品質的服務 (QoS) 原則Quality of Service (QoS) Policy

適用於:Windows Server(以每年次管道)、Windows Server 2016Applies To: Windows Server (Semi-Annual Channel), Windows Server 2016

您可以使用 QoS 原則的網路頻寬管理的中心點整體 Active Directory 基礎結構建立 QoS 設定檔,視訊光碟使用群組原則設定。You can use QoS Policy as a central point of network bandwidth management across your entire Active Directory infrastructure by creating QoS profiles, whose settings are distributed with Group Policy.

注意

本主題中,除了下列 QoS 原則文件會提供。In addition to this topic, the following QoS Policy documentation is available.

QoS 原則套用到工作階段使用者登入或電腦的群組原則物件的一部分有與您連結到網域、網站或組織單位 Active Directory 容器的 (GPO) (OU)。QoS policies are applied to a user login session or a computer as part of a Group Policy object (GPO) that you have linked to an Active Directory container, such as a domain, site, or organizational unit (OU).

下列應用程式層,這表示您現有的應用程式,不需要修改受益所提供的 QoS 原則優點,就會發生 QoS 流量管理。QoS traffic management occurs below the application layer, which means that your existing applications do not need to be modified to benefit from the advantages that are provided by QoS policies.

支援 QoS 原則作業系統Operating Systems that Support QoS Policy

管理適用於 Microsoft 下列作業系統的使用者或電腦的頻寬,您可以使用 QoS 原則。You can use QoS policy to manage bandwidth for computers or users with the following Microsoft operating systems.

  • Windows Server 2016Windows Server 2016
  • Windows 10Windows 10
  • Windows Server 2012 R2Windows Server 2012 R2
  • Windows 8.1Windows 8.1
  • Windows Server 2012Windows Server 2012
  • Windows 8Windows 8
  • Windows Server 2008 R2Windows Server 2008 R2
  • Windows 7Windows 7
  • Windows Server 2008Windows Server 2008
  • Windows VistaWindows Vista

群組原則中 QoS 原則的位置Location of QoS Policy in Group Policy

Windows Server 2016 群組原則管理編輯器] 中的 [電腦設定 QoS 原則的路徑如下。In Windows Server 2016 Group Policy Management Editor, the path to QoS Policy for Computer Configuration is the following.

預設網域原則 |電腦設定 |原則 |Windows 設定 |Policy\ 式 QoSDefault Domain Policy | Computer Configuration | Policies | Windows Settings | Policy-based QoS

這個路徑是在下列影像中所示。This path is illustrated in the following image.

群組原則中 QoS 原則的位置

Windows Server 2016 群組原則管理編輯器] 中的使用者設定原則 QoS 路徑如下。In Windows Server 2016 Group Policy Management Editor, the path to QoS Policy for User Configuration is the following.

預設網域原則 |使用者設定 |原則 |Windows 設定 |Policy\ 式 QoSDefault Domain Policy | User Configuration | Policies | Windows Settings | Policy-based QoS

預設不 QoS 原則設定。By default no QoS policies are configured.

為何使用 QoS 原則嗎?Why Use QoS Policy?

為在您的網路流量,越來越重要,以平衡服務-的費用與網路效能,但網路流量不正常容易優先順序和管理。As traffic increases on your network, it is increasingly important for you to balance network performance with the cost of service - but network traffic is not normally easy to prioritize and manage.

在您的網路,mission\ 重大和 latency\ 顧慮應用程式必須的頻寬對較低優先順序流量進行。On your network, mission-critical and latency-sensitive applications must compete for network bandwidth against lower priority traffic. 在此同時,有些使用者及特定的網路可能需要需求的效能與電腦區分服務層級。At the same time, some users and computers with specific network performance requirements might require differentiated service levels.

提供具成本效益、預測的網路效能層級的挑戰通常第一次顯示透過寬區域網路 (WAN) 連接或延遲敏感的應用程式,例如 IP (VoIP) 和影片的串流語音。The challenges of providing cost-effective, predictable network performance levels often first appear over wide area network (WAN) connections or with latency-sensitive applications, like voice over IP (VoIP) and video streaming. 不過,提供可預測網路服務層級結束目標適用於任何網路環境 \ (例如企業的區域 network),以及一個以上的 VoIP 應用程式,例如您的公司自訂 line\ of\ 商務應用程式。However, the end-goal of providing predictable network service levels applies to any network environment (for example, an Enterprises’ local area network), and to more than VoIP applications, such as your company's custom line-of-business applications.

