature PowerShell cmdlet, install the Failover Clustering feature.

      Install-WindowsFeature -Name Failover-Clustering  
      
    8. 安裝任何其他您叢集工作負載所需的功能。Install any additional features needed by your cluster workloads.

    9. 檢查網路與儲存空間使用容錯移轉叢集管理員 UI 連接設定。Check network and storage connectivity settings using the Failover Cluster Manager UI.
    10. 如果您使用 Windows 防火牆,檢查防火牆設定是否正確叢集。If Windows Firewall is used, check that the Firewall settings are correct for the cluster. 例如,群集叢集注意更新 (CAU) 支援可能需要防火牆設定。For example, Cluster Aware Updating (CAU) enabled clusters may require Firewall configuration.
    11. 對於 HYPER-V 工作負載,使用 HYPER-V 管理員 UI 上市 Virtual 切換管理員對話方塊(看到圖 14)。For Hyper-V workloads, use the Hyper-V Manger UI to launch the Virtual Switch Manager dialog (see Figure 14).

      檢查 Virtual 達名稱所使用的相同叢集中的所有 HYPER-V 主機節點。Check that the name of the Virtual Switch(s) used are identical for all Hyper-V host nodes in the cluster.

      Screencap 顯示 \ [HYPER-V Virtual 切換管理員] 中的位置
      圖 14︰ Virtual 切換管理員Figure 14: Virtual Switch Manager

    12. Windows Server 2016 節點上(請使用 Windows Server 2012 R2 節點)、使用容錯移轉叢集管理員叢集連接的(查看圖 15)。On a Windows Server 2016 node (do not use a Windows Server 2012 R2 node), use the Failover Cluster Manager (see Figure 15) to connect to the cluster.

      Screencap 顯示 \ 選取叢集對話方塊
      圖 15:將節點新增至使用容錯移轉叢集管理員叢集Figure 15: Adding a node to the cluster using Failover Cluster Manager

    13. 使用容錯移轉叢集管理員 UI 或Add-ClusterNode cmdlet 將節點新增至叢集的(查看圖 16)。Use either the Failover Cluster Manager UI or the Add-ClusterNode cmdlet (see Figure 16) to add the node to the cluster.

      Screencap 顯示 Add-ClusterNode cmdlet 的輸出
      圖 16:將節點新增至叢集使用Add-ClusterNode cmdletFigure 16: Adding a node to the cluster using Add-ClusterNode cmdlet

      注意

      當的第一個 Windows Server 2016 節點加入叢集時,叢集進入「混合 OS」模式,並叢集核心資源的移到 Windows Server 2016 節點。When the first Windows Server 2016 node joins the cluster, the cluster enters "Mixed-OS" mode, and the cluster core resources are moved to the Windows Server 2016 node. 「混合 OS」模式叢集是完整功能叢集新節點執行舊節點與相容性模式中的位置。A "Mixed-OS" mode cluster is a fully functional cluster where the new nodes run in a compatibility mode with the old nodes. 「混合 OS」模式是叢集暫時性模式。"Mixed-OS" mode is a transitory mode for the cluster. 這不是會永久與他們叢集節點所有更新中四個星期會如預期般針對。It is not intended to be permanent and customers are expected to update all nodes of their cluster within four weeks.

    14. Windows Server 2016 節點成功新增至後叢集,您可以(選擇性)移叢集工作負載的部分新加入節點以重新工作負載平衡叢集,如下所示:After the Windows Server 2016 node is successfully added to the cluster, you can (optionally) move some of the cluster workload to the newly added node in order to rebalance the workload across the cluster as follows:

      Screencap 顯示 Move-ClusterVirtualMachineRole cmdlet 的輸出
      圖 17:移動叢集工作負載(叢集 VM 角色)使用Move-ClusterVirtualMachineRole cmdletFigure 17: Moving a cluster workload (cluster VM role) using Move-ClusterVirtualMachineRole cmdlet

      1. 使用動態移轉來自容錯移轉叢集管理員虛擬機器或Move-ClusterVirtualMachineRole cmdlet 執行虛擬機器動態移轉的(查看圖 17)。Use Live Migration from the Failover Cluster Manager for virtual machines or the Move-ClusterVirtualMachineRole cmdlet (see Figure 17) to perform a live migration of the virtual machines.

        Move-ClusterVirtualMachineRole -Name VM1 -Node robhind-host3  
        
      2. 使用移動來自容錯移轉叢集管理員或Move-ClusterGroup的其他叢集工作負載 cmdlet。Use Move from the Failover Cluster Manager or the Move-ClusterGroup cmdlet for other cluster workloads.

