建立新的 NIC 團隊主機電腦上 VMCreate a New NIC Team on a Host Computer or VM

適用於:Windows Server(以每年次管道)、Windows Server 2016Applies To: Windows Server (Semi-Annual Channel), Windows Server 2016

本主題提供 NIC 的聯合設定的相關資訊,讓您了解您必須,讓您設定新 NIC 團隊時選取的項目。This topic provides information about NIC Teaming configuration so that you understand the selections you must make when you are configuring a new NIC Team. 本主題包含下列各節。This topic contains the following sections.

注意

如果您已經了解這些設定項目,您可以使用下列程序,設定 NIC 小組。If you already understand these configuration items, you can use the following procedures to configure NIC Teaming.

當您建立新的 NIC 團隊時,您必須設定下列 NIC 小組屬性。When you create a new NIC Team, you must configure the following NIC Team properties.

  • 小組名稱Team name

  • 會員卡Member adapters

  • 小組模式Teaming mode

  • 負載平衡模式Load balancing mode

  • 待命介面卡Standby adapter

您也可以選擇設定主要小組介面並設定 virtual 區域網路 (VLAN) 數字。You can also optionally configure the primary team interface and configure a virtual LAN (VLAN) number.

下圖範例屬性的值某些 NIC 小組所在顯示這些 NIC 小組屬性。These NIC Team properties are displayed in the following illustration, which contains example values for some NIC Team properties.

NIC 小組屬性

選擇小組模式Choosing a Teaming Mode

這些選項 Teaming 模式切換獨立靜態小組,並連結彙總控制通訊協定 (LACP)The options for Teaming mode are Switch Independent, Static Teaming, and Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP). 靜態小組與 LACP 是切換相關模式。Both Static Teaming and LACP are Switch Dependent modes. 為獲得最佳的所有三種 Teaming 模式 NIC 小組效能,建議您使用的動態通訊負載平衡模式。For best NIC Team performance with all three Teaming modes, it is recommended that you use a Load Balancing mode of Dynamic distribution.

切換不受影響Switch Independent

切換獨立模式、切換或 NIC 小組成員連接都不知道的卡 NIC 小組的成員,並不判斷如何 NIC 小組成員-網路流量的參數反而 NIC 小組分散輸入的網路流量 NIC 小組的成員。With Switch Independent mode, the switch or switches to which the NIC Team members are connected are unaware of the presence of the NIC team and do not determine how to distribute network traffic to NIC Team members - instead, the NIC Team distributes inbound network traffic across the NIC Team members.

當您的動態通訊使用切換獨立模式時,根據修改動態負載平衡演算法所 TCP 連接埠地址湊散發網路流量載入。When you use Switch Independent mode with Dynamic distribution, the network traffic load is distributed based on the TCP Ports address hash as modified by the Dynamic load balancing algorithm. 動態負載平衡演算法重新分配,以便個人流程傳輸可以從一個作用中的小組成員移到另一個最佳化小組成員頻寬利用流程。The Dynamic load balancing algorithm redistributes flows to optimize team member bandwidth utilization so that individual flow transmissions can move from one active team member to another. 演算法考量,轉散發流量都可能造成-單傳遞封包,因此所需的步驟來降到最低的可能性太可能。The algorithm takes into account the small possibility that redistributing traffic could cause out-of-order delivery of packets, so it takes steps to minimize that possibility.

切換相關Switch Dependent

切換相關模式,若要切換的 NIC 小組成員連接判斷如何輸入的網路流量的 NIC 小組成員。With Switch Dependent modes, the switch to which the NIC Team members are connected determines how to distribute the inbound network traffic among the NIC Team members. 切換已完成獨立如何網路流量分配 NIC 小組的成員。The switch has complete independence to determine how to distribute the network traffic across the NIC Team members.

重要

切換相關小組需要的所有小組成員都連接到相同的實體切換或多底座切換的共用多底座之間切換來電顯示。Switch dependent teaming requires that all team members are connected to the same physical switch or a multi-chassis switch that shares a switch ID among the multiple chassis.

