QoS 原則案例QoS Policy Scenarios

適用於:Windows Server(以每年次管道)、Windows Server 2016Applies To: Windows Server (Semi-Annual Channel), Windows Server 2016

您可以使用本主題以檢視假設案例示範如何的時機,以及如何使用 QoS 原則。You can use this topic to review hypothetical scenarios that demonstrate how, when, and why to use QoS Policy.

此主題中的兩個案例︰The two scenarios in this topic are:

  1. 優先順序網路流量的業務應用程式Prioritize Network Traffic for a Line-of-Business Application
  2. 伺服器 HTTP 應用程式的優先順序網路流量Prioritize Network Traffic for an HTTP Server Application

注意

本主題的一些一節包含一般的步驟可讓您執行上述的動作。Some sections of this topic contain general steps you can take to perform the described actions. 如需詳細管理 QoS 原則的指示,請查看管理 QoS 原則For more detailed instructions on managing QoS Policy, see Manage QoS Policy.

案例 1:優先順序網路流量的業務應用程式Scenario 1: Prioritize Network Traffic for a Line-of-Business Application

在本案例中,IT 部門,取得會有數種目標,他們可以使用原則 QoS 完成:In this scenario, an IT department has several goals that they can accomplish by using QoS Policy:

  • 提供更好的網路效能的 mission\ 重要的應用程式。Provide better network performance for mission-critical applications.
  • 使用特定應用程式時,提供更佳的一組金鑰使用者的網路效能。Provide better network performance for a key set of users while they are using a specific application.
  • 請確定 company\ 全資料備份應用程式不會網路效能阻礙一次使用太多頻寬。Ensure that the company-wide data Backup application doesn't impede network performance by using too much bandwidth at one time.

設定優先順序特定應用程式使用區分服務的程式碼點 (DSCP) 值分類網路流量,並設定為高優先順序流量的優先處理其路由器 QoS 原則決定 IT 部門。The IT department decides to configure QoS Policy to prioritize specific applications by using Differentiation Service Code Point (DSCP) values to classify network traffic, and to configure its routers to provide preferential treatment for higher priority traffic.

注意

DSCP 的詳細資訊,會看到一節定義 QoS 優先順序透過區分服務的程式碼點主題中的原則品質服務 (QoS)For more information on DSCP, see the section Define QoS Priority Through a Differentiated Services Code Point in the topic Quality of Service (QoS) Policy.

除了 DSCP 值,QoS 原則可以指定節流閥速率。In addition to DSCP values, QoS policies can specify a throttle rate. 節流有限制相符項目 QoS 原則的特定傳送速率所有輸出流量的效果。Throttling has the effect of limiting all outbound traffic that matches the QoS Policy to a specific send rate.

QoS 原則設定QoS Policy Configuration

完成三個不同的目標,以建立三個不同的 QoS 原則決定 IT 系統管理員。With three separate goals to accomplish, the IT administrator decides to create three different QoS policies.

LOB 應用程式伺服器 QoS 原則QoS Policy for LOB App Servers

第一次 mission\ 重大應用程式的 IT 部門建立 QoS 原則是 company\ 全企業資源規劃 (ERP) 應用程式。The first mission-critical application for which the IT department creates a QoS Policy is a company-wide Enterprise resource planning (ERP) application. 幾個所有執行 Windows Server 2016 的電腦上裝載 ERP 應用程式。The ERP application is hosted on several computers that are all running Windows Server 2016. Active Directory Domain Services,這些電腦將組織單位成員所建立的業務 (LOB) 應用程式伺服器 (OU)。In Active Directory Domain Services, these computers are members of an organization unit (OU) that was created for line-of-business (LOB) application servers. Client\ 端元件 ERP 應用程式正在執行 Windows 10 和「Windows 8.1 的電腦上安裝。The client-side component for the ERP application is installed on computers that are running Windows 10 and Windows 8.1.

在群組原則中,IT 系統管理員,請選取群組原則物件 (GPO) 時,將會套用 QoS 原則。In Group Policy, an IT administrator selects the Group Policy Object (GPO) upon which the QoS policy will be applied. 利用 QoS 原則精靈,IT 系統管理員會建立 QoS 原則稱為「伺服器 LOB 原則」,指定 high\ 優先順序 DSCP 值 44 的所有應用程式,任何 IP 位址、TCP 與 UDP,以及連接埠號碼。By using the QoS policy wizard, the IT administrator creates a QoS policy called "Server LOB policy" that specifies a high-priority DSCP value of 44 for all applications, any IP address, TCP and UDP, and port number.

