設定和管理仲裁Configure and manage quorum

適用於:Windows Server 2019、Windows Server 2016、Windows Server 2012 R2、Windows Server 2012Applies to: Windows Server 2019, Windows Server 2016, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Server 2012

本主題提供在 Windows Server 容錯移轉叢集中設定及管理仲裁的背景和步驟。This topic provides background and steps to configure and manage the quorum in a Windows Server failover cluster.

瞭解仲裁Understanding quorum

叢集仲裁取決於投票元素的數目,這些投票元素必須是供叢集用於正常啟動或繼續執行之使用中叢集成員資格的一部分。The quorum for a cluster is determined by the number of voting elements that must be part of active cluster membership for that cluster to start properly or continue running. 如需更詳細的說明,請參閱 瞭解叢集和集區仲裁檔。For a more detailed explanation, see the understanding cluster and pool quorum doc.

仲裁設定選項Quorum configuration options

Windows Server 中的仲裁模型很有彈性。The quorum model in Windows Server is flexible. 如果您需要修改叢集的仲裁設定,可以使用設定叢集仲裁嚮導或 FailoverClusters Windows PowerShell Cmdlet。If you need to modify the quorum configuration for your cluster, you can use the Configure Cluster Quorum Wizard or the FailoverClusters Windows PowerShell cmdlets. 如需設定仲裁的步驟和考量,請參閱本主題稍後的設定叢集仲裁For steps and considerations to configure the quorum, see Configure the cluster quorum later in this topic.

下表列出 [設定叢集仲裁精靈] 中提供的三個仲裁設定選項。The following table lists the three quorum configuration options that are available in the Configure Cluster Quorum Wizard.

選項Option 描述Description
[使用一般設定]Use typical settings 叢集會自動指派投票給每個節點,並動態管理節點投票。The cluster automatically assigns a vote to each node and dynamically manages the node votes. 如果適合您的叢集,並且沒有叢集共用存放裝置可用,叢集就會選取一個磁碟見證。If it is suitable for your cluster, and there is cluster shared storage available, the cluster selects a disk witness. 建議您在大部分的情況下使用此選項,因為叢集軟體會自動選擇可為您的叢集提供最高可用性的仲裁與見證設定。This option is recommended in most cases, because the cluster software automatically chooses a quorum and witness configuration that provides the highest availability for your cluster.
[新增或變更仲裁見證]Add or change the quorum witness 您可以新增、變更或移除見證資源。You can add, change, or remove a witness resource. 您可以設定檔案共用或磁碟見證。You can configure a file share or disk witness. 叢集會自動指派投票給每個節點,並動態管理節點投票。The cluster automatically assigns a vote to each node and dynamically manages the node votes.
[進階仲裁設定與見證選取項目]Advanced quorum configuration and witness selection 只有在您對於設定仲裁有應用程式特定或網站特定的需求時,才選取此選項。You should select this option only when you have application-specific or site-specific requirements for configuring the quorum. 您可以修改仲裁見證、 新增或移除節點投票,以及選擇叢集是否動態管理節點投票。You can modify the quorum witness, add or remove node votes, and choose whether the cluster dynamically manages node votes. 根據預設,會將投票指派給所有節點,並動態管理節點投票。By default, votes are assigned to all nodes, and the node votes are dynamically managed.

系統將會視您選擇的仲裁設定選項和特定的設定而定,以下列其中一種仲裁模式設定叢集:Depending on the quorum configuration option that you choose and your specific settings, the cluster will be configured in one of the following quorum modes:

[模式]Mode 描述Description
節點多數 (不含見證)Node majority (no witness) 只有節點具有投票。Only nodes have votes. 不設定任何仲裁見證。No quorum witness is configured. 叢集仲裁是使用中叢集成員資格中大部分的投票節點。The cluster quorum is the majority of voting nodes in the active cluster membership.
節點多數 (含見證) (磁碟或檔案共用)Node majority with witness (disk or file share) 節點具有投票。Nodes have votes. 此外,仲裁見證也具有投票。In addition, a quorum witness has a vote. 叢集仲裁是使用中叢集成員資格加上見證投票中大部分的投票節點。The cluster quorum is the majority of voting nodes in the active cluster membership plus a witness vote. 仲裁見證可以是指定的磁碟見證或指定的檔案共用見證。A quorum witness can be a designated disk witness or a designated file share witness.
沒有多數 (只含磁碟見證)No majority (disk witness only) 沒有節點具有投票。No nodes have votes. 只有磁碟見證具有投票。Only a disk witness has a vote.
叢集仲裁是由磁碟見證的狀態來決定。The cluster quorum is determined by the state of the disk witness. 一般而言,不建議使用,也不應該選取這種模式,因為它會使得叢集中有單一失敗點。Generally, this mode is not recommended, and it should not be selected because it creates a single point of failure for the cluster.

下列各小節將提供有關 advanced 仲裁設定的詳細資訊。The following subsections will give you more information about advanced quorum configuration settings.

見證設定Witness configuration

做為設定仲裁時的一般規則,叢集中的投票元素應該是奇數。As a general rule when you configure a quorum, the voting elements in the cluster should be an odd number. 因此,如果叢集包含偶數個投票節點,您應該設定磁碟見證或檔案共用見證。Therefore, if the cluster contains an even number of voting nodes, you should configure a disk witness or a file share witness. 叢集將可承受多一個節點停止運作。The cluster will be able to sustain one additional node down. 此外,如果半數的叢集節點同時停止運作或中斷連線,新增見證投票可讓叢集繼續執行。In addition, adding a witness vote enables the cluster to continue running if half the cluster nodes simultaneously go down or are disconnected.