  3. 當您已升級至 Windows Server 2016 和加回叢集,每個節點或任何其他 Windows Server 2012 R2 節點上有移除,執行下列動作:When every node has been upgraded to Windows Server 2016 and added back to the cluster, or when any remaining Windows Server 2012 R2 nodes have been evicted, do the following:

    重要

    • 叢集功能層級更新之後,您無法回復到 Windows Server 2012 R2 功能層級,叢集無法加入 Windows Server 2012 R2 節點。After you update the cluster functional level, you cannot go back to Windows Server 2012 R2 functional level and Windows Server 2012 R2 nodes cannot be added to the cluster.
    • 直到Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel cmdlet 執行、程序會完全復原 Windows Server 2012 R2 節點新增到此叢集及 Windows Server 2016 節點可以移除。Until the Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel cmdlet is run, the process is fully reversible and Windows Server 2012 R2 nodes can be added to this cluster and Windows Server 2016 nodes can be removed.
    • Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel cmdlet 執行時,將提供新功能。After the Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel cmdlet is run, new features will be available.
    1. 使用「容錯移轉叢集管理員 UI 或Get-ClusterGroup cmdlet,檢查所有叢集角色執行叢集上如預期般運作。Using the Failover Cluster Manager UI or the Get-ClusterGroup cmdlet, check that all cluster roles are running on the cluster as expected. 以下的範例,可用儲存空間未使用,改為使用 CSV,因此,會顯示可用的儲存離線狀態(看到圖 18)。In the following example, Available Storage is not being used, instead CSV is used, hence, Available Storage displays an Offline status (see Figure 18).

      Screencap 顯示 Get-ClusterGroup cmdlet 的輸出
      使用驗證所有叢集群組(叢集角色)執行圖 18: Get-ClusterGroupcmdletFigure 18: Verifying that all cluster groups (cluster roles) are running using the Get-ClusterGroup cmdlet

    2. 查看所有叢集節點都是 online 並執行使用Get-ClusterNode cmdlet。Check that all cluster nodes are online and running using the Get-ClusterNode cmdlet.

    3. 執行Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel cmdlet-不應該傳回錯誤(看到圖 19)。Run the Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel cmdlet - no errors should be returned (see Figure 19).

      Screencap 顯示 Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel cmdlet 的輸出
      圖 19:更新功能的使用 PowerShell 叢集層級Figure 19: Updating the functional level of a cluster using PowerShell

    4. Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel cmdlet 執行、的新功能可供使用。After the Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel cmdlet is run, new features are available.

  4. Windows Server 2016-恢復正常叢集更新和備份:Windows Server 2016 - resume normal cluster updates and backups:

    1. 如果您之前已執行 CAU,使用 CAU UI 重新開機,或使用Enable-CauClusterRole cmdlet(看到圖 20)。If you were previously running CAU, restart it using the CAU UI or use the Enable-CauClusterRole cmdlet (see Figure 20).

      Screencap 顯示 Enable-CauClusterRole 的輸出
      圖 20:讓叢集注意更新角色使用Enable-CauClusterRole cmdletFigure 20: Enable Cluster Aware Updates role using the Enable-CauClusterRole cmdlet

    2. 繼續備份作業。Resume backup operations.

  5. 讓和的 HYPER-V 虛擬電腦上使用 Windows Server 2016 的功能。Enable and use the Windows Server 2016 features on Hyper-V Virtual Machines.

    1. 已叢集升級到 Windows Server 2016 功能等級之後,類似於 HYPER-V Vm 許多工作負載會有新功能。After the cluster has been upgraded to Windows Server 2016 functional level, many workloads like Hyper-V VMs will have new capabilities. 於 HYPER-V 的新功能的清單。For a list of new Hyper-V capabilities. 查看移轉和升級虛擬電腦see Migrate and upgrade virtual machines

    2. 在每個 HYPER-V 主機] 節點中叢集上使用Get-VMHostSupportedVersion cmdlet 所支援的主機的 HYPER-V VM 設定版本的檢視。On each Hyper-V host node in the cluster, use the Get-VMHostSupportedVersion cmdlet to view the Hyper-V VM configuration versions that are supported by the host.

