在 Windows Server 2016 容錯中的新功能What's new in Failover Clustering in Windows Server 2016

適用於:Windows Server(以每年次通道)、Windows Server 2016Applies to: Windows Server (Semi-Annual Channel), Windows Server 2016

本主題解釋新功能和變更功能在 Windows Server 2016 中容錯。This topic explains the new and changed functionality in Failover Clustering in Windows Server 2016.

升級叢集作業系統Cluster Operating System Rolling Upgrade

新功能,容錯,叢集作業系統循環升級,讓系統管理員可以從 Windows Server 2012 R2 升級作業系統叢集節點以 Windows Server 2016 不停止 HYPER-V 或延展檔案伺服器工作負載。A new feature in Failover Clustering, Cluster Operating System Rolling Upgrade, enables an administrator to upgrade the operating system of the cluster nodes from Windows Server 2012 R2 to Windows Server 2016 without stopping the Hyper-V or the Scale-Out File Server workloads. 使用這項功能,可避免當機損失針對服務層級合約 (SLA)。Using this feature, the downtime penalties against Service Level Agreements (SLA) can be avoided.

這項變更新增值為何?What value does this change add?

升級 HYPER-V 或延展檔案伺服器叢集 Windows Server 2012 R2 的 Windows Server 2016 不需要中斷。Upgrading a Hyper-V or Scale-Out File Server cluster from Windows Server 2012 R2 to Windows Server 2016 no longer requires downtime. 叢集將繼續運作在 Windows Server 2012 R2 的層級,直到所有節點叢集在執行 Windows Server 2016。The cluster will continue to function at a Windows Server 2012 R2 level until all of the nodes in the cluster are running Windows Server 2016. 使用 Windows PowerShell cmdlt 叢集功能層級升級至 Windows Server 2016 Update-ClusterFunctionalLevelThe cluster functional level is upgraded to Windows Server 2016 by using the Windows PowerShell cmdlt Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel.

警告

  • 在更新的叢集功能層級之後,您無法回復到 Windows Server 2012 R2 叢集功能層級。After you update the cluster functional level, you cannot go back to a Windows Server 2012 R2 cluster functional level.
  • 直到Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel執行 cmdlet、 程序會還原,Windows Server 2012 R2 節點新增及 Windows Server 2016 節點可以移除。Until the Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel cmdlet is run, the process is reversible, and Windows Server 2012 R2 nodes can be added and Windows Server 2016 nodes can be removed.

有哪些方式各不相同?What works differently?

HYPER-V 或延展檔案伺服器容錯移轉叢集可以立即輕鬆升級而不需要任何當機或需要建立新的叢集與執行 Windows Server 2016 作業系統節點。A Hyper-V or Scale-Out File Server failover cluster can now easily be upgraded without any downtime or need to build a new cluster with nodes that are running the Windows Server 2016 operating system. Windows Server 2012 R2 移轉叢集涉及 offline 拍攝現有叢集並重新安裝新的作業系統的每個節點,然後將叢集回。Migrating clusters to Windows Server 2012 R2 involved taking the existing cluster offline and reinstalling the new operating system for each nodes, and then bringing the cluster back online. 舊程序是麻煩且需要中斷。The old process was cumbersome and required downtime. 不過,Windows Server 2016 中叢集不必離線隨時。However, in Windows Server 2016, the cluster does not need to go offline at any point.

叢集作業系統升級階段中的每個節點叢集如下所示:The cluster operating systems for the upgrade in phases are as follows for each node in a cluster:

  • 節點為暫停,並耗盡的所有虛擬電腦上執行。The node is paused and drained of all virtual machines that are running on it.
  • 移轉到另一個節點叢集虛擬機器 (或其他叢集工作負載)。移轉到另一個節點叢集虛擬的電腦。The virtual machines (or other cluster workload) are migrated to another node in the cluster.The virtual machines are migrated to another node in the cluster.
  • 在移除現有的作業系統,並執行全新安裝的 Windows Server 2016 上的作業系統節點。The existing operating system is removed and a clean installation of the Windows Server 2016 operating system on the node is performed.
  • 執行 Windows Server 2016 operating systems] 節點中新增了返回叢集。The node running the Windows Server 2016 operating system is added back to the cluster.
  • 此時,叢集稱為執行混合模式,因為叢集節點執行 Windows Server 2012 R2 或 Windows Server 2016。At this point, the cluster is said to be running in mixed mode, because the cluster nodes are running either Windows Server 2012 R2 or Windows Server 2016.
  • 叢集功能層級停留在 Windows Server 2012 R2。The cluster functional level stays at Windows Server 2012 R2. 在此功能的層級,將無法使用 Windows Server 2016 影響的舊版作業系統的相容性的新功能。At this functional level, new features in Windows Server 2016 that affect compatibility with previous versions of the operating system will be unavailable.
  • 最後,所有節點被都升級到 Windows Server 2016。Eventually, all nodes are upgraded to Windows Server 2016.
  • Windows Server 2016 使用 Windows PowerShell cmdlet 然後變更叢集功能等級Update-ClusterFunctionalLevelCluster functional level is then changed to Windows Server 2016 using the Windows PowerShell cmdlet Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel. 此時,您可以利用 Windows Server 2016 的功能。At this point, you can take advantage of the Windows Server 2016 features.

