DFS 命名空間概觀DFS Namespaces overview

適用於:Windows Server (半年度管道)、Windows Server 2016、Windows Server 2012 R2、Windows Server 2012、Windows Server 2008 R2、Windows Server 2008Applies to: Windows Server (Semi-Annual Channel), Windows Server 2016, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Server 2012, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2008

DFS 命名空間是 Windows Server 中的角色服務,可讓您將位於不同伺服器上的共用資料夾,分組成一個或多個邏輯結構命名空間。DFS Namespaces is a role service in Windows Server that enables you to group shared folders located on different servers into one or more logically structured namespaces. 因此可以為使用者提供共用資料夾的虛擬檢視,其中單一路徑即可通向位於多部伺服器上的檔案,如下圖所示:This makes it possible to give users a virtual view of shared folders, where a single path leads to files located on multiple servers, as shown in the following figure:

DFS 命名空間技術項目

以下說明構成 DFS 命名空間的元素:Here's a description of the elements that make up a DFS namespace:

  • 命名空間伺服器 - 命名空間伺服器會裝載一個命名空間。Namespace server - A namespace server hosts a namespace. 命名空間伺服器可以是成員伺服器或網域控制站。The namespace server can be a member server or a domain controller.
  • 命名空間根目錄 - 命名空間根目錄是命名空間的起始點。Namespace root - The namespace root is the starting point of the namespace. 在上圖中,根目錄的名稱為 Public,而命名空間路徑則是 \\Contoso\Public。In the previous figure, the name of the root is Public, and the namespace path is \\Contoso\Public. 這種類型的命名空間以網域名稱 (例如 Contoso) 開頭,而且中繼資料儲存在 Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS),因此是網域型命名空間。This type of namespace is a domain-based namespace because it begins with a domain name (for example, Contoso) and its metadata is stored in Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS). 雖然上圖顯示的是單一命名空間伺服器,但網域型命名空間還是可以裝載於多部命名空間伺服器來提高命名空間的可用性。Although a single namespace server is shown in the previous figure, a domain-based namespace can be hosted on multiple namespace servers to increase the availability of the namespace.
  • 資料夾 - 沒有資料夾目標的資料夾會將結構和階層新增至命名空間,而有資料夾目標的資料夾則會提供實際內容給使用者。Folder - Folders without folder targets add structure and hierarchy to the namespace, and folders with folder targets provide users with actual content. 當使用者瀏覽命名空間中有資料夾目標的資料夾時,用戶端電腦會收到明確地將用戶端電腦重新導向至其中一個資料夾目標的轉介。When users browse a folder that has folder targets in the namespace, the client computer receives a referral that transparently redirects the client computer to one of the folder targets.
  • 資料夾目標 - 資料夾目標是共用資料夾的 UNC 路徑或其他與命名空間中資料夾相關聯的命名空間。Folder targets - A folder target is the UNC path of a shared folder or another namespace that is associated with a folder in a namespace. 資料夾目標是儲存資料及內容所在的位置。The folder target is where data and content is stored. 在上圖中,名為 Tools 的資料夾有兩個資料夾目標,一個在倫敦,另一個在紐約,而名為 Training Guides 的資料夾有一個在紐約的單一資料夾目標。In the previous figure, the folder named Tools has two folder targets, one in London and one in New York, and the folder named Training Guides has a single folder target in New York. 瀏覽至 \\Contoso\Public\Software\Tools 的使用者依其目前所在的網站而定,明確地重新導向至共用資料夾 \\LDN-SVR-01\Tools 或 \\NYC-SVR-01\Tools。A user who browses to \\Contoso\Public\Software\Tools is transparently redirected to the shared folder \\LDN-SVR-01\Tools or \\NYC-SVR-01\Tools, depending on which site the user is currently located in.

這個主題討論如何安裝 DFS、其中的新功能以及到哪裡尋找評估和部署的資訊。This topic discusses how to install DFS, what’s new, and where to find evaluation and deployment information.

您可以使用 DFS Management、Windows PowerShell 中的 DFS 命名空間 (DFSN) CmdletDfsUtil 命令或是呼叫 WMI 的指令碼來管理命名空間。You can administer namespaces by using DFS Management, the DFS Namespace (DFSN) Cmdlets in Windows PowerShell, the DfsUtil command, or scripts that call WMI.

伺服器需求與限制Server requirements and limits

執行 DFS 管理或使用 DFS 命名空間不需要額外的硬體或軟體。There are no additional hardware or software requirements for running DFS Management or using DFS Namespaces.

命名空間伺服器是裝載命名空間的網域控制站或成員伺服器。A namespace server is a domain controller or member server that hosts a namespace. 您可在伺服器上裝載的命名空間數目取決於命名空間伺服器上執行的作業系統。The number of namespaces you can host on a server is determined by the operating system running on the namespace server.