      Screencap 顯示 Get-VMHostSupportedVersion cmdlet 的輸出
      圖 21:檢視支援的主機的 HYPER-V VM 設定版本Figure 21: Viewing the Hyper-V VM configuration versions supported by the host

    1. 每個 HYPER-V 主機] 節點中叢集上可以 HYPER-V VM 設定版本升級排程簡短維護視窗的使用者,備份、關閉虛擬電腦,然後執行Update-VMVersion cmdlet(看到圖 22)。On each Hyper-V host node in the cluster, Hyper-V VM configuration versions can be upgraded by scheduling a brief maintenance window with users, backing up, turning off virtual machines, and running the Update-VMVersion cmdlet (see Figure 22). 這將會更新一樣版本,以及新 HYPER-V 功能,不需要 HYPER-V 整合元件 (IC) 未來的更新。This will update the virtual machine version, and enable new Hyper-V features, eliminating the need for future Hyper-V Integration Component (IC) updates. 可以從 HYPER-V 節點裝載 VM 中,執行下列 cmdlet 或-ComputerName參數可從遠端更新 VM 版本。This cmdlet can be run from the Hyper-V node that is hosting the VM, or the -ComputerName parameter can be used to update the VM Version remotely. 在此範例中,以下我們 VM1 設定版本從升級 5.0 7.0 善用 Production 檢查點(應用程式一致備份),和二進位 VM 設定檔此 VM 設定版本與相關的許多新 HYPER-V 功能。In this example, here we upgrade the configuration version of VM1 from 5.0 to 7.0 to take advantage of many new Hyper-V features associated with this VM configuration version such as Production Checkpoints (Application Consistent backups), and binary VM configuration file.

      控制項目] 中顯示 Update-VMVersion cmdlet Screencap
      圖 22:升級使用 Update-VMVersion PowerShell cmdlet VM 版本Figure 22: Upgrading a VM version using the Update-VMVersion PowerShell cmdlet

  6. 可以使用升級儲存集區更新-StoragePool PowerShell cmdlet-這是 online 作業。Storage pools can be upgraded using the Update-StoragePool PowerShell cmdlet - this is an online operation.

雖然我們的目標私人雲端案例中,尤其是 HYPER-V 和延展檔案伺服器叢集,而當機,升級作業系統循環叢集程序可以升級可用於任何叢集角色。Although we are targeting Private Cloud scenarios, specifically Hyper-V and Scale-out File Server clusters, which can be upgraded without downtime, the Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade process can be used for any cluster role.

限制日限制Restrictions / Limitations

  • 此功能僅適只有在 Windows Server 2016 版本的 Windows Server 2012 R2。This feature works only for Windows Server 2012 R2 to Windows Server 2016 versions only. 此功能無法升級至 Windows Server 2016 的較舊版本的 Windows Server,例如 Windows Server 2008、Windows Server 2008 R2 或 Windows Server 2012。This feature cannot upgrade earlier versions of Windows Server such as Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2008 R2, or Windows Server 2012 to Windows Server 2016.
  • Windows Server 2016 的每個節點應該只格式化日全新安裝。Each Windows Server 2016 node should be reformatted/new installation only. 「就地」或「升級「建議您安裝類型。"In-place" or "upgrade" installation type is discouraged.
  • Windows Server 2016 節點新增至叢集必須使用 Windows Server 2016 節點。A Windows Server 2016 node must be used to add Windows Server 2016 nodes to the cluster.
  • 管理混合 OS 模式叢集、時一律從在執行 Windows Server 2016 新版節點執行管理工作。When managing a mixed-OS mode cluster, always perform the management tasks from an uplevel node that is running Windows Server 2016. 舊版 Windows Server 2012 R2 節點無法使用針對 Windows Server 2016 的 UI 或管理工具。Downlevel Windows Server 2012 R2 nodes cannot use UI or management tools against Windows Server 2016.
  • 我們建議針對移動叢集升級程序快速因為部分叢集功能不最佳化混合 OS 模式。We encourage customers to move through the cluster upgrade process quickly because some cluster features are not optimized for mixed-OS mode.
  • 避免建立或調整節點 Windows Server 2016 上的儲存空間大小叢集執行時混合 OS 模式因為可能不相容容錯移轉上從 Windows Server 2016 節點舊版 Windows Server 2012 R2 節點。Avoid creating or resizing storage on Windows Server 2016 nodes while the cluster is running in mixed-OS mode because of possible incompatibilities on failover from a Windows Server 2016 node to down-level Windows Server 2012 R2 nodes.

常見問題集Frequently asked questions

多久容錯移轉叢集在執行作業系統混合模式?How long can the failover cluster run in mixed-OS mode?
我們建議針對完成的四個星期中升級。We encourage customers to complete the upgrade within four weeks. 有許多最佳化 Windows Server 2016 中。There are many optimizations in Windows Server 2016. 我們已經順利升級 HYPER-V 和延展檔案伺服器叢集零中斷的四個小時總中。We have successfully upgraded Hyper-V and Scale-out File Server clusters with zero downtime in less than four hours total.

您將會連接埠回到 Windows Server 2012、Windows Server 2008 R2 或 Windows Server 2008 這項功能?Will you port this feature back to Windows Server 2012, Windows Server 2008 R2, or Windows Server 2008?
我們不需要任何計劃連接埠回復到舊版這項功能。We do not have any plans to port this feature back to previous versions. 作業系統循環升級叢集是我們的 Windows Server 2016 和其他升級 Windows Server 2012 R2 叢集的願景。Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade is our vision for upgrading Windows Server 2012 R2 clusters to Windows Server 2016 and beyond.