QoS 原則只會套用到 LOB 伺服器將 GPO 連結到組織單位,其中包含只這些伺服器,透過群組原則管理主控台 (GPMC) 工具。The QoS policy is applied only to the LOB servers by linking the GPO to the OU that contains only these servers, via the Group Policy Management Console (GPMC) tool. 電腦傳送網路流量時,此初始伺服器 LOB 原則適用於 high\ 優先順序 DSCP 值。This initial server LOB policy applies the high-priority DSCP value whenever the computer sends network traffic. 您可以稍後編輯 QoS 這項原則 \(在 [群組原則物件編輯器 tool) 包含 ERP 應用程式的連接埠號碼限制套用只有在使用指定連接埠號碼時才原則。This QoS policy can later be edited (in the Group Policy Object Editor tool) to include the ERP application's port numbers, which limits the policy to apply only when the specified port number is used.

QoS 財經群組原則QoS Policy for the Finance Group

多個群組中公司存取 ERP 應用程式,而財經群組此應用程式而定處理針對時, 和群組需要一直都很高的應用程式的效能。While many groups within the company access the ERP application, the finance group depends on this application when dealing with customers, and the group requires consistently high performance from the app.

若要確保財經群組,可支援他們針對,QoS 原則必須為高優先順序分類這些使用者資料傳輸。To ensure that the finance group can support their customers, the QoS policy must classify these users' traffic as high priority. 不過,財經群組成員使用以外 ERP 應用程式的應用程式時,應該不適用於原則。However, the policy should not apply when members of the finance group use applications other than the ERP application.

因為,IT 部門定義第二個 QoS 原則稱為「Client LOB 原則」在群組原則物件編輯器工具時,套用 60 DSCP 值財經使用者群組執行 ERP 應用程式。Because of this, the IT department defines a second QoS policy called "Client LOB policy" in the Group Policy Object Editor tool that applies a DSCP value of 60 when the finance user group runs the ERP application.

適用於備份的 App QoS 原則QoS Policy for a Backup App

另一個備份應用程式正在執行的所有電腦上。A separate backup application is running on all computers. 若要確保流量備份應用程式不會使用的所有可用的網路資源,IT 部門建立備份資料原則。To ensure the backup application's traffic does not use all available network resources, the IT department creates a backup data policy. 這項原則備份指定 DSCP 1 備份的 app,也就是可執行檔的名稱為基礎的值backup.exeThis backup policy specifies a DSCP value of 1 based on the executable name for the backup app, which is backup.exe.

第三方 GPO 建立並針對網域中的所有 client 電腦部署。A third GPO is created and deployed for all client computers in the domain. 每當您備份的應用程式傳送的資料,會套用低優先順序 DSCP 值,即使來源的財經部的電腦。Whenever the backup application sends data, the low-priority DSCP value is applied, even if it originates from computers in the finance department.

注意

網路流量 QoS 原則不會傳送與 DSCP 設定為 0。Network traffic without a QoS Policy sends with a DSCP value of 0.

案例原則Scenario Policies

下表摘要 QoS 原則本案例。The following table summarizes the QoS policies for this scenario.

原則的名稱Policy name DSCP 值。DSCP value 調節率Throttle rate 套用到組織單位Applied to organization units 描述Description
[無 policy][No policy] 00 None [無的部署][No deployment] 適用於未分類流量最佳努力(預設值)處理。Best effort (default) treatment for unclassified traffic.
備份資料Backup data 11 None 所有戶端All clients 適用於此大量資料低優先順序 DSCP 值。Applies a low-priority DSCP value for this bulk data.
伺服器 LOBServer LOB 4444 None 電腦組織單位 ERP 伺服器Computer OU for ERP servers 適用於 ERP 伺服器流量高優先順序 DSCPApplies high-priority DSCP for ERP server traffic
Client LOBClient LOB 6060 None 財經使用者群組Finance user group 適用於 ERP client 流量高優先順序 DSCPApplies high-priority DSCP for ERP client traffic

注意

在小數點表單表示 DSCP 值。DSCP values are represented in decimal form.

有了 QoS 原則定義,並使用群組原則來套用,輸出網路流量接收原則指定 DSCP 值。With QoS policies defined and applied by using Group Policy, outbound network traffic receives the policy-specified DSCP value. 路由器會再提供差異處理使用佇列,根據這些 DSCP 值。Routers then provide differential treatment based on these DSCP values by using queuing. 使用四個佇列此 IT 部門,設定路由器:高優先順序、中央優先順序、最佳效能,並低優先順序。For this IT department, the routers are configured with four queues: high-priority, middle-priority, best-effort, and low-priority.