如果所有節點都可以看到該磁碟,通常建議使用磁碟見證。A disk witness is usually recommended if all nodes can see the disk. 當您需要考慮使用複寫的存放裝置進行多站台災害復原時,建議使用檔案共用見證。A file share witness is recommended when you need to consider multisite disaster recovery with replicated storage. 只有在存放裝置廠商支援從所有站台對複寫的存放裝置進行讀寫存取時,才可以使用複寫的存放裝置設定磁碟見證。Configuring a disk witness with replicated storage is possible only if the storage vendor supports read-write access from all sites to the replicated storage. 儲存空間直接存取不支援磁片見證A Disk Witness isn't supported with Storage Spaces Direct.

下表提供有關仲裁見證類型的其他資訊和考量。The following table provides additional information and considerations about the quorum witness types.

見證類型Witness type 描述Description 需求和建議Requirements and recommendations
磁碟見證Disk witness
  • 儲存叢集資料庫複本的固定 LUNDedicated LUN that stores a copy of the cluster database
  • 最適合用於具有共用 (非複寫) 存放裝置的叢集Most useful for clusters with shared (not replicated) storage
  • LUN 的大小必須至少為 512 MBSize of LUN must be at least 512 MB
  • 必須是叢集專用且未指派給叢集角色Must be dedicated to cluster use and not assigned to a clustered role
  • 必須包含在叢集存放裝置中並通過存放裝置驗證測試Must be included in clustered storage and pass storage validation tests
  • 不能是作為叢集共用磁碟區 (CSV) 的磁碟Cannot be a disk that is a Cluster Shared Volume (CSV)
  • 具有單一磁碟區的基本磁碟Basic disk with a single volume
  • 不需要有磁碟機代號Does not need to have a drive letter
  • 可以使用 NTFS 或 ReFS 格式化Can be formatted with NTFS or ReFS
  • 可選擇性設定硬體 RAID 以提供容錯功能Can be optionally configured with hardware RAID for fault tolerance
  • 應從備份及病毒掃描中排除Should be excluded from backups and antivirus scanning
  • 儲存空間直接存取不支援磁片見證A Disk witness isn't supported with Storage Spaces Direct
檔案共用見證File share witness
  • 在執行 Windows Server 的檔案伺服器上設定的 SMB 檔案共用SMB file share that is configured on a file server running Windows Server
  • 不會儲存叢集資料庫的複本Does not store a copy of the cluster database
  • 維護僅存在於 witness.log 檔案中的叢集資訊Maintains cluster information only in a witness.log file
  • 最適合用於具備複寫的存放裝置的多站台叢集Most useful for multisite clusters with replicated storage
  • 必須至少有 5 MB 的可用空間Must have a minimum of 5 MB of free space
  • 必須專用於單一叢集,且不用來儲存使用者或應用程式資料Must be dedicated to the single cluster and not used to store user or application data
  • 必須啟用叢集名稱之電腦物件的寫入權限Must have write permissions enabled for the computer object for the cluster name

以下是代管檔案共用見證之檔案伺服器的其他考量:The following are additional considerations for a file server that hosts the file share witness:
  • 單一檔案伺服器可以設定多個叢集的檔案共用見證。A single file server can be configured with file share witnesses for multiple clusters.
  • 檔案伺服器必須位於與叢集工作負載分開的站台上。The file server must be on a site that is separate from the cluster workload. 如果站台至站台之間網路通訊中斷時,這可讓任何叢集站台有相同的機會繼續運作。This allows equal opportunity for any cluster site to survive if site-to-site network communication is lost. 如果檔案伺服器位於相同站台,該網站會成為主要的站台,而且是可連線檔案共用的唯一站台。If the file server is on the same site, that site becomes the primary site, and it is the only site that can reach the file share.
  • 如果虛擬機器不是位於使用檔案共用見證的同一叢集上,檔案伺服器就可以在虛擬機器上執行。The file server can run on a virtual machine if the virtual machine is not hosted on the same cluster that uses the file share witness.
  • 為了獲得高可用性,可以在獨立的容錯移轉叢集上設定檔案伺服器。For high availability, the file server can be configured on a separate failover cluster.
雲端見證Cloud witness
  • 儲存在 Azure Blob 儲存體中的見證檔案A witness file stored in Azure Blob Storage
  • 當叢集中的所有伺服器都有可靠的網際網路連線時,建議使用此選項。Recommended when all servers in the cluster have a reliable Internet connection.
請參閱 部署雲端見證See Deploy a cloud witness.

節點投票指派Node vote assignment

作為 advanced 仲裁設定選項,您可以選擇針對每個節點指派或移除仲裁投票。As an advanced quorum configuration option, you can choose to assign or remove quorum votes on a per-node basis. 根據預設,所有節點都會被指派投票。By default, all nodes are assigned votes. 無論是否指派投票,叢集中的所有節點都會持續運作、接收叢集資料庫更新,以及可以代管應用程式。Regardless of vote assignment, all nodes continue to function in the cluster, receive cluster database updates, and can host applications.