如需詳細資訊,請查看叢集作業系統循環升級For more information, see Cluster Operating System Rolling Upgrade.

儲存空間複本Storage Replica

儲存複本是新的功能,可讓無關儲存空間、 封鎖層級,同步複寫之間伺服器或叢集復原嚴重損壞,以及延伸容錯移轉叢集間的網站。Storage Replica is a new feature that enables storage-agnostic, block-level, synchronous replication between servers or clusters for disaster recovery, as well as stretching of a failover cluster between sites. 同步複寫讓鏡像實體的網站,以確保檔案系統層級 0 資料遺失當機一致磁碟區中的資料。Synchronous replication enables mirroring of data in physical sites with crash-consistent volumes to ensure zero data loss at the file-system level. 非同步複寫可以外地區的範圍資料遺失的可能性網站擴充功能。Asynchronous replication allows site extension beyond metropolitan ranges with the possibility of data loss.

這項變更新增值為何?What value does this change add?

儲存空間複本可讓您執行下列動作:Storage Replica enables you to do the following:

  • 提供單一計劃與非預期關閉任務重要工作負載的供應商損壞修復方案。Provide a single vendor disaster recovery solution for planned and unplanned outages of mission critical workloads.

  • 使用 SMB3 傳輸經證實的可靠性、 延展性和效能。Use SMB3 transport with proven reliability, scalability, and performance.

  • 延伸到城市距離 Windows 容錯。Stretch Windows failover clusters to metropolitan distances.

  • 使用 Microsoft 軟體端點儲存和叢集、 HYPER-V、 複本儲存空間、 儲存空間、 叢集、 延展檔案伺服器、 SMB3、 資料 Deduplication,和 NTFS ReFS 日。Use Microsoft software end to end for storage and clustering, such as Hyper-V, Storage Replica, Storage Spaces, Cluster, Scale-Out File Server, SMB3, Data Deduplication, and ReFS/NTFS.

  • 協助降低成本及複雜,如下所示:Help reduce cost and complexity as follows:

    • 是硬體診斷,例如 DAS 或舊的特定的儲存空間設定不需要的。Is hardware agnostic, with no requirement for a specific storage configuration like DAS or SAN.

    • 可讓商品儲存和網路技術。Allows commodity storage and networking technologies.

    • 容易圖形個人節點和叢集透過容錯移轉叢集管理員管理功能。Features ease of graphical management for individual nodes and clusters through Failover Cluster Manager.

    • 包含完整、 大規模透過 Windows PowerShell 指令碼的選項。Includes comprehensive, large-scale scripting options through Windows PowerShell.

  • 協助降低當機,以及提高可靠性和生產力建 windows。Help reduce downtime, and increase reliability and productivity intrinsic to Windows.

  • 提供性,效能計量,以及診斷功能。Provide supportability, performance metrics, and diagnostic capabilities.

如需詳細資訊,請查看在 Windows Server 2016 Storage 複本For more information, see the Storage Replica in Windows Server 2016.

雲端見證Cloud Witness

雲端見證是容錯移轉叢集仲裁見證使用 Microsoft Azure 仲裁點的 Windows Server 2016 中的新類型。Cloud Witness is a new type of Failover Cluster quorum witness in Windows Server 2016 that leverages Microsoft Azure as the arbitration point. 雲端見證,例如其他仲裁見證取得投票和參與的仲裁計算。The Cloud Witness, like any other quorum witness, gets a vote and can participate in the quorum calculations. 您可以將雲端見證設定為使用設定叢集仲裁精靈仲裁見證。You can configure cloud witness as a quorum witness using the Configure a Cluster Quorum Wizard.

這項變更新增值為何?What value does this change add?

使用雲端見證容錯移轉叢集仲裁見證提供下列優點:Using Cloud Witness as a Failover Cluster quorum witness provides the following advantages:

  • Microsoft Azure 會使用,不需要第三個不同的資料中心。Leverages Microsoft Azure and eliminates the need for a third separate datacenter.