Windows Server 2012 R2 叢集需要先升級作業系統循環叢集程序安裝所有的軟體更新嗎?Does the Windows Server 2012 R2 cluster need to have all the software updates installed before starting the Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade process?
是的在開始之前叢集 OS 循環升級程序,確認所有叢集節點都更新的最新的軟體更新。Yes, before starting the Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade process, verify that all cluster nodes are updated with the latest software updates.

我可以執行Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel cmdlet 時節點已關閉或暫停嗎?Can I run the Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel cmdlet while nodes are Off or Paused?
否。No. 在和的使用資格,必須為所有叢集節點Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel cmdlet 運作。All cluster nodes must be on and in active membership for the Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel cmdlet to work.

作業系統循環升級叢集運作的任何叢集工作負載嗎?Does Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade work for any cluster workload? 它 SQL server 運作?Does it work for SQL Server?
是的作業系統循環升級叢集適用於任何叢集工作負載。Yes, Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade works for any cluster workload. 不過,它是 HYPER-V 和延展檔案伺服器叢集的唯一零中斷。However, it is only zero-downtime for Hyper-V and Scale-out File Server clusters. 其他大部分的工作負載收取某些當機(通常幾分鐘)時他們錯誤移轉及容錯移轉是需要叢集 OS 循環升級程序期間至少一次。Most other workloads incur some downtime (typically a couple of minutes) when they failover, and failover is required at least once during the Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade process.

可以自動執行此程序使用 PowerShell 嗎?Can I automate this process using PowerShell?
是的我們已設計叢集 OS 循環無法使用 PowerShell 自動升級。Yes, we have designed Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade to be automated using PowerShell.

大叢集的額外工作負載與錯誤後移轉的容量,我是否可以升級多個節點同時?For a large cluster that has extra workload and failover capacity, can I upgrade multiple nodes simultaneously?
[是]。Yes. 當升級作業系統叢集從移除一個節點時,叢集將會有一個較節點容錯移轉的因此必須容錯減少的移轉的容量。When one node is removed from the cluster to upgrade the OS, the cluster will have one less node for failover, hence will have a reduced failover capacity. 大容錯移轉容量不足,無法工作負載與叢集,可以同時升級多個節點。For large clusters with enough workload and failover capacity, multiple nodes can be upgraded simultaneously. 您可以暫時將提供工作負載改進和錯誤後移轉容量叢集 OS 循環升級程序期間叢集叢集節點加入。You can temporarily add cluster nodes to the cluster to provide improved workload and failover capacity during the Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade process.

如果我之後我叢集探索問題Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel順利執行嗎?What if I discover an issue in my cluster after Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel has been run successfully?
如果您有備份叢集資料庫系統狀態備份之前,請先執行的Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel,您應該可以執行置於還原到 Windows Server 2012 R2 叢集節點上並還原原始叢集資料庫和設定。If you have backed-up the cluster database with a System State backup before running Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel, you should be able to perform an Authoritative restore on a Windows Server 2012 R2 cluster node and restore the original cluster database and configuration.

可以使用就地升級為每個節點,而不是使用清潔作業系統安裝重新系統磁碟機格式化嗎?Can I use in-place upgrade for each node instead of using clean-OS install by reformatting the system drive?
我們不會鼓勵就地升級的 Windows Server、使用,但我們已經知道運作有時候可用預設驅動程式。We do not encourage the use of in-place upgrade of Windows Server, but we are aware that it works in some cases where default drivers are used. 請仔細朗讀叢集節點就地升級過程中顯示所有警告訊息。Please carefully read all warning messages displayed during in-place upgrade of a cluster node.

如果我正在使用的 HYPER-V VM HYPER-V 複寫,我 HYPER-V 叢集上,將會複寫維持關聯性,叢集 OS 循環升級程序期間後嗎?If I am using Hyper-V replication for a Hyper-V VM on my Hyper-V cluster, will replication remain intact during and after the Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade process?
是的 HYPER-V 複本 app 會維持關聯性叢集 OS 循環升級程序期間後。Yes, Hyper-V replica remains intact during and after the Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade process.

可以使用 System Center 2016 一樣管理員 (SCVMM) 自動叢集 OS 循環升級程序嗎?Can I use System Center 2016 Virtual Machine Manager (SCVMM) to automate the Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade process?
是的您可以將使用 System Center 2016 VMM 叢集 OS 循環升級程序。Yes, you can automate the Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade process using VMM in System Center 2016.

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