您可能想要從特定災害復原設定中的節點移除投票。You might want to remove votes from nodes in certain disaster recovery configurations. 例如,在多站台叢集中,您可以從備份站台中的節點移除投票,讓那些節點不會影響仲裁運算。For example, in a multisite cluster, you could remove votes from the nodes in a backup site so that those nodes do not affect quorum calculations. 建議只針對跨站台手動容錯移轉使用此設定。This configuration is recommended only for manual failover across sites. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱本主題稍後的災害復原設定的仲裁考量For more information, see Quorum considerations for disaster recovery configurations later in this topic.

您可以使用 get-clusternode Windows PowerShell Cmdlet 來查閱叢集節點的 NodeWeight 一般屬性,以驗證節點的設定投票。The configured vote of a node can be verified by looking up the NodeWeight common property of the cluster node by using the Get-ClusterNode Windows PowerShell cmdlet. 值 0 指示節點沒有設定仲裁投票。A value of 0 indicates that the node does not have a quorum vote configured. 值 1 指示已指派節點的仲裁投票,而且是由叢集來管理。A value of 1 indicates that the quorum vote of the node is assigned, and it is managed by the cluster. 如需管理節點投票的相關詳細資訊,請參閱本主題稍後的動態仲裁管理For more information about management of node votes, see Dynamic quorum management later in this topic.

您可以使用 [驗證叢集仲裁] 驗證測試來驗證所有叢集節點的投票指派。The vote assignment for all cluster nodes can be verified by using the Validate Cluster Quorum validation test.

節點投票指派的其他考慮Additional considerations for node vote assignment

  • 不建議使用節點投票指派來強制使用奇數投票節點。Node vote assignment is not recommended to enforce an odd number of voting nodes. 而是應該改為設定磁碟見證或檔案共用見證。Instead, you should configure a disk witness or file share witness. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱本主題稍後的 見證 設定。For more information, see Witness configuration later in this topic.
  • 如果啟用動態仲裁管理,只有設定可指派節點投票的節點才能夠動態指派或移除其投票。If dynamic quorum management is enabled, only the nodes that are configured to have node votes assigned can have their votes assigned or removed dynamically. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱本主題稍後的動態仲裁管理For more information, see Dynamic quorum management later in this topic.

動態仲裁管理Dynamic quorum management

在 Windows Server 2012 中,做為 advanced 仲裁設定選項,您可以選擇啟用叢集的動態仲裁管理。In Windows Server 2012, as an advanced quorum configuration option, you can choose to enable dynamic quorum management by cluster. 如需有關動態仲裁運作方式的詳細資訊,請參閱 此說明For more details on how dynamic quorum works, see this explanation.

使用動態仲裁管理時,叢集也可以在最後一個倖存的叢集節點上執行。With dynamic quorum management, it is also possible for a cluster to run on the last surviving cluster node. 藉由動態調整仲裁多數需求,即使節點循序關機至單一節點,叢集也可以承受。By dynamically adjusting the quorum majority requirement, the cluster can sustain sequential node shutdowns to a single node.

您可以使用 get-clusternode Windows PowerShell Cmdlet,透過叢集節點的 DynamicWeight 一般屬性來驗證節點的叢集指派動態投票。The cluster-assigned dynamic vote of a node can be verified with the DynamicWeight common property of the cluster node by using the Get-ClusterNode Windows PowerShell cmdlet. 值 0 表示節點沒有仲裁投票。A value of 0 indicates that the node does not have a quorum vote. 值 1 表示節點具有仲裁投票。A value of 1 indicates that the node has a quorum vote.

您可以使用 [驗證叢集仲裁] 驗證測試來驗證所有叢集節點的投票指派。The vote assignment for all cluster nodes can be verified by using the Validate Cluster Quorum validation test.

動態仲裁管理的其他考慮Additional considerations for dynamic quorum management

  • 動態仲裁管理不允許叢集承受大部分投票成員同時失敗。Dynamic quorum management does not allow the cluster to sustain a simultaneous failure of a majority of voting members. 若要繼續執行,叢集必須一律在節點關機或失敗時具有仲裁多數。To continue running, the cluster must always have a quorum majority at the time of a node shutdown or failure.

  • 如果您已經明確移除節點的投票,叢集就無法動態新增或移除該投票。If you have explicitly removed the vote of a node, the cluster cannot dynamically add or remove that vote.

  • 當儲存空間直接存取啟用時,叢集只能支援兩個節點失敗。When Storage Spaces Direct is enabled, the cluster can only support two node failures. 這在集區仲裁區段中有更詳細的說明This is explained more in the pool quorum section

仲裁設定的一般建議General recommendations for quorum configuration

叢集軟體會根據設定的節點數目和共用存放裝置的可用性,為新叢集自動設定仲裁。The cluster software automatically configures the quorum for a new cluster, based on the number of nodes configured and the availability of shared storage. 這通常是最適合該叢集的仲裁設定。This is usually the most appropriate quorum configuration for that cluster. 不過,最好在建立叢集之後先檢閱仲裁設定,然後再將叢集置入實際執行環境。However, it is a good idea to review the quorum configuration after the cluster is created, before placing the cluster into production. 若要查看詳細的叢集仲裁設定,您可以使用 [驗證設定] 或 [ 測試 叢集 Windows PowerShell Cmdlet] 來執行 [ 驗證仲裁 設定] 測試。To view the detailed cluster quorum configuration, you can you use the Validate a Configuration Wizard, or the Test-Cluster Windows PowerShell cmdlet, to run the Validate Quorum Configuration test. 在容錯移轉叢集管理員中,基本仲裁設定會顯示在所選叢集的摘要資訊中,或者,您可以在執行 set-clusterquorum Windows PowerShell Cmdlet 時,查看傳回的仲裁資源的相關資訊。In Failover Cluster Manager, the basic quorum configuration is displayed in the summary information for the selected cluster, or you can review the information about quorum resources that returns when you run the Get-ClusterQuorum Windows PowerShell cmdlet.