原則為主 QoS 是網路的控制項-型應用程式、使用者和電腦上為您提供的網路頻寬管理工具。Policy-based QoS is the network bandwidth management tool that provides you with network control - based on applications, users, and computers.

當您使用 QoS 原則時,不需要針對特定應用程式的程式設計介面 (APIs) 撰寫您的應用程式。When you use QoS Policy, your applications do not need to be written for specific application programming interfaces (APIs). 這可讓您以 QoS 使用現有的應用程式。This gives you the ability to use QoS with existing applications. 此外,原則為主 QoS 利用您現有的管理基礎結構,所以原則為主 QoS 至群組原則。Additionally, Policy-based QoS takes advantage of your existing management infrastructure, because Policy-based QoS is built into Group Policy.

定義透過已區分服務的程式碼點 QoS 優先順序 (DSCP)Define QoS Priority Through a Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP)

您可以建立定義 Differentiated 服務的程式碼的端點 (DSCP) 值,您將指派到不同的網路流量的網路流量優先順序 QoS 原則。You can create QoS policies that define network traffic priority with a Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) value that you assign to different types of network traffic.

DSCP 可讓您套用值 (0–63) 流量課程中的欄位 IPv6 和中輸入的服務 (TOS) 中的欄位標頭 IPv4 封包。The DSCP allows you to apply a value (0–63) within the Type of Service (TOS) field in an IPv4 packet's header, and within the Traffic Class field in IPv6.

DSCP 值提供網際網路通訊協定 (IP) 級路由器,進而佇列行為流量是使用網路流量分類。The DSCP value provides network traffic classification at the Internet Protocol (IP) level, which routers use to decide traffic queuing behavior.

例如,您可以設定要使用特定 DSCP 值封包放其中一個三個佇列路由器:為高優先順序最佳努力,或低於最佳效果。For example, you can configure routers to place packets with specific DSCP values into one of three queues: high priority, best effort, or lower than best effort.

重要的網路流量是設定為高優先順序佇列中,會有其他資料傳輸到喜好設定。Mission-critical network traffic, which is in the high priority queue, has preference over other traffic.

限制網路頻寬使用每個節流閥速率的應用程式Limit Network Bandwidth Use Per Application with Throttle Rate

您也可以透過節流閥速率指定 QoS 原則中限制輸出網路流量的應用程式。You can also limit an application's outbound network traffic by specifying a throttle rate in QoS Policy.

定義節流限制 QoS 原則判斷輸出網路流量的頻率。A QoS policy that defines throttling limits determines the rate of outbound network traffic. 例如,管理 WAN 費用,IT 部門,取得可能實作服務的層級合約指定的檔案伺服器可以永遠不會提供下載特定的速率以外的。For example, to manage WAN costs, an IT department might implement a service level agreement that specifies that a file server can never provide downloads beyond a specific rate.

使用適用於 DSCP QoS 原則值,並調節率Use QoS Policy to Apply DSCP Values and Throttle Rates

您也可以使用原則 QoS 套用 DSCP 值和調節下列輸出網路流量的速率:You can also use QoS Policy to apply DSCP values and throttle rates for outbound network traffic to the following:

  • 應用程式傳送和路徑Sending application and directory path

  • 來源和目的地 IPv4 或 IPv6 位址或地址前置詞Source and destination IPv4 or IPv6 addresses or address prefixes

  • 通訊協定-傳輸控制項 (TCP) 及使用者資料流通訊協定 (UDP) 通訊協定Protocol - Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

  • 來源和目的地連接埠和連接埠範圍 (TCP or UDP)Source and destination ports and port ranges (TCP or UDP)

  • 特定的使用者或群組原則中部署到電腦群組Specific groups of users or computers through deployment in Group Policy

使用這些控制項,您可以指定 QoS 原則 DSCP 值為 46 VoIP 應用程式,讓在低延遲佇列中,將 VoIP 封包路由器或您可以壓制設定伺服器的第二個 (KBps) 每 512 kb 輸出流量的 TCP 連接埠 443 傳送時使用 QoS 原則。By using these controls, you can specify a QoS policy with a DSCP value of 46 for a VoIP application, enabling routers to place VoIP packets in a low-latency queue, or you can use a QoS policy to throttle a set of servers' outbound traffic to 512 kilobytes per second (KBps) when sending from TCP port 443.

