NIC 小組 MAC 位址使用和管理NIC Teaming MAC address use and management

適用於:Windows Server 2016Applies to: Windows Server 2016

當您使用「交換器獨立模式」設定 NIC 小組,並使用「位址雜湊」或「動態」負載散發時,小組會將媒體存取控制用於輸出流量上主要 NIC 小組成員 (MAC) 位址。When you configure a NIC Team with switch independent mode and either address hash or dynamic load distribution, the team uses the media access control (MAC) address of the primary NIC Team member on outbound traffic. 主要 NIC 小組成員是由一組初始小組成員的作業系統選取的網路介面卡。The primary NIC Team member is a network adapter selected by the operating system from the initial set of team members. 這是您在建立小組之後,或在重新開機主機電腦之後,要系結的第一個小組成員。It is the first team member to bind to the team after you create it or after the host computer is restarted. 由於主要小組成員可能會在每次開機時以不具決定性的方式變更,因此,NIC 停用/啟用動作或其他重新設定活動,主要小組成員可能會變更,而小組的 MAC 位址可能會有所不同。Because the primary team member might change in a non-deterministic manner at each boot, NIC disable/enable action, or other reconfiguration activities, the primary team member might change, and the MAC address of the team might vary.

在大多數情況下,這不會造成問題,但在某些情況下可能會發生問題。In most situations this doesn't cause problems, but there are a few cases where issues might arise.

如果主要小組成員已從小組移除,然後放入作業中,可能會發生 MAC 位址衝突。If the primary team member is removed from the team and then placed into operation there may be a MAC address conflict. 若要解決此衝突,請停用再啟用小組介面。To resolve this conflict, disable and then enable the team interface. 停用再啟用小組介面的程式會導致介面從其餘小組成員中選取新的 MAC 位址,藉此排除 MAC 位址衝突。The process of disabling and then enabling the team interface causes the interface to select a new MAC address from the remaining team members, thereby eliminating the MAC address conflict.

您可以將 NIC 小組的 MAC 位址設定為特定 MAC 位址,方法是在主要小組介面中設定它,就像您在設定任何實體 NIC 的 MAC 位址時一樣。You can set the MAC address of the NIC team to a specific MAC address by setting it in the primary team interface, just as you can do when configuring the MAC address of any physical NIC.

MAC 位址在傳輸的封包上使用MAC address use on transmitted packets

當您以交換器獨立模式設定 NIC 小組,並使用位址雜湊或動態負載散發時,來自單一來源 ((例如單一 VM) )的封包會同時分散到多個小組成員。When you configure a NIC Team in switch independent mode and either address hash or dynamic load distribution, the packets from a single source (such as a single VM) is simultaneously distributed across multiple team members. 為了避免交換器混淆並防止 MAC flapping 警示,在主要小組成員以外的小組成員上傳送的框架上,會以不同的 MAC 位址取代來源 MAC 位址。To prevent the switches from getting confused and to prevent MAC flapping alarms, the source MAC address is replaced with a different MAC address on the frames transmitted on team members other than the primary team member. 因此,每個小組成員都使用不同的 MAC 位址,而且除非發生失敗,否則會阻止 MAC 位址衝突。Because of this, each team member uses a different MAC address, and MAC address conflicts are prevented unless and until failure occurs.

在主要 NIC 上偵測到失敗時,NIC 小組軟體會開始在選擇做為暫存主要小組成員的小組成員上,使用主要團隊成員的 MAC 位址 (亦即,現在會顯示為主要小組成員) 的交換器。When a failure is detected on the primary NIC, the NIC Teaming software starts using the primary team member's MAC address on the team member that is chosen to serve as the temporary primary team member (i.e., the one that will now appear to the switch as the primary team member). 這種變更僅適用于要在主要小組成員上傳送的流量,其主要小組成員的 MAC 位址會作為其來源 MAC 位址。This change only applies to traffic that was going to be sent on the primary team member with the primary team member's MAC address as its source MAC address. 其他流量會繼續與失敗前所使用的任何來源 MAC 位址一起傳送。Other traffic continues to be sent with whatever source MAC address it would have used prior to the failure.