您可以隨時執行 [驗證仲裁設定] 測試,以驗證仲裁設定是否為叢集適用的最佳設定。At any time, you can run the Validate Quorum Configuration test to validate that the quorum configuration is optimal for your cluster. 測試輸出會指出是否建議變更仲裁設定,以及設定是否為最佳設定。The test output indicates if a change to the quorum configuration is recommended and the settings that are optimal. 如果建議變更,您可以使用 [設定叢集仲裁精靈] 來套用建議的設定。If a change is recommended, you can use the Configure Cluster Quorum Wizard to apply the recommended settings.

叢集進入實際執行環境之後,除非您判定變更適用於您的叢集,否則請不要變更仲裁設定。After the cluster is in production, do not change the quorum configuration unless you have determined that the change is appropriate for your cluster. 您可以在下列情況下考慮變更仲裁設定:You might want to consider changing the quorum configuration in the following situations:

  • 新增或收回節點Adding or evicting nodes
  • 新增或移除存放裝置Adding or removing storage
  • 長期節點或見證失敗A long-term node or witness failure
  • 在多站台災害復原情況中復原叢集Recovering a cluster in a multisite disaster recovery scenario

如需驗證容錯移轉叢集的詳細資訊,請參閱驗證容錯移轉叢集的硬體For more information about validating a failover cluster, see Validate Hardware for a Failover Cluster.

設定叢集仲裁Configure the cluster quorum

您可以使用容錯移轉叢集管理員或 FailoverClusters Windows PowerShell Cmdlet 來設定叢集仲裁設定。You can configure the cluster quorum settings by using Failover Cluster Manager or the FailoverClusters Windows PowerShell cmdlets.

重要

通常最好是使用 [設定叢集仲裁精靈] 建議的仲裁設定。It is usually best to use the quorum configuration that is recommended by the Configure Cluster Quorum Wizard. 只有在您判定變更適用於您的叢集時,才建議您自訂仲裁設定。We recommend customizing the quorum configuration only if you have determined that the change is appropriate for your cluster. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱本主題中的仲裁設定的一般建議For more information, see General recommendations for quorum configuration in this topic.

設定叢集仲裁設定Configure the cluster quorum settings

若要完成此程序,您至少必須在每部叢集伺服器上的本機 Administrators 群組中具備成員資格,或具備相等的權限。Membership in the local Administrators group on each clustered server, or equivalent, is the minimum permissions required to complete this procedure. 此外,您所使用的帳戶也必須是網域使用者帳戶。Also, the account you use must be a domain user account.

注意

您可以在不停止叢集或讓叢集資源離線的情況下變更叢集仲裁設定。You can change the cluster quorum configuration without stopping the cluster or taking cluster resources offline.

使用容錯移轉叢集管理員來變更容錯移轉叢集中的仲裁設定Change the quorum configuration in a failover cluster by using Failover Cluster Manager

  1. 在 [容錯移轉叢集管理員] 中,選取或指定您想要變更的叢集。In Failover Cluster Manager, select or specify the cluster that you want to change.

  2. 選取叢集之後,在 [ 動作] 底下選取 [ 其他動作],然後選取 [ 設定叢集仲裁設定]。With the cluster selected, under Actions, select More Actions, and then select Configure Cluster Quorum Settings. 就會顯示 [設定叢集仲裁精靈]。The Configure Cluster Quorum Wizard appears. 選取 [下一步] 。Select Next.

  3. 在 [選取仲裁設定選項] 頁面上,選取三個設定選項的其中一個,然後完成該選項的步驟。On the Select Quorum Configuration Option page, select one of the three configuration options and complete the steps for that option. 您可以在設定仲裁設定之前檢閱您的選擇。Before you configure the quorum settings, you can review your choices. 如需這些選項的詳細資訊,請參閱本主題稍早的 瞭解仲裁For more information about the options, see Understanding quorum, earlier in this topic.

    • 若要允許叢集自動重設最適合您目前叢集設定的仲裁設定,請選取 [ 使用預設仲裁 設定],然後完成嚮導。To allow the cluster to automatically reset the quorum settings that are optimal for your current cluster configuration, select Use default quorum configuration and then complete the wizard.

    • 若要新增或變更仲裁見證,請選取 [選取仲裁見證],然後完成下列步驟。To add or change the quorum witness, select Select the quorum witness, and then complete the following steps. 如需設定仲裁見證的相關資訊和考量,請參閱本主題較前面的見證設定For information and considerations about configuring a quorum witness, see Witness configuration earlier in this topic.

      1. 在 [選取仲裁見證] 頁面上,選取一個選項來設定磁碟見證或檔案共用見證。On the Select Quorum Witness page, select an option to configure a disk witness or a file share witness. 精靈會指示針對您的叢集所建議的見證選擇選項。The wizard indicates the witness selection options that are recommended for your cluster.

