自動虛擬機器啟用Automatic virtual machine activation

適用於:Windows Server 2019、Windows Server 半年通道、Windows Server 2016、Windows Server 2012 R2Applies to: Windows Server 2019, Windows Server Semi-Annual Channel, Windows Server 2016, Windows Server 2012 R2

自動虛擬機器啟用 (AVMA) 的作用是購買證明機制,協助確保 Windows 產品的使用符合產品使用權及 Microsoft 軟體授權條款。Automatic Virtual Machine Activation (AVMA) acts as a proof-of-purchase mechanism, helping to ensure that Windows products are used in accordance with the Product Use Rights and Microsoft Software License Terms.

AVMA 可讓您在已正確啟用 Windows 的伺服器上安裝虛擬機器,不需要管理每部個別虛擬機器的產品金鑰,即使在沒有網路連線的環境中也是如此。AVMA lets you install virtual machines on a properly activated Windows server without having to manage product keys for each individual virtual machine, even in disconnected environments. AVMA 會將虛擬機器啟用繫結至已授權的虛擬機器伺服器,並在它啟動時啟用虛擬機器。AVMA binds the virtual machine activation to the licensed virtualization server and activates the virtual machine when it starts up. AVMA 也會提供使用情況的即時報告,以及虛擬機器授權狀態的歷史資料。AVMA also provides real-time reporting on usage and historical data on the license state of the virtual machine. 在虛擬化伺服器上可取得報告與追蹤資料。Reporting and tracking data is available on the virtualization server.

實際應用Practical applications

AVMA 在使用大量授權或 OEM 授權啟用的虛擬化伺服器上提供數個好處。On virtualization servers that are activated using Volume Licensing or OEM licensing, AVMA offers several benefits.

伺服器資料中心管理員可使用 AVMA 執行下列工作:Server datacenter managers can use AVMA to do the following:

  • 在遠端位置啟用虛擬機器Activate virtual machines in remote locations

  • 在有/無網際網路連線的情況下啟用虛擬機器Activate virtual machines with or without an internet connection

  • 從虛擬化伺服器追蹤虛擬機器使用情況與授權,且不需要任何虛擬化系統的存取權Track virtual machine usage and licenses from the virtualization server, without requiring any access rights on the virtualized systems

沒有需管理的產品金鑰,伺服器上也沒有需要判讀的貼紙。There are no product keys to manage and no stickers on the servers to read. 即使是在虛擬化伺服器陣列之間移轉,虛擬機器仍會是啟用狀態,而且會持續運作。The virtual machine is activated and continues to work even when it is migrated across an array of virtualization servers.

服務提供商授權合約 (SPLA) 合作夥伴與其他主機提供者不需與租用戶共用產品金鑰,也不需存取租用戶的虛擬機器即可將它啟用。Service Provider License Agreement (SPLA) partners and other hosting providers do not have to share product keys with tenants or access a tenant's virtual machine to activate it. 使用 AVMA 時,虛擬機器啟用對租用戶來說是透明化的。Virtual machine activation is transparent to the tenant when AVMA is used. 主機提供者可利用伺服器記錄來驗證授權相容,並追蹤用戶端使用歷程記錄。Hosting providers can use the server logs to verify license compliance and to track client usage history.

系統需求System requirements

AVMA 需要執行 Windows Server 2019 Datacenter、Windows Server 2016 Datacenter 或 Windows Server 2012 R2 的 Microsoft 虛擬化伺服器。AVMA requires a Microsoft Virtualization Server running Windows Server 2019 Datacenter, Windows Server 2016 Datacenter, or Windows Server 2012 R2.

以下是不同版本主機可以啟用的客體:Here are the guests that the different version hosts can activate:

伺服器主機版本Server host version Windows Server 2019Windows Server 2019 Windows Server 2016Windows Server 2016 Windows Server 2012 R2Windows Server 2012 R2
Windows Server 2019Windows Server 2019 XX XX XX
Windows Server 2016Windows Server 2016 XX XX
Windows Server 2012 R2Windows Server 2012 R2 XX

請注意,這些會啟用所有版本 (Datacenter、Standard 或 Essentials)。Note that these activate all editions (Datacenter, Standard, or Essentials).

這項工具無法搭配其他虛擬化伺服器技術使用。This tool does not work with other Virtualization Server technologies.

如何實作 AVMAHow to implement AVMA

  1. 在 Windows Server Datacenter 虛擬機器伺服器上,安裝並設定 Microsoft Hyper-V 伺服器角色。On a Windows Server Datacenter virtualization server, install and configure the Microsoft Hyper-V Server role. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱安裝 Hyper-V ServerFor more information, see Install Hyper-V Server.

  2. 建立虛擬機器,並在其上安裝支援的伺服器作業系統。Create a virtual machine and install a supported server operating system on it.

  3. 在虛擬機器中安裝 AVMA 金鑰。Install the AVMA key in the virtual machine. 在已提高權限的命令提示字元中執行下列命令:From an elevated command prompt, run the following command:

    slmgr /ipk <AVMA_key>  
    

虛擬機器會自動針對虛擬機器伺服器啟用授權。The virtual machine will automatically activate the license against the virtualization server.

提示

您也可以在任何 Unattend.exe 安裝檔案中使用 AVMA 金鑰。You can also employ the AVMA keys in any Unattend.exe setup file.

AVMA 金鑰AVMA keys

下列 AVMA 金鑰可用於 Windows Server 2019。The following AVMA keys can be used for Windows Server 2019.