您也可以套用原則 QoS 特定應用程式的特殊頻寬需求。You can also apply QoS policy to a particular application that has special bandwidth requirements. 如需詳細資訊,請查看QoS 原則案例For more information, see QoS Policy Scenarios.

QoS 原則的優點Advantages of QoS Policy

使用 QoS 原則,您可以設定,並執行 QoS 原則,無法在路由器,並切換設定。With QoS Policy, you can configure and enforce QoS policies that cannot be configured on routers and switches. QoS 原則提供下列優點。QoS Policy provides the following advantages.

  1. 詳細資訊層級︰很難建立路由器或切換使用者層級 QoS 原則,尤其是使用者的電腦是可能可以使用動態 IP 設定位址指派或電腦無法連接到修正的切換或路由器連接埠,如果是經常使用筆記型電腦案例。Level of detail: It is difficult to create user-level QoS policies on routers or switches, especially if the user’s computer is either configured by using dynamic IP address assignment or if the computer is not connected to fixed switch or router ports, as is frequently the case with portable computers. 相較之下,QoS 原則可讓您更輕鬆地使用者 \ 層級 QoS 原則設定的網域控制站在並將傳送至電腦的使用者的原則。In contrast, QoS Policy makes it easier to configure a user-level QoS policy on a domain controller and propagate the policy to the user’s computer.
  2. 彈性Flexibility. 何處,或如何電腦連接到網路,無論 QoS 原則-電腦可以透過 wifi 下載或乙太網路從任何位置。Regardless of where or how a computer connects to the network, QoS policy is applied - the computer can connect using WiFi or Ethernet from any location. 使用者 \ 層級 QoS 原則,QoS 原則會套用至任何相容的裝置在使用者登入的任何位置。For user-level QoS policies, the QoS policy is applied on any compatible device at any location where the user logs on.
  3. 安全性: IT 部門加密使用者流量的端點使用網際網路通訊協定的安全性 (IPsec),如果您無法將分類根據上述 IP 層級封包中的任何資訊路由器上的流量 \ (例如,TCP port)。Security: If your IT department encrypts users’ traffic from end to end by using Internet Protocol security (IPsec), you cannot classify the traffic on routers based on any information above the IP layer in the packet (for example, a TCP port). 不過,您可以使用 QoS 原則,可結束裝置之前的 IP 裝載加密,並傳送封包指出中 IP 標頭的封包優先順序封包。However, by using QoS Policy, you can classify packets at the end device to indicate the priority of the packets in the IP header before the IP payloads are encrypted and the packets are sent.
  4. 效能:某些 QoS 功能,例如節流、變得更好靠近來源時執行。Performance: Some QoS functions, such as throttling, are better performed when they are closer to the source. QoS 原則移動靠近來源這類 QoS 函式。QoS Policy moves such QoS functions closest to the source.
  5. 管理性: QoS 原則美化網路管理兩種方式:Manageability: QoS Policy enhances network manageability in two ways:

    a.a. 因為它根據群組原則,您可以使用 QoS 原則設定及管理使用者日電腦 QoS 原則一組時所需,以及一個中央網域控制站電腦上。Because it is based on Group Policy, you can use QoS Policy to configure and manage a set of user/computer QoS policies whenever necessary, and on one central domain-controller computer.

    b.b. 藉由提供機制,指定原則,而不會指定每個 QoS 原則要套用的伺服器的 IP 位址所根據原則統一資源定位器 (URL) QoS 原則幫助您日電腦的使用者設定。QoS Policy facilitates user/computer configuration by providing a mechanism to specify policies by Uniform Resource Locator (URL) instead of specifying policies based on the IP addresses of each of the servers where QoS policies need to be applied. 例如,假設您的網路分享常見的 URL 伺服器叢集。For example, assume your network has a cluster of servers that share a common URL. 使用 QoS 原則,您可以建立一個原則根據常見的 URL,而非建立一個原則每個伺服器叢集,在與每個原則根據每個伺服器的 IP 位址。By using QoS Policy, you can create one policy based on the common URL, instead of creating one policy for each server in the cluster, with each policy based on the IP address of each server.

本指南下一步主題,請查看開始 QoS 原則的For the next topic in this guide, see Getting Started with QoS Policy.