以下列出根據小組的設定方式來描述 NIC 小組 MAC 位址取代行為的清單:Following are lists that describe NIC Teaming MAC address replacement behavior, based on how the team is configured:

  1. 以位址雜湊散發的交換器獨立模式In Switch Independent mode with Address Hash distribution

    • 所有 ARP 和 NS 封包都會傳送給主要小組成員All ARP and NS packets are sent on the primary team member

    • 在主要小組成員以外的 Nic 上傳送的所有流量,會隨著來源 MAC 位址的修改而傳送,以符合傳送的 NICAll traffic sent on NICs other than the primary team member are sent with the source MAC address modified to match the NIC on which they are sent

    • 主要小組成員上傳送的所有流量都會與原始來源 MAC 位址一起傳送 (這可能是小組的來源 MAC 位址) All traffic sent on the primary team member is sent with the original source MAC address (which may be the team's source MAC address)

  2. 使用 Hyper-v 通訊埠發佈的交換器獨立模式In Switch Independent mode with Hyper-V Port distribution

    • 每個 vmSwitch 埠會相似化為至小組成員Every vmSwitch port is affinitized to a team member

    • 每個封包都會在相似化為埠的小組成員上傳送Every packet is sent on the team member to which the port is affinitized

    • 未完成來源 MAC 取代No source MAC replacement is done

  3. 使用動態散發的交換器獨立模式In Switch Independent mode with Dynamic distribution

    • 每個 vmSwitch 埠會相似化為至小組成員Every vmSwitch port is affinitized to a team member

    • 所有 ARP/NS 封包都會傳送至相似化為埠的小組成員All ARP/NS packets are sent on the team member to which the port is affinitized

    • 在相似化為小組成員的小組成員上傳送的封包未完成來源 MAC 位址取代Packets sent on the team member that is the affinitized team member have no source MAC address replacement done

    • 在相似化為小組成員以外的小組成員上傳送的封包將會完成來源 MAC 位址取代Packets sent on a team member other than the affinitized team member will have source MAC address replacement done

  4. **在 [切換相依模式] 中 (所有發行) **In Switch Dependent mode (all distributions)

    • 未執行任何來源 MAC 位址取代No source MAC address replacement is performed
  • Nic小組:在本主題中,我們將概述 Windows Server 2016 中的網路介面卡 (NIC) 小組。NIC Teaming: In this topic, we give you an overview of Network Interface Card (NIC) Teaming in Windows Server 2016. NIC 小組可讓您將一和32實體 Ethernet 網路介面卡分成一或多個以軟體為基礎的虛擬網路介面卡。NIC Teaming allows you to group between one and 32 physical Ethernet network adapters into one or more software-based virtual network adapters. 這些虛擬網路介面卡可在網路介面卡故障時,提供快速的效能與容錯。These virtual network adapters provide fast performance and fault tolerance in the event of a network adapter failure.

  • Nic 小組設定:在本主題中,我們將概述 nic 團隊的屬性,例如團隊和負載平衡模式。NIC Teaming settings: In this topic, we give you an overview of the NIC Team properties such as teaming and load balancing modes. 我們也會提供有關待命介面卡設定和主要小組介面屬性的詳細資料。We also give you details about the Standby adapter setting and the Primary team interface property. 如果您的 NIC 小組中至少有兩張網路介面卡,則不需要指定待命介面卡來容錯。If you have at least two network adapters in a NIC Team, you do not need to designate a Standby adapter for fault tolerance.

  • 主機電腦或 VM 上建立新的 Nic 小組:在本主題中,您會在主機電腦或 hyper-v 虛擬機器中建立新的 nic 小組, (VM) 執行 Windows Server 2016。Create a new NIC Team on a host computer or VM: In this topic, you create a new NIC Team on a host computer or in a Hyper-V virtual machine (VM) running Windows Server 2016.

  • 針對nic 小組進行疑難排解:在本主題中,我們會討論針對 nic 小組進行疑難排解的方法,例如硬體、實體交換器的安全性,以及使用 Windows PowerShell 來停用或啟用網路介面卡。Troubleshooting NIC Teaming: In this topic, we discuss ways to troubleshoot NIC Teaming, such as hardware, physical switch securities, and disabling or enabling network adapters using Windows PowerShell.