交通到達 DSCP 值路由器」伺服器 LOB 原則」和「Client LOB 原則,」資料放入高優先順序佇列。When traffic arrives at the router with DSCP values from "Server LOB policy" and "Client LOB policy," the data is placed into high-priority queues. 使用 DSCP 設定為 0 流量接收服務最佳層級。Traffic with a DSCP value of 0 receives a best-effort level of service. 使用 DSCP 值(從備份應用程式)1 封包收到低優先順序處理。Packets with a DSCP value of 1 (from the backup application) receive low-priority treatment.

必要條件排列業務的應用程式Prerequisites for prioritizing a line-of-business application

若要完成這項工作,請確定您符合下列需求:To complete this task, ensure that you meet the following requirements:

  • 執行相容 QoS\ 作業系統涉及的電腦。The computers involved are running QoS-compatible operating systems.

  • 涉及的電腦是 Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) 網域的成員,他們可以使用群組原則設定。The computers involved are members of an Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) domain so that they can be configured by using Group Policy.

  • TCP/IP 網路是設定為 DSCP (RFC 2474) 路由器設定。TCP/IP networks are set up with routers configured for DSCP (RFC 2474). 如需詳細資訊,請查看RFC 2474For more information, see RFC 2474.

  • 符合系統管理員認證需求。Administrative credentials requirements are met.

管理認證Administrative credentials

若要完成這項工作時,您必須建立及部署群組原則物件。To complete this task, you must be able to create and deploy Group Policy Objects.

設定設定優先順序業務的應用程式的測試環境Setting up the test environment for prioritizing a line-of-business application

若要設定測試環境,請完成下列工作。To set up the test environment, complete the following tasks.

  • 建立 AD DS 網域戶端與分為組織單位使用者。Create an AD DS domain with clients and users grouped into organization units. 如需部署 AD DS 指示,請查看核心網路指南For instructions on deploying AD DS, see the Core Network Guide.

  • 設定路由器,以 differentially 佇列根據 DSCP 值。Configure the routers to differentially queue based on DSCP values. 例如,DSCP 值 44 進入「白金」佇列和其他所有人都偏-公平佇列。For example, DSCP value 44 enters a "Platinum" queue and all others are weighted-fair-queued.

注意

您可以使用工具,例如網路監視器網路擷取檢視 DSCP 值。You can view DSCP values by using network captures with tools like Network Monitor. 執行網路擷取之後,您可以看到 TO 中的欄位擷取的資料。After you perform a network capture, you can observe the TOS field in captured data.

步驟排列業務的應用程式Steps for prioritizing a line-of-business application

若要優先順序業務的應用程式,請完成下列工作:To prioritize a line-of-business application, complete the following tasks:

  1. 建立並連結 QoS 原則的群組原則物件 (GPO)。Create and link a Group Policy Object (GPO) with a QoS policy.

  2. 設定 differentially 將-業務路由器選取 DSCP 值為基礎的應用程式(由使用佇列)。Configure the routers to differentially treat a line-of-business application (by using queuing) based on the selected DSCP values. 這項工作的程序會根據您的路由器類型而有所不同。The procedures of this task will vary depending upon the type of routers you have.

案例 2: HTTP 伺服器應用程式的優先順序網路流量Scenario 2: Prioritize Network Traffic for an HTTP Server Application

在 Windows Server 2016 原則為主 QoS 包括 URL 型原則的功能。In Windows Server 2016, Policy-based QoS includes the feature URL-based Policies. URL 原則可讓您管理頻寬 HTTP 伺服器。URL Policies enable you to manage bandwidth for HTTP servers.

許多企業應用程式的開發裝載網際網路資訊服務 (IIS) web 伺服器,並 Web 應用程式存取的瀏覽器 client 電腦上。Many Enterprise applications are developed for and hosted on Internet Information Services (IIS) web servers, and the Web apps are accessed from browsers on client computers.

在本案例中,假設您管理一組 IIS 伺服器該主機訓練影片適用於您組織的所有員工。In this scenario, assume that you manage a set of IIS servers that host training videos for all your organization’s employees. 您的目標是確認這些視訊伺服器的流量將不會使不勝負荷您的網路,並確認的視訊流量從在網路上的語音和資料傳輸區分。Your objective is to ensure that the traffic from these video servers won’t overwhelm your network, and ensure that video traffic is differentiated from voice and data traffic on the network.

任務是類似案例 1 中的工作。The task is similar to the task in Scenario 1. 您將會設計和設定流量管理設定,例如 DSCP 值流量影片,並節流評分相同像您的業務應用程式。You will design and configure the traffic management settings, such as the DSCP value for the video traffic, and the throttling rate the same as you would for the line-of-business applications. 但指定傳輸,而不提供的應用程式名稱、時僅輸入的 URL 的回應 HTTP 伺服器應用程式將會:,例如 https://hrweb/training。But when specifying the traffic, instead of providing the application name, you only enter the URL to which your HTTP server application will respond: for example, https://hrweb/training.