靜態 Teaming 需要您手動設定開關切換至和主機找出團隊的連結。Static Teaming requires you to manually configure both the switch and the host to identify which links form the team. 因為這是靜態設定的方案,還有協助開關切換至任何其他通訊協定,並找出正確主機插入纜長度或其他錯誤都可能造成失敗執行小組。Because this is a statically configured solution, there is no additional protocol to assist the switch and the host to identify incorrectly plugged cables or other errors that could cause the team to fail to perform. 伺服器級參數通常被支援此模式。This mode is typically supported by server-class switches.

然而靜態團隊合作,LACP 小組模式動態辨識連接主機和開關切換至之間的連結。Unlike Static Teaming, LACP Teaming mode dynamically identifies links that are connected between the host and the switch. 此動態連接可自動建立的團隊,理論上但很少做法、擴充和降低信用團隊的只要傳輸或收到從等實體 LACP 封包。This dynamic connection enables the automatic creation of a team and, in theory but rarely in practice, the expansion and reduction of a team simply by the transmission or receipt of LACP packets from the peer entity. 所有伺服器級參數都支援 LACP,而所有的網路電信業者以系統管理員讓 LACP 切換連接埠。All server-class switches support LACP, and all require the network operator to administratively enable LACP on the switch port. 當您設定的 LACP Teaming 模式時,NIC 小組永遠運作 LACP 的作用中模式中的簡短計時器。When you configure a Teaming mode of LACP, NIC Teaming always operates in LACP's Active mode with a short timer. 不是目前可用來修改計時器或變更 LACP 模式。No option is presently available to modify the timer or change the LACP mode.

當您的動態通訊使用切換相關模式時,根據修改動態負載平衡演算法所 TransportPorts 位址湊散發網路流量載入。When you use Switch Dependent modes with Dynamic distribution, the network traffic load is distributed based on the TransportPorts address hash as modified by the Dynamic load balancing algorithm. 動態負載平衡演算法重新分配最佳化小組成員頻寬利用流程。The Dynamic load balancing algorithm redistributes flows to optimize team member bandwidth utilization. 個人流程傳輸可移動使用團隊成員到另一個動態通訊的一部分。Individual flow transmissions can move from one active team member to another as part of the dynamic distribution. 演算法考量,轉散發流量都可能造成-單傳遞封包,因此所需的步驟來降到最低的可能性太可能。The algorithm takes into account the small possibility that redistributing traffic could cause out-of-order delivery of packets, so it takes steps to minimize that possibility.

在所有切換相關設定、使用切換判斷如何輸入流量的小組成員。As with all switch dependent configurations, the switch determines how to distribute the inbound traffic among the team members. 切換預期地合理流量分散至所有的小組成員,但會有以判斷它會如何的完全獨立。The switch is expected to do a reasonable job of distributing the traffic across the team members but it has complete independence to determine how it does so.

選擇負載平衡模式Choosing a Load Balancing Mode

這些選項負載平衡 distribution 模式位址 HashHYPER-V 連接埠,並動態The options for Load Balancing distribution mode are Address Hash, Hyper-V Port, and Dynamic.

地址 HashAddress Hash

此負載平衡模式下建立 hash 為基礎的地址元件封包。This Load Balancing mode creates a hash that is based on address components of the packet. 然後,指派的其中一個可用的介面卡該 hash 值封包。It then assigns packets that have that hash value to one of the available adapters. 通常只這個機制是不足,無法使用的介面卡上建立合理的餘額。Usually this mechanism alone is sufficient to create a reasonable balance across the available adapters.

您可以使用 Windows PowerShell 來指定下列 hashing 函式元件值。You can use Windows PowerShell to specify values for the following hashing function components.

  • 來源和目的地的 TCP 連接埠和來源和目的地的 IP 位址。Source and destination TCP ports and source and destination IP addresses. 此為預設值,當您選取 [位址 Hash以負載平衡模式。This is the default when you select Address Hash as the Load Balancing mode.

  • 來源和目的地的 IP 位址只。Source and destination IP addresses only.

  • 來源和目的地的 MAC 位址只。Source and destination MAC addresses only.