        注意

        您也可以選取 [不設定仲裁見證],然後完成精靈。You can also select Do not configure a quorum witness and then complete the wizard. 如果叢集中的投票節點數目為偶數,可能不建議使用此設定。If you have an even number of voting nodes in your cluster, this may not be a recommended configuration.

      2. 如果您選取設定磁碟見證的選項,在 [設定存放裝置見證] 頁面上,選取您要指派為磁碟見證的存放磁碟區,然後完成精靈。If you select the option to configure a disk witness, on the Configure Storage Witness page, select the storage volume that you want to assign as the disk witness, and then complete the wizard.

      3. 如果您選取設定檔案共用見證的選項,請在 [設定檔案共用見證] 頁面上,輸入或瀏覽至要做為見證資源的檔案共用,然後完成精靈。If you select the option to configure a file share witness, on the Configure File Share Witness page, type or browse to a file share that will be used as the witness resource, and then complete the wizard.

      4. 如果您選取設定雲端見證的選項,請在 [ 設定雲端見證 ] 頁面上,輸入您的 azure 儲存體帳戶名稱、azure 儲存體帳戶金鑰和 azure 服務端點,然後完成嚮導。If you select the option to configure a cloud witness, on the Configure Cloud Witness page, enter your Azure storage account name, Azure storage account key and the Azure service endpoint, and then complete the wizard.

        注意

        此選項可在 Windows Server 2016 和更新版本中使用。This option is available in Windows Server 2016 and above.

    • 若要設定仲裁管理設定以及新增或變更仲裁見證,請選取 [ Advanced 仲裁 configuration],然後完成下列步驟。To configure quorum management settings and to add or change the quorum witness, select Advanced quorum configuration, and then complete the following steps. 如需進階仲裁組態設定的相關資訊和考量,請參閱本主題較前面的節點投票指派動態仲裁管理For information and considerations about the advanced quorum configuration settings, see Node vote assignment and Dynamic quorum management earlier in this topic.

      1. 在 [選取投票設定] 頁面上,選取一個選項來指派投票給節點。On the Select Voting Configuration page, select an option to assign votes to nodes. 根據預設,所有節點都會被指派投票。By default, all nodes are assigned a vote. 不過,在某些案例中,您只能指派投票給節點的子集。However, for certain scenarios, you can assign votes only to a subset of the nodes.

        注意

        您也可以選取 [無節點]。You can also select No Nodes. 通常不建議這個選項,因為它不允許節點參與仲裁投票,而且需要設定磁碟見證。This is generally not recommended, because it does not allow nodes to participate in quorum voting, and it requires configuring a disk witness. 這個磁碟見證會成為叢集的單一失敗點。This disk witness becomes the single point of failure for the cluster.

      2. 在 [設定仲裁管理]頁面上,您可以啟用或停用 [允許叢集動態管理節點投票的指派] 選項。On the Configure Quorum Management page, you can enable or disable the Allow cluster to dynamically manage the assignment of node votes option. 選取這個選項通常會提高叢集的可用性。Selecting this option generally increases the availability of the cluster. 預設會啟用此選項,並強烈建議您不要停用此選項。By default the option is enabled, and it is strongly recommended to not disable this option. 此選項可讓叢集在失敗的情況下繼續執行,而停用此選項時叢集就無法繼續執行。This option allows the cluster to continue running in failure scenarios that are not possible when this option is disabled.

        注意

        Windows Server 2016 和更新版本中不會有這個選項。This option is not present in Windows Server 2016 and above.

      3. 在 [ 選取仲裁見證 ] 頁面上,選取一個選項來設定磁片見證、檔案共用見證或雲端見證。On the Select Quorum Witness page, select an option to configure a disk witness, file share witness or a cloud witness. 精靈會指示針對您的叢集所建議的見證選擇選項。The wizard indicates the witness selection options that are recommended for your cluster.

        注意

        您也可以選取 [不設定仲裁見證],然後完成精靈。You can also select Do not configure a quorum witness, and then complete the wizard. 如果叢集中的投票節點數目為偶數,可能不建議使用此設定。If you have an even number of voting nodes in your cluster, this may not be a recommended configuration.

      4. 如果您選取設定磁碟見證的選項,在 [設定存放裝置見證] 頁面上,選取您要指派為磁碟見證的存放磁碟區,然後完成精靈。If you select the option to configure a disk witness, on the Configure Storage Witness page, select the storage volume that you want to assign as the disk witness, and then complete the wizard.

      5. 如果您選取設定檔案共用見證的選項,請在 [設定檔案共用見證] 頁面上,輸入或瀏覽至要做為見證資源的檔案共用,然後完成精靈。If you select the option to configure a file share witness, on the Configure File Share Witness page, type or browse to a file share that will be used as the witness resource, and then complete the wizard.

      6. 如果您選取設定雲端見證的選項,請在 [ 設定雲端見證 ] 頁面上,輸入您的 azure 儲存體帳戶名稱、azure 儲存體帳戶金鑰和 azure 服務端點,然後完成嚮導。If you select the option to configure a cloud witness, on the Configure Cloud Witness page, enter your Azure storage account name, Azure storage account key and the Azure service endpoint, and then complete the wizard.

        注意

        此選項可在 Windows Server 2016 和更新版本中使用。This option is available in Windows Server 2016 and above.