版本Edition AVMA 金鑰AVMA key
DatacenterDatacenter H3RNG-8C32Q-Q8FRX-6TDXV-WMBMWH3RNG-8C32Q-Q8FRX-6TDXV-WMBMW
StandardStandard TNK62-RXVTB-4P47B-2D623-4GF74TNK62-RXVTB-4P47B-2D623-4GF74
EssentialsEssentials 2CTP7-NHT64-BP62M-FV6GG-HFV282CTP7-NHT64-BP62M-FV6GG-HFV28

下列 AVMA 金鑰可用於 Windows Server 1909、1903 和 1809 版。The following AVMA keys can be used for Windows Server, versions 1909, 1903, and 1809.

版本Edition AVMA 金鑰AVMA key
DatacenterDatacenter H3RNG-8C32Q-Q8FRX-6TDXV-WMBMWH3RNG-8C32Q-Q8FRX-6TDXV-WMBMW
StandardStandard TNK62-RXVTB-4P47B-2D623-4GF74TNK62-RXVTB-4P47B-2D623-4GF74

下列 AVMA 金鑰可用於 Windows Server 1803 和 1709 版。The following AVMA keys can be used for Windows Server, version 1803 and 1709.

版本Edition AVMA 金鑰AVMA key
DatacenterDatacenter TMJ3Y-NTRTM-FJYXT-T22BY-CWG3JTMJ3Y-NTRTM-FJYXT-T22BY-CWG3J
StandardStandard C3RCX-M6NRP-6CXC9-TW2F2-4RHYDC3RCX-M6NRP-6CXC9-TW2F2-4RHYD

下列 AVMA 金鑰可用於 Windows Server 2016。The following AVMA keys can be used for Windows Server 2016.

版本Edition AVMA 金鑰AVMA key
DatacenterDatacenter TMJ3Y-NTRTM-FJYXT-T22BY-CWG3JTMJ3Y-NTRTM-FJYXT-T22BY-CWG3J
StandardStandard C3RCX-M6NRP-6CXC9-TW2F2-4RHYDC3RCX-M6NRP-6CXC9-TW2F2-4RHYD
EssentialsEssentials B4YNW-62DX9-W8V6M-82649-MHBKQB4YNW-62DX9-W8V6M-82649-MHBKQ

下列 AVMA 金鑰可用於 Windows Server 2012 R2。The following AVMA keys can be used for Windows Server 2012 R2.

版本Edition AVMA 金鑰AVMA key
DatacenterDatacenter Y4TGP-NPTV9-HTC2H-7MGQ3-DV4TWY4TGP-NPTV9-HTC2H-7MGQ3-DV4TW
StandardStandard DBGBW-NPF86-BJVTX-K3WKJ-MTB6VDBGBW-NPF86-BJVTX-K3WKJ-MTB6V
EssentialsEssentials K2XGM-NMBT3-2R6Q8-WF2FK-P36R2K2XGM-NMBT3-2R6Q8-WF2FK-P36R2

報告和追蹤Reporting and tracking

虛擬機器伺服器上的登錄 (KVP) 提供客體作業系統的即時追蹤資料。The registry (KVP) on the virtualization server provides real-time tracking data for the guest operating systems. 因為登錄機碼會隨虛擬機器移動,所以您也可以取得授權資訊。Because the registry key moves with the virtual machine, you can get license information as well. KVP 預設會傳回虛擬機器的相關資訊,包括下列各項:By default the KVP returns information about the virtual machine, including the following:

  • 完整的網域名稱Fully qualified domain name

  • 安裝的作業系統和 Service PackOperating system and service packs installed

  • 處理器架構Processor architecture

  • IPv4 和 IPv6 網路位址IPv4 and IPv6 network addresses

  • RDP 位址RDP addresses

如需有關如何取得這項資訊的詳細資訊,請參閱 Hyper-V 指令碼:了解 KVP GuestIntrinsicExchangeItemsFor more information about how to get this information, see Hyper-V Script: Looking at KVP GuestIntrinsicExchangeItems.

注意

KVP 資料並不安全。KVP data is not secured. 不但可以修改,系統也不會監看是否變更。It can be modified and is not monitored for changes.

重要

如果使用其他產品金鑰 (零售、OEM 或大量授權金鑰) 取代 AVMA 金鑰,就應該移除 KVP 資料。KVP data should be removed if the AVMA key is replaced with another product key (retail, OEM, or volume licensing key).

有關 AVMA 要求的歷史資料可在虛擬機器伺服器的記錄檔中找到 (EventID 12310)。Historical data about AVMA requests is available in a log file on the virtualization server (EventID 12310).

因為 AVMA 啟用程序是通透的,所以不會顯示錯誤訊息。Since the AVMA activation process is transparent, error messages are not displayed. 不過,虛擬機器上的記錄檔會擷取下列事件 (EventID 12309)。However, the following events are captured in a log file on the virtual machines (EventID 12309).

通知Notification 描述Description
AVMA 成功AVMA Success 虛擬機器已啟用。The virtual machine was activated.
無效的主機Invalid Host 虛擬機器伺服器無回應。The virtualization server is unresponsive. 當伺服器不是執行支援的 Windows 版本,就可能發生這種情形。This can happen when the server is not running a supported version of Windows.
無效的資料Invalid Data 這通常是虛擬機器伺服器與虛擬機器之間的通訊失敗所導致,常見的原因是損毀、加密或資料不符。This usually results from a failure in communication between the virtualization server and the virtual machine, often caused by corruption, encryption, or data mismatch.
啟用被拒Activation Denied 虛擬機器伺服器無法啟用客體作業系統,因為 AVMA 識別碼不相符。The virtualization server could not activate the guest operating system because the AVMA ID did not match.