TCP 連接埠湊建立資料傳輸串流,導致小串流可以獨立 NIC 小組成員間移動,最細微的散發。The TCP ports hash creates the most granular distribution of traffic streams, resulting in smaller streams that can be independently moved between NIC team members. 不過,您無法使用 TCP 連接埠湊的流量的 TCP 不是或 UDP 為基礎,或位置的 TCP 與 UDP 連接埠隱藏從堆疊,例如 IPsec 保護資料傳輸。However, you cannot use the TCP ports hash for traffic that is not TCP or UDP-based, or where the TCP and UDP ports are hidden from the stack, such as with IPsec-protected traffic. 在這些案例中,會自動湊使用的 IP 位址湊或 MAC 位址湊如果流量不 IP 流量,就會使用。In these cases, the hash automatically uses the IP address hash or, if the traffic is not IP traffic, the MAC address hash is used.

HYPER-V 連接埠Hyper-V Port

使用 HYPER-V 連接埠模式 NIC 團隊 HYPER-V 主機上的設定是優點。There is an advantage in using Hyper-V Port mode for NIC Teams that are configured on Hyper-V hosts. Vm 有獨立的 MAC 地址,因為 VM 的 MAC 位址-或 VM HYPER-V Virtual 開關已連接到連接埠-可以來進行除法運算 NIC 小組成員間網路流量的基礎。Because VMs have independent MAC addresses, the VM's MAC address - or the port the VM is connected to on the Hyper-V Virtual Switch - can be the basis upon which to divide network traffic between NIC Team members.

重要

使用 HYPER-V 連接埠負載平衡模式 NIC 團隊,在 Vm 中建立無法設定。NIC Teams that you create within VMs cannot be configured with the Hyper-V Port load balancing mode. 使用位址湊改為負載平衡模式。Use the Address Hash load balancing mode instead.

相鄰切換永遠看見一個連接埠上有特定的 MAC 地址,因為開關切換至會在多個連結根據目的地 MAC (VM MAC) 位址分配輸入載入(流量來自切換至主機)。Because the adjacent switch always sees a particular MAC address on one port, the switch distributes the ingress load (the traffic from the switch to the host) on multiple links based on the destination MAC (VM MAC) address. 這是適合一樣佇列 (VMQs) 使用時,因為特定而流量希望抵達有佇列。This is particularly useful when Virtual Machine Queues (VMQs) are used, because a queue can be placed on the specific NIC where the traffic is expected to arrive.

不過,如果主機只有少數 Vm,此模式下可能無法達到細微達成平衡良好的通訊。However, if the host has only a few VMs, this mode might not be granular enough to achieve a well-balanced distribution. 此模式下也將會限制單一 VM(亦即,從單一切換連接埠流量)可在單一介面頻寬。This mode will also always limit a single VM (i.e., the traffic from a single switch port) to the bandwidth that is available on a single interface. NIC 小組而不使用的來源的 MAC 地址,因為可能會以多個連接埠切換的 MAC 位址設定 VM 有時候,id 使用 HYPER-V 虛擬切換連接埠。NIC Teaming uses the Hyper-V Virtual Switch Port as the identifier instead of using the source MAC address because, in some instances, a VM might be configured with more than one MAC address on a switch port.

動態Dynamic

此負載平衡模式使用最佳的兩種模式中的每個層面,並將它們結合成單一的模式:This Load balancing mode utilizes the best aspects of each of the other two modes and combines them into a single mode:

  • 輸出載入分散根據 hash 的 TCP 連接埠和 IP 位址。Outbound loads are distributed based on a hash of the TCP Ports and IP addresses. 動態模式也 rebalances 載入即時使輸出指定的流程可能前和往後小組成員之間移動。Dynamic mode also rebalances loads in real time so that a given outbound flow may move back and forth between team members.

  • 輸入的載入視訊光碟相同的方式做為 HYPER-V 連接埠模式。Inbound loads are distributed in the same manner as the Hyper-V port mode.

在此模式下輸出載入的動態平衡依據 flowlets 的概念。The outbound loads in this mode are dynamically balanced based on the concept of flowlets. 人性化語音有端的文字與句子自然休息,如同 TCP 流程(TCP 通訊串流)也有自然發生符號。Just as human speech has natural breaks at the ends of words and sentences, TCP flows (TCP communication streams) also have naturally occurring breaks. 兩個這類分符號間流量的 TCP 的部分稱為 flowlet。The portion of a TCP flow between two such breaks is referred to as a flowlet.