  4. 選取 [下一步] 。Select Next. 在出現的確認頁面上確認您的選擇,然後選取 [下一步]Confirm your selections on the confirmation page that appears, and then select Next.

執行嚮導並顯示 [ 摘要 ] 頁面之後,如果您想要查看嚮導執行之工作的報告,請選取 [ view report]。After the wizard runs and the Summary page appears, if you want to view a report of the tasks that the wizard performed, select View Report. 最新的報告將保留在 [ systemroot \ Cluster \ Reports ] 資料夾中,名稱為 QuorumConfiguration。The most recent report will remain in the systemroot\Cluster\Reports folder with the name QuorumConfiguration.mht.

注意

在您設定叢集仲裁之後,我們建議您執行 [驗證仲裁設定] 測試,以確認更新的仲裁設定。After you configure the cluster quorum, we recommend that you run the Validate Quorum Configuration test to verify the updated quorum settings.

Windows PowerShell 對應的命令Windows PowerShell equivalent commands

下列範例示範如何使用 set-clusterquorum 指令 Cmdlet 和其他 Windows PowerShell Cmdlet 來設定叢集仲裁。The following examples show how to use the Set-ClusterQuorum cmdlet and other Windows PowerShell cmdlets to configure the cluster quorum.

以下範例會將叢集 CONTOSO-FC1 上的仲裁設定變更為不含仲裁見證的簡單節點多數設定。The following example changes the quorum configuration on cluster CONTOSO-FC1 to a simple node majority configuration with no quorum witness.

Set-ClusterQuorum –Cluster CONTOSO-FC1 -NodeMajority

以下範例會將本機叢集上的仲裁設定變更為包含見證設定的節點多數。The following example changes the quorum configuration on the local cluster to a node majority with witness configuration. 名稱為 Cluster Disk 2 的磁碟資源會設定為磁碟見證。The disk resource named Cluster Disk 2 is configured as a disk witness.

Set-ClusterQuorum -NodeAndDiskMajority "Cluster Disk 2"

以下範例會將本機叢集上的仲裁設定變更為包含見證設定的節點多數。The following example changes the quorum configuration on the local cluster to a node majority with witness configuration. 名為 \ \ CONTOSO-FS \ fsw 的檔案共用資源會設定為檔案共用見證。The file share resource named \\CONTOSO-FS\fsw is configured as a file share witness.

Set-ClusterQuorum -NodeAndFileShareMajority "\\fileserver\fsw"

以下範例會從本機叢集上的 ContosoFCNode1 節點移除仲裁投票。The following example removes the quorum vote from node ContosoFCNode1 on the local cluster.

(Get-ClusterNode ContosoFCNode1).NodeWeight=0

以下範例會將仲裁投票新增至本機叢集上的 ContosoFCNode1 節點。The following example adds the quorum vote to node ContosoFCNode1 on the local cluster.

(Get-ClusterNode ContosoFCNode1).NodeWeight=1

以下範例會啟用 CONTOSO FC1 叢集的 DynamicQuorum 屬性 (如果之前已停用):The following example enables the DynamicQuorum property of the cluster CONTOSO-FC1 (if it was previously disabled):

(Get-Cluster CONTOSO-FC1).DynamicQuorum=1

在沒有仲裁的情況下啟動以復原叢集Recover a cluster by starting without quorum

沒有足夠仲裁投票的叢集將不會啟動。A cluster that does not have enough quorum votes will not start. 您應該一律在第一個步驟中確認叢集仲裁設定,並調查為什麼叢集不再有仲裁。As a first step, you should always confirm the cluster quorum configuration and investigate why the cluster no longer has quorum. 如果有節點停止回應,或如果無法連線多站台叢集中的主要站台,就可能會發生這個問題。This might happen if you have nodes that stopped responding, or if the primary site is not reachable in a multisite cluster. 識別叢集失敗的根本原因之後,您可以使用本節中所述的修復步驟。After you identify the root cause for the cluster failure, you can use the recovery steps described in this section.

注意

  • 如果叢集服務因為仲裁遺失而停止,系統記錄檔中會出現事件識別碼 1177。If the Cluster service stops because quorum is lost, Event ID 1177 appears in the system log.
  • 您必須調查遺失叢集仲裁的原因。It is always necessary to investigate why the cluster quorum was lost.
  • 最好是永遠讓節點或仲裁見證變成健康狀態 (加入叢集) 而不是啟動沒有仲裁的叢集。It is always preferable to bring a node or quorum witness to a healthy state (join the cluster) rather than starting the cluster without quorum.

強制啟動叢集節點Force start cluster nodes

在判定無法透過讓節點或仲裁見證變成健康狀態的方式來復原叢集之後,就必須強制叢集啟動。After you determine that you cannot recover your cluster by bringing the nodes or quorum witness to a healthy state, forcing your cluster to start becomes necessary. 強制叢集啟動會覆寫叢集仲裁組態設定,並以 ForceQuorum 模式啟動叢集。Forcing the cluster to start overrides your cluster quorum configuration settings and starts the cluster in ForceQuorum mode.

當叢集沒有仲裁時強制它啟動對於多站台叢集而言可能特別有用。Forcing a cluster to start when it does not have quorum may be especially useful in a multisite cluster. 請考量包含分別位於主要與備份站台 SiteASiteB 之叢集的災害復原案例。Consider a disaster recovery scenario with a cluster that contains separately located primary and backup sites, SiteA and SiteB. 如果 SiteA 出現真正的災害,站台需要花費大量時間來重新上線。If there is a genuine disaster at SiteA, it could take a significant amount of time for the site to come back online. 您可能想強制 SiteB 上線,即使它沒有仲裁。You would likely want to force SiteB to come online, even though it does not have quorum.