執行下列作業系統的伺服器除了單一獨立命名空間之外,還可以裝載多個網域型命名空間。Servers that are running the following operating systems can host multiple domain-based namespaces in addition to a single stand-alone namespace.

  • Windows Server (半年度管道)Windows Server (Semi-Annual Channel)
  • Windows Server 2016Windows Server 2016
  • Windows Server 2012 R2Windows Server 2012 R2
  • Windows Server 2012Windows Server 2012
  • Windows Server 2008 R2 Datacenter/EnterpriseWindows Server 2008 R2 Datacenter/Enterprise

執行下列作業系統的伺服器可以裝載單一獨立命名空間:Servers that are running the following operating systems can host a single stand-alone namespace:

  • Windows Server 2008 R2 StandardWindows Server 2008 R2 Standard

下表說明選擇裝載命名空間的伺服器時所要考量的其他因素。The following table describes additional factors to consider when choosing servers to host a namespace.

裝載獨立命名空間的伺服器Server Hosting Stand-Alone Namespaces 裝載網域型命名空間的伺服器Server Hosting Domain-Based Namespaces
必須包含 NTFS 磁碟區才能裝載命名空間。Must contain an NTFS volume to host the namespace. 必須包含 NTFS 磁碟區才能裝載命名空間。Must contain an NTFS volume to host the namespace.
可以是成員伺服器或網域控制站。Can be a member server or domain controller. 必須是設定命名空間所在網域中的成員伺服器或網域控制站Must be a member server or domain controller in the domain in which the namespace is configured. (這項需求適用於裝載指定之網域型命名空間的每一個命名空間伺服器)。(This requirement applies to every namespace server that hosts a given domain-based namespace.)
可以由容錯移轉叢集裝載來提高命名空間可用性。Can be hosted by a failover cluster to increase the availability of the namespace. 命名空間不可以是容錯移轉叢集中的叢集化資源。The namespace cannot be a clustered resource in a failover cluster. 不過,如果您將命名空間設定為只使用同樣於容錯移轉叢集中做為節點之伺服器的本機資源,則可以在該伺服器上找到命名空間。However, you can locate the namespace on a server that also functions as a node in a failover cluster if you configure the namespace to use only local resources on that server.

安裝 DFS 命名空間Installing DFS Namespaces

DFS 命名空間與 DFS 複寫是檔案和存放服務角色中的一部分。DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication are a part of the File and Storage Services role. DFS 管理工具 (DFS 管理、適用於 Windows PowerShell 的 DFS 命名空間模組以及命令列工具) 是獨立安裝的,屬於遠端伺服器管理工具的一部分。The management tools for DFS (DFS Management, the DFS Namespaces module for Windows PowerShell, and command-line tools) are installed separately as part of the Remote Server Administration Tools.

使用 [伺服器管理員] 或 PowerShell 來安裝 DFS 命名空間,如下一節中所述。Install DFS Namespaces by using either Server Manager or PowerShell, as described in the next sections.

若要使用 [伺服器管理員] 安裝 DFSTo install DFS by using Server Manager

  1. 開啟 [伺服器管理員],按一下 [管理],然後按一下 [新增角色及功能]Open Server Manager, click Manage, and then click Add Roles and Features. [新增角色及功能精靈] 隨即顯示。The Add Roles and Features Wizard appears.

  2. [伺服器選取項目] 頁面上,選取想要安裝 DFS 的伺服器或離線虛擬機器的虛擬硬碟 (VHD)。On the Server Selection page, select the server or virtual hard disk (VHD) of an offline virtual machine on which you want to install DFS.

  3. 選取您要安裝的角色服務及功能。Select the role services and features that you want to install.

    • 若要安裝 DFS 命名空間服務,請選取 [伺服器角色] 頁面上的 [DFS 命名空間]To install the DFS Namespaces service, on the Server Roles page, select DFS Namespaces.

    • 若要只安裝 DFS 管理工具,請在 [功能] 頁面上,依序展開 [遠端伺服器管理工具][角色管理工具][檔案服務工具],然後選取 [DFS 管理工具]To install only the DFS Management Tools, on the Features page, expand Remote Server Administration Tools, Role Administration Tools, expand File Services Tools, and then select DFS Management Tools.

      [DFS 管理工具] 會安裝 DFS 管理嵌入式管理單元、適用於 Windows PowerShell 的 DFS 命名空間模組及命令列工具,但是不會在伺服器上安裝任何 DFS 服務。DFS Management Tools installs the DFS Management snap-in, the DFS Namespaces module for Windows PowerShell, and command-line tools, but it does not install any DFS services on the server.

若要使用 Windows PowerShell 安裝 DFSTo install DFS by using Windows PowerShell

以提高的使用者權限開啟 Windows PowerShell 工作階段,然後輸入下列命令,其中 <name> 是想要安裝的角色服務或功能 (請參閱下表,了解相關角色服務或功能名稱的清單):Open a