動態模式演算法偵測到的 flowlet 邊界遇到-例如時 TCP 流程-中發生的不足長度分演算法必要時,會自動 rebalances 給其他小組成員流程。When the dynamic mode algorithm detects that a flowlet boundary has been encountered - such as when a break of sufficient length has occurred in the TCP flow - the algorithm automatically rebalances the flow to another team member if appropriate. 在有時演算法可能也會定期重新平衡不包含任何 flowlets 流程。In some circumstances the algorithm might also periodically rebalance flows that do not contain any flowlets. 因此,相關性之間 TCP 流程和小組成員可以變更在任何時候動態平衡演算法平衡的小組成員工作負載的運作方式。Because of this, the affinity between TCP flow and team member can change at any time as the dynamic balancing algorithm works to balance the workload of the team members.

小組設定切換獨立或切換相關模式的其中之一,建議您使用動態 distribution 模式來獲得最佳效能。Whether the team is configured with Switch Independent or one of the Switch Dependent modes, it is recommended that you use Dynamic distribution mode for best performance.

還有此規則例外時 NIC 小組有兩個小組成員,設定切換獨立模式,有一個 NIC 作用中的功能,主動日待命模式和其他待命的設定。There is an exception to this rule when the NIC Team has just two team members, is configured in Switch Independent mode, and has Active/Standby mode enabled, with one NIC active and the other configured for Standby. 透過此 NIC 小組設定,位址 Hash distribution 提供稍微提升效能比動態 distribution。With this NIC Team configuration, Address Hash distribution provides slightly better performance than Dynamic distribution.

選擇待命介面卡設定Choosing a Standby Adapter Setting

待命介面卡有無(所有的網路卡主動式)或 NIC 團隊,做為待命介面卡未選取的小組時使用中的特定網路介面卡的選擇。The options for Standby Adapter are None (all adapters Active) or your selection of a specific network adapter in the NIC Team that will act as a Standby adapter, while other unselected team members are Active. 當您設定 NIC 待命介面卡時,網路流量是傳送到或處理的介面卡,除非,直到作用中的 NIC 失敗時。When you configure a NIC as a Standby adapter, no network traffic is sent to or processed by the adapter unless and until the moment when an Active NIC fails. 作用中的 NIC 失敗之後,待命而變成作用中,並處理程序網路流量。After an Active NIC fails, the Standby NIC becomes active, and processes network traffic. 如果和所有小組成員會都還原到服務,待命小組成員會傳回至待命狀態。If and when all team members are restored to service, the standby team member is returned to standby status.

如果您有兩個-NIC 團隊,並選擇一個 NIC 設定為待命介面卡,您遺失的頻寬,有兩種使用中 Nic 彙總優點。If you have a two-NIC team and you choose to configure one NIC as a Standby adapter, you lose the bandwidth aggregation advantages that exist with two active NICs.

重要

您不需要指定待命介面卡,以達成容錯。容錯都有時 NIC 小組中有兩個以上的網路介面卡。You do not need to designate a Standby Adapter to achieve fault tolerance; fault tolerance is always present whenever there are at least two network adapters in a NIC Team.

使用主要小組介面屬性Using the Primary Team Interface Property

若要存取主要小組介面對話方塊中,您必須按一下連結以下圖表反白顯示。To access the Primary Team Interface dialog box, you must click the link that is highlighted in the illustration below.

主要小組介面屬性

按下反白顯示的連結,以下後新小組介面對話方塊。After you click the highlighted link, the following New Team Interface dialog box opens.

新的小組介面對話方塊

如果您使用 Vlan,您可以使用此對話方塊中,指定的 VLAN 數字。If you are using VLANs, you can use this dialog box to specify a VLAN number.

不論您使用 Vlan,您可以指定 tNIC NIC 小組的名稱。Whether or not you are using VLANs, you can specify a tNIC name for the NIC Team.

也了See Also

建立新 NIC 團隊,在 VM 中Create a New NIC Team in a VM
NIC 小組NIC Teaming