注意

您無法使用 URL 型 QoS 原則網路流量的電腦執行的 Windows 作業系統的發行前 Windows 7 和 Windows Server 2008 R2 的優先順序。You cannot use URL-based QoS policies to prioritize network traffic for computers running Windows operating systems that were released prior to Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2.

優先順序規則 URL 型原則Precedence rules for URL-based policies

所有下列 Url 有效,並且可以控制台中 QoS 原則和同時套用到電腦或使用者:All the following URLs are valid and can be specified in QoS Policy and applied simultaneously to a computer or a user:

但是,是哪一種將會收到優先順序嗎?But which one will receive precedence? 很簡單的規則。The rules are simple. 向右朗讀訂單中的 URL 型原則的優先順序。URL-based policies are prioritized in a left-to-right reading order. 因此,從優先順序最低到最高優先順序,URL 欄位︰So, from the highest priority to the lowest priority, the URL fields are:

1.URL 配置1. URL scheme

2.URL 主機2. URL host

3.URL 連接埠3. URL port

4.URL 路徑4. URL path

以下是詳細資料:Details are as follows:

1.URL 配置 1. URL scheme

https:// 較高優先順序比http://has a higher priority than http://.

2.URL 主機 2. URL host

從最低到最高優先順序,它們會:From the highest priority to the lowest, they are:

  1. 主機Hostname

  2. IPv6 位址IPv6 address

  3. IPv4 位址IPv4 address

  4. 萬用字元Wildcard

在主機,點更多項目(深入)主機名稱已高於主機使用較少點的項目名稱的優先順序。In the case of hostname, a hostname with more dotted elements (more depth) has a higher priority than a hostname with fewer dotted elements. 例如,在下列主機:For example, among the following hostnames:

  • video.internal.training.hr.mycompany.com (深度 = 6)video.internal.training.hr.mycompany.com (depth = 6)

  • selfguide.training.mycompany.com (深度 = 4)selfguide.training.mycompany.com (depth = 4)

  • 訓練 (深度 = 1 台)training (depth = 1)

  • 媒體櫃 (深度 = 1 台)library (depth = 1)

    video.internal.training.hr.mycompany.com最高優先順序,並selfguide.training.mycompany.com下一步的最高優先順序。video.internal.training.hr.mycompany.com has the highest priority, and selfguide.training.mycompany.com has the next highest priority. 訓練媒體櫃共用相同最低的優先順序。Training and library share the same lowest priority.

3.URL 連接埠 3. URL port

特定或隱含的連接埠號碼已高於萬用字元連接埠的優先順序。A specific or an implicit port number has a higher priority than a wildcard port.

4.URL 路徑 4. URL path

主機名稱,例如多個項目可能會包含 URL 路徑。Like a hostname, a URL path may consist of multiple elements. 有多個項目都高於較少的優先順序。The one with more elements always has a higher priority than the one with less. 例如,下列路徑列出的優先順序:For example, the following paths are listed by priority:

  1. /ebooks/tech/windows/networking/qos/ebooks/tech/windows/networking/qos

  2. 日有聲月 tech 日 windows 日/ebooks/tech/windows/

  3. /ebooks/ebooks

  4. /

如果使用者選擇以包含所有子目錄和下列 URL 路徑檔案,這個 URL 路徑必須較低優先順序比它不做選擇如果。If a user chooses to include all subdirectories and files following a URL path, this URL path will have a lower priority than it would have if the choice were not made.

也可以選擇使用者 URL 原則中指定的目的地 IP 位址。A user may also choose to specify a destination IP address in a URL-based policy. 目的地 IP 位址比任何之前所述的四個 URL 欄位較低優先順序。The destination IP address has a lower priority than any of the four URL fields described previously.

5 倍原則Quintuple policy

通訊協定 ID、來源 IP 位址、來源連接埠,目的地 IP 位址,以及目的地連接埠,指定 5 倍原則。A Quintuple policy is specified by protocol ID, source IP address, source port, destination IP address, and destination port. 5 倍原則一定有優先順序高於任何 URL 為基礎的原則。A Quintuple policy always has a higher precedence than any URL-based policy.

如果 5 倍原則已經套用的使用者,新的 URL 型原則不會導致衝突使用者的 client 的任何上的電腦。If a Quintuple policy is already applied for a user, a new URL-based policy will not cause conflicts on any of that user’s client computers.

本指南下一步主題,請查看管理 QoS 原則For the next topic in this guide, see Manage QoS Policy.

本指南中第一次主題,請查看品質服務 (QoS) 原則For the first topic in this guide, see Quality of Service (QoS) Policy.