  • 請使用標準公開使用 Microsoft Azure Blob 儲存額外維護減少 Vm 裝載公開雲端中的。Uses the standard publicly available Microsoft Azure Blob Storage which eliminates the extra maintenance overhead of VMs hosted in a public cloud.

  • 相同 Microsoft Azure 儲存 Account 可用於多個叢集 (每個叢集的一個大型物件檔案; 叢集唯一 id 做為 blob 檔案名稱)。Same Microsoft Azure Storage Account can be used for multiple clusters (one blob file per cluster; cluster unique id used as blob file name).

  • 儲存空間過去 (每個大型物件檔案,撰寫大型物件檔案更新一次叢集節點狀態時變更非常小資料) 提供極低持續成本。Provides a very low on-going cost to the Storage Account (very small data written per blob file, blob file updated only once when cluster nodes' state changes).

如需詳細資訊,請查看部署雲端見證的容錯移轉叢集For more information, see Deploy a Cloud Witness For a Failover Cluster.

有哪些方式各不相同?What works differently?

這項功能的 Windows Server 2016 中的新功能。This capability is new in Windows Server 2016.

一樣恢復Virtual Machine Resiliency

計算恢復Windows Server 2016 包含提升的虛擬電腦運算恢復功能以協助降低運算叢集站叢集間通訊問題,如下所示:Compute Resiliency Windows Server 2016 includes increased virtual machines compute resiliency to help reduce intra-cluster communication issues in your compute cluster as follows:

  • 靈活度選項適用於虛擬電腦:您現在可以設定定義暫時性失敗時的行為虛擬機器一樣恢復選項:Resiliency options available for virtual machines: You can now configure virtual machine resiliency options that define behavior of the virtual machines during transient failures:

    • 靈活度層級︰可協助您定義暫時性失敗的處理方式。Resiliency Level: Helps you define how the transient failures are handled.

    • 靈活度期間:可協助您定義多久虛擬機器允許執行的隔離。Resiliency Period: Helps you define how long all the virtual machines are allowed to run isolated.

  • 隔離的健康節點:不良節點隔離,以及不允許加入叢集。Quarantine of unhealthy nodes: Unhealthy nodes are quarantined and are no longer allowed to join the cluster. 如此可防止拍打節點不良影響的整體叢集及其他節點。This prevents flapping nodes from negatively effecting other nodes and the overall cluster.

更多的資訊一樣運算恢復工作流程和節點隔離設定控制如何將您的節點放在隔離或隔離,請查看在 Windows Server 2016 一樣計算恢復For more information virtual machine compute resiliency workflow and node quarantine settings that control how your node is placed in isolation or quarantine, see Virtual Machine Compute Resiliency in Windows Server 2016.

儲存空間恢復在 Windows Server 2016 虛擬機器是援引暫時性儲存失敗。Storage Resiliency In Windows Server 2016, virtual machines are more resilient to transient storage failures. 改善的一樣恢復功能可協助保留承租人一樣工作階段美國萬一儲存干擾。The improved virtual machine resiliency helps preserve tenant virtual machine session states in the event of a storage disruption. 這是由儲存基礎結構問題的智慧與快速一樣回應達成。This is achieved by intelligent and quick virtual machine response to storage infrastructure issues.

時一樣中斷為基礎的儲存空間,它暫停,並等候儲存復原。When a virtual machine disconnects from its underlying storage, it pauses and waits for storage to recover. 而暫停,一樣會保留執行中應用程式。While paused, the virtual machine retains the context of applications that are running in it. 還原其儲存至一樣的連接後,一樣回到執行的狀態。When the virtual machine's connection to its storage is restored, the virtual machine returns to its running state. 如此一來,承租人電腦的工作階段狀態保留修復上。As a result, the tenant machine's session state is retained on recovery.

在 Windows Server 2016 一樣儲存靈活度和最佳化來賓叢集也是。In Windows Server 2016, virtual machine storage resiliency is aware and optimized for guest clusters too.

診斷容錯改進Diagnostic Improvements in Failover Clustering

為了診斷問題容錯,Windows Server 2016 如下:To help diagnose issues with failover clusters, Windows Server 2016 includes the following:

網站感知容錯Site-aware Failover Clusters

Windows Server 2016 包含網站-注意容錯,讓他們所在位置 (網站) 為基礎的延伸叢集群組節點。Windows Server 2016 includes site- aware failover clusters that enable group nodes in stretched clusters based on their physical location (site). 叢集網站-感知美化金鑰作業叢集週期,例如錯誤後移轉的行為,位置原則活動訊號之間的節點和仲裁行為。Cluster site-awareness enhances key operations during the cluster lifecycle such as failover behavior, placement policies, heartbeat between the nodes, and quorum behavior. 如需詳細資訊,請查看在 Windows Server 2016 中的網站感知容錯For more information, see Site-aware Failover Clusters in Windows Server 2016.