當叢集以 ForceQuorum 模式啟動,而且重新取得足夠的仲裁投票之後,它會自動離開強制的狀態,然後正常運作。When a cluster is started in ForceQuorum mode, and after it regains sufficient quorum votes, the cluster automatically leaves the forced state, and it behaves normally. 因此,不需要再次正常啟動叢集。Hence, it is not necessary to start the cluster again normally. 如果叢集遺失節點且遺失仲裁,叢集就會再次離線,因為它不再處於強制狀態。If the cluster loses a node and it loses quorum, it goes offline again because it is no longer in the forced state. 若要在沒有仲裁的情況下讓它重新上線,則需要強制叢集在沒有仲裁的情況下啟動。To bring it back online when it does not have quorum requires forcing the cluster to start without quorum.

重要

  • 強制啟動叢集之後,系統管理員可以完全控制叢集。After a cluster is force started, the administrator is in full control of the cluster.
  • 叢集會使用強制啟動叢集之節點上的叢集設定,並將它複製到所有其他可用節點。The cluster uses the cluster configuration on the node where the cluster is force started, and replicates it to all other nodes that are available.
  • 如果您強制叢集在沒有仲裁的情況下啟動,則會忽略所有仲裁組態設定,同時叢集會維持在 ForceQuorum 模式。If you force the cluster to start without quorum, all quorum configuration settings are ignored while the cluster remains in ForceQuorum mode. 這包括特定節點投票指派和動態仲裁管理設定。This includes specific node vote assignments and dynamic quorum management settings.

在剩餘叢集節點上防止仲裁Prevent quorum on remaining cluster nodes

在節點上強制啟動叢集之後,必須使用防止仲裁的設定啟動叢集中任何剩餘的節點。After you have force started the cluster on a node, it is necessary to start any remaining nodes in your cluster with a setting to prevent quorum. 使用防止仲裁之設定啟動的節點,會指示叢集服務加入現有的執行中叢集,而不會形成新的叢集執行個體。A node started with a setting that prevents quorum indicates to the Cluster service to join an existing running cluster instead of forming a new cluster instance. 這可以防止其他節點形成包含兩個競爭之執行個體的分割叢集。This prevents the remaining nodes from forming a split cluster that contains two competing instances.

當您在一些多站台災害復原案例中需要在備份網站 SiteB 上強制啟動叢集來復原叢集時,這是必要的做法。This becomes necessary when you need to recover your cluster in some multisite disaster recovery scenarios after you have force started the cluster on your backup site, SiteB. 若要加入 SiteB 中強制啟動的叢集,主要網站 SiteA 中的節點需要以防止仲裁的方式啟動。To join the force started cluster in SiteB, the nodes in your primary site, SiteA, need to be started with the quorum prevented.

重要

強制啟動節點上的叢集之後,建議您一律以防止仲裁的方式啟動剩餘的節點。After a cluster is force started on a node, we recommend that you always start the remaining nodes with the quorum prevented.

以下是使用容錯移轉叢集管理員來復原叢集的方法:Here's how to recover the cluster with Failover Cluster Manager:

  1. 在 [容錯移轉叢集管理員] 中,選取或指定您想要復原的叢集。In Failover Cluster Manager, select or specify the cluster you want to recover.

  2. 選取叢集之後,在 [ 動作] 底下選取 [ 強制啟動 叢集]。With the cluster selected, under Actions, select Force Cluster Start.

    容錯移轉叢集管理員會強制啟動可連線之所有節點上的叢集。Failover Cluster Manager force starts the cluster on all nodes that are reachable. 叢集將使用目前的叢集設定來啟動。The cluster uses the current cluster configuration when starting.

注意

  • 若要強制叢集在包含您想要使用之叢集設定的特定節點上啟動,您必須使用 Windows PowerShell Cmdlet 或對等的命令列工具,如同在此程式之後所顯示的一樣。To force the cluster to start on a specific node that contains a cluster configuration that you want to use, you must use the Windows PowerShell cmdlets or equivalent command-line tools as presented after this procedure.
  • 如果您使用容錯移轉叢集管理員連線到強制啟動的叢集,而且您使用 [啟動叢集服務] 動作來啟動節點,該節點會自動使用防止仲裁的設定來啟動。If you use Failover Cluster Manager to connect to a cluster that is force started, and you use the Start Cluster Service action to start a node, the node is automatically started with the setting that prevents quorum.

Windows PowerShell (Get-clusternode) 的對等命令Windows PowerShell equivalent commands (Start-Clusternode)

以下範例示範如何使用 Start-ClusterNode Cmdlet 來強制啟動節點 ContosoFCNode1 上的叢集。The following example shows how to use the Start-ClusterNode cmdlet to force start the cluster on node ContosoFCNode1.

Start-ClusterNode –Node ContosoFCNode1 –FQ

或者,您可以在本機節點上輸入以下命令:Alternatively, you can type the following command locally on the node:

Net Start ClusSvc /FQ

以下範例示範如何使用 Start-ClusterNode Cmdlet 來啟動節點 ContosoFCNode1 上已防止仲裁的叢集服務。The following example shows how to use the Start-ClusterNode cmdlet to start the Cluster service with the quorum prevented on node ContosoFCNode1.

