動態主機設定通訊協定」(DHCP)Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)

適用於:Windows Server(以每年次管道)、Windows Server 2016Applies To: Windows Server (Semi-Annual Channel), Windows Server 2016

您可以使用本主題適用於 Windows Server 2016 中 DHCP 簡短的概觀。You can use this topic for a brief overview of DHCP in Windows Server 2016.

注意

本主題中,除了下列 DHCP 文件會提供。In addition to this topic, the following DHCP documentation is available.

動態主機設定通訊協定」(DHCP) 就會自動與 IP 位址和其他設定的相關的資訊,例如子網路遮罩及 [預設閘道提供網際網路通訊協定」(IP) 主機 client 日伺服器通訊協定。Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a client/server protocol that automatically provides an Internet Protocol (IP) host with its IP address and other related configuration information such as the subnet mask and default gateway. Rfc 2131 和 2132 年定義 DHCP 為網際網路工程設計工作推動 (小組 IETF) 標準根據在開機通訊協定(之前),通訊協定與 DHCP 共用許多實作詳細資料。RFCs 2131 and 2132 define DHCP as an Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standard based on Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP), a protocol with which DHCP shares many implementation details. DHCP 可讓您以取得所的 TCP/IP 設定資訊,從 DHCP 伺服器主機。DHCP allows hosts to obtain required TCP/IP configuration information from a DHCP server.

Windows Server 2016 包含 DHCP 伺服器,這是您可以在您的網路租賃 IP 位址和其他資訊 DHCP 戶端部署選擇性網路伺服器角色。Windows Server 2016 includes DHCP Server, which is an optional networking server role that you can deploy on your network to lease IP addresses and other information to DHCP clients. 所有 Windows 機器翻譯作業系統都包含 DHCP client TCP/IP 的一部分,DHCP client 支援預設。All Windows-based client operating systems include the DHCP client as part of TCP/IP, and DHCP client is enabled by default.

為何要使用 DHCP 嗎?Why use DHCP?

TCP 型網路上的每個裝置都必須具有獨特傳播 IP 位址來存取該網路,其資源。Every device on a TCP/IP-based network must have a unique unicast IP address to access the network and its resources. DHCP,而新的電腦或移到另一個子網路中電腦的 IP 位址必須手動; 設定必須手動回收會從網路的電腦的 IP 位址。Without DHCP, IP addresses for new computers or computers that are moved from one subnet to another must be configured manually; IP addresses for computers that are removed from the network must be manually reclaimed.

使用 DHCP,此整個程序會自動執行,並集中管理。With DHCP, this entire process is automated and managed centrally. DHCP 伺服器維護集區的 IP 位址,並租用任何 DHCP 式 client 地址,它網路開機。The DHCP server maintains a pool of IP addresses and leases an address to any DHCP-enabled client when it starts up on the network. 因為的 IP 位址的動態(租用),而不是靜態(永久指派),不會再使用中的位址會自動返回集區中的配置。Because the IP addresses are dynamic (leased) rather than static (permanently assigned), addresses no longer in use are automatically returned to the pool for reallocation.

網路系統管理員會建立 DHCP 伺服器維護 TCP/IP 設定的資訊並將戶端 DHCP 式租賃方案的形式提供位址設定。The network administrator establishes DHCP servers that maintain TCP/IP configuration information and provide address configuration to DHCP-enabled clients in the form of a lease offer. DHCP 伺服器設定將資訊儲存在資料庫包含:The DHCP server stores the configuration information in a database that includes:

  • 網路上所有用戶端 TCP/IP 設定參數有效。Valid TCP/IP configuration parameters for all clients on the network.

  • 有效的 IP 位址、維護指派給戶端,集區中,以及排除地址。Valid IP addresses, maintained in a pool for assignment to clients, as well as excluded addresses.

  • 保留特定 DHCP 戶端相關聯的 IP 位址。Reserved IP addresses associated with particular DHCP clients. 這可讓一致指派單一 DHCP client 單一 IP 位址。This allows consistent assignment of a single IP address to a single DHCP client.

  • 租賃持續時間或的 IP 位址之前,可以使用租賃續約時所需的時間長度。The lease duration, or the length of time for which the IP address can be used before a lease renewal is required.

DHCP 式 client,時接受租賃提供的服務,會收到:A DHCP-enabled client, upon accepting a lease offer, receives:

  • 子網路連接到有效的 IP 位址。A valid IP address for the subnet to which it is connecting.

  • 要求 DHCP 選項,其他參數 DHCP 伺服器設定為指派給戶端。Requested DHCP options, which are additional parameters that a DHCP server is configured to assign to clients. DHCP 選項的一些事情是路由器(預設閘道)、DNS 伺服器和 DNS 網域名稱。Some examples of DHCP options are Router (default gateway), DNS Servers, and DNS Domain Name.

DHCP 的優點Benefits of DHCP

DHCP 提供下列權益。DHCP provides the following benefits.

  • 為了 IP 位址設定Reliable IP address configuration. DHCP 最小化造成手動 IP 位址設定,例如錯字,設定錯誤或地址而導致的一個以上的電腦 IP 位址指派在同一時間衝突。DHCP minimizes configuration errors caused by manual IP address configuration, such as typographical errors, or address conflicts caused by the assignment of an IP address to more than one computer at the same time.

  • 減少網路管理Reduced network administration. DHCP 包含下列功能,可減少網路管理:DHCP includes the following features to reduce network administration:

    • 打造且自動化 TCP/IP 設定。Centralized and automated TCP/IP configuration.

    • 定義 TCP/IP 設定,從中央位置的功能。The ability to define TCP/IP configurations from a central location.

    • 若要使用 DHCP 選項指派一系列完整的其他 TCP/IP 設定值能力。The ability to assign a full range of additional TCP/IP configuration values by means of DHCP options.

    • 有效的 IP 位址處理戶端必須會經常更新,那些可移植裝置 wireless 網路上移至不同位置,例如的變更。The efficient handling of IP address changes for clients that must be updated frequently, such as those for portable devices that move to different locations on a wireless network.

    • 使用 DHCP 轉送代理程式,就不用在每一個子網路 DHCP 伺服器初始 DHCP 郵件轉寄。The forwarding of initial DHCP messages by using a DHCP relay agent, which eliminates the need for a DHCP server on every subnet.