工作群組和多網域叢集Workgroup and Multi-domain clusters

在 Windows Server 2012 R2,舊版叢集只能加入網域相同的成員節點間建立。In Windows Server 2012 R2 and previous versions, a cluster can only be created between member nodes joined to the same domain. Windows Server 2016 中斷下這些障礙和導入建立容錯移轉叢集不 Active Directory 相依性的能力。Windows Server 2016 breaks down these barriers and introduces the ability to create a Failover Cluster without Active Directory dependencies. 您現在可以建立容錯依照以下設定:You can now create failover clusters in the following configurations:

  • 單一網域叢集。Single-domain Clusters. 加入網域相同的所有節點以群集。Clusters with all nodes joined to the same domain.

  • 多網域叢集。Multi-domain Clusters. 群集的節點就是不同的網域的成員。Clusters with nodes which are members of different domains.

  • 工作群組叢集。Workgroup Clusters. 群集的節點就是成員伺服器日群組 (不加入的網域)。Clusters with nodes which are member servers / workgroup (not domain joined).

如需詳細資訊,請查看在 Windows Server 2016 中的工作群組和多網域叢集For more information, see Workgroup and Multi-domain clusters in Windows Server 2016

一樣負載平衡Virtual Machine Load Balancing

一樣負載平衡是容錯幫助您順暢負載平衡虛擬電腦的跨節點叢集中的新功能。Virtual machine Load Balancing is a new feature in Failover Clustering that facilitates the seamless load balancing of virtual machines across the nodes in a cluster. 根據一樣記憶體和節點上的 CPU 使用率都會覆致力的節點。Over-committed nodes are identified based on virtual machine Memory and CPU utilization on the node. (即時移轉) 然後移動虛擬電腦覆致力節點提供頻寬 (如果有的話)。Virtual machines are then moved (live migrated) from an over-committed node to nodes with available bandwidth (if applicable). 平衡侵略可以調整至確保叢集最佳效能與使用。The aggressiveness of the balancing can be tuned to ensure optimal cluster performance and utilization. Windows 伺服器 2016 Technical Preview 中的預設會讓負載平衡。Load Balancing is enabled by default in Windows Sever 2016 Technical Preview. 不過,負載平衡已停用時可以 SCVMM 動態最佳化。However, Load Balancing is disabled when SCVMM Dynamic Optimization is enabled.

[開始] 畫面一樣的訂單Virtual Machine Start Order

一樣開始訂單位於叢集的容錯引進虛擬電腦的 [開始] 畫面訂單協調流程 (和所有的群組) 中的新功能。Virtual machine Start Order is a new feature in Failover Clustering that introduces start order orchestration for Virtual machines (and all groups) in a cluster. 虛擬的電腦現在可分成層級,和 [開始] 畫面順序相依性可以建立之間的不同層級。Virtual machines can now be grouped into tiers, and start order dependencies can be created between different tiers. 這樣可確保最重要的虛擬電腦 (例如網域控制站或公用程式虛擬機器) 開始是第一次。This ensures that the most important virtual machines (such as Domain Controllers or Utility virtual machines) are started first. 虛擬的電腦不被開始之前他們對相依性虛擬電腦也會開始。Virtual machines are not started until the virtual machines that they have a dependency on are also started.

簡化的 SMB 多頻道,使用多監視器-NIC 叢集網路 Simplified SMB Multichannel and Multi-NIC Cluster Networks

容錯移轉叢集網路不再是每個子網路的單一 NIC / 網路。Failover Cluster networks are no longer limited to a single NIC per subnet / network. 簡化 SMB 多頻道,使用多監視器-NIC 叢集網路網路設定為自動與每個 NIC 子網路上的可以用於叢集和工作負載的資料傳輸。With Simplified SMB Multichannel and Multi-NIC Cluster Networks, network configuration is automatic and every NIC on the subnet can be used for cluster and workload traffic. 這個 enhancement 可針對來最大化 HYPER-V、 SQL Server 容錯移轉叢集執行個體與其他 SMB 工作負載的網路輸送量。This enhancement allows customers to maximize network throughput for Hyper-V, SQL Server Failover Cluster Instance, and other SMB workloads.

如需詳細資訊,請查看簡體 SMB 多頻道,使用多監視器-NIC 叢集網路For more information, see Simplified SMB Multichannel and Multi-NIC Cluster Networks.

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