Start-ClusterNode –Node ContosoFCNode1 –PQ

或者,您可以在本機節點上輸入以下命令:Alternatively, you can type the following command locally on the node:

Net Start ClusSvc /PQ

災害復原設定的仲裁考量Quorum considerations for disaster recovery configurations

本節摘要說明災害復原部署中兩個多站台叢集設定的特性及仲裁設定。This section summarizes characteristics and quorum configurations for two multisite cluster configurations in disaster recovery deployments. 仲裁設定指導方針會視您對站台之間的工作負載是需要自動容錯移轉或手動容錯移轉而有所差異。The quorum configuration guidelines differ depending on if you need automatic failover or manual failover for workloads between the sites. 您的設定通常取決於組織中現有的服務等級協定 (SLA),以提供及支援站台上失敗或災害事件中的叢集工作負載。Your configuration usually depends on the service level agreements (SLAs) that are in place in your organization to provide and support clustered workloads in the event of a failure or disaster at a site.

自動容錯移轉Automatic failover

在此設定中,叢集包含兩個或多個可以代管叢集角色的站台。In this configuration, the cluster consists of two or more sites that can host clustered roles. 如果任何站台上發生失敗,叢集角色預期會自動容錯移轉至其餘站台。If a failure occurs at any site, the clustered roles are expected to automatically fail over to the remaining sites. 因此必須設定叢集仲裁,即可讓任何站台都能夠承受站台完全失敗。Therefore, the cluster quorum must be configured so that any site can sustain a complete site failure.

下表摘要說明這項設定的考量與建議。The following table summarizes considerations and recommendations for this configuration.

項目Item 描述Description
每個站台的節點投票數Number of node votes per site 應該相等Should be equal
節點投票指派Node vote assignment 因為所有節點都一樣重要,所以不應該移除節點投票Node votes should not be removed because all nodes are equally important
動態仲裁管理Dynamic quorum management 應該啟用Should be enabled
見證設定Witness configuration 對於與叢集站台不同的站台,建議設定檔案共用見證。File share witness is recommended, configured in a site that is separate from the cluster sites
工作負載Workloads 任何站台上均可設定工作負載Workloads can be configured on any of the sites

自動容錯移轉的其他考慮Additional considerations for automatic failover

  • 必須在個別站台上設定檔案共用見證,來讓每個站台有相等的存活機會。Configuring the file share witness in a separate site is necessary to give each site an equal opportunity to survive. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱本主題較前面的見證設定For more information, see Witness configuration earlier in this topic.

手動容錯移轉Manual failover

在此設定中,叢集包含一個主要站台 SiteA 和一個備份 (復原) 站台 SiteBIn this configuration, the cluster consists of a primary site, SiteA, and a backup (recovery) site, SiteB. 叢集的角色是在 SiteA 上代管。Clustered roles are hosted on SiteA. 因為叢集仲裁設定的緣故,所以當 SiteA 上的所有節點發生失敗時,叢集會停止運作。Because of the cluster quorum configuration, if a failure occurs at all nodes in SiteA, the cluster stops functioning. 在此案例中,系統管理員必須手動容錯移轉叢集服務至 SiteB,並執行其他步驟來復原叢集。In this scenario the administrator must manually fail over the cluster services to SiteB and perform additional steps to recover the cluster.

下表摘要說明這項設定的考量與建議。The following table summarizes considerations and recommendations for this configuration.

項目Item 描述Description
每個站台的節點投票數Number of node votes per site
  • 不應該從主要站台 SiteA 的節點移除節點投票Node votes should not be removed from nodes at the primary site, SiteA
  • 應該從備份站台 SiteB 的節點移除節點投票Node votes should be removed from nodes at the backup site, SiteB
  • 如果 SiteA 發生長期中斷,必須將投票指派給 SiteB 上的節點,以在復原時於該站台上啟用仲裁多數If a long-term outage occurs at SiteA, votes must be assigned to nodes at SiteB to enable a quorum majority at that site as part of recovery
動態仲裁管理Dynamic quorum management 應該啟用Should be enabled
見證設定Witness configuration
  • 如果 SiteA 上的節點數目為偶數,請設定見證Configure a witness if there is an even number of nodes at SiteA
  • 如果需要見證,則請設定只有 SiteA 中節點可以存取的檔案共用見證或磁碟見證 (有時也稱為非對稱式磁碟見證)If a witness is needed, configure either a file share witness or a disk witness that is accessible only to nodes in SiteA (sometimes called an asymmetric disk witness)
工作負載Workloads 使用慣用的擁有者來讓工作負載持續在 SiteA 的節點上執行Use preferred owners to keep workloads running on nodes at SiteA

手動容錯移轉的其他考慮Additional considerations for manual failover

  • 一開始只會在 SiteA 的節點中設定仲裁投票。Only the nodes at SiteA are initially configured with quorum votes. 這是為了確保 SiteB 的節點狀態不會影響叢集仲裁。This is necessary to ensure that the state of nodes at SiteB does not affect the cluster quorum.
  • 復原步驟會視 SiteA 是否可以承受暫時失敗或長期失敗而改變。Recovery steps can vary depending on if SiteA sustains a temporary failure or a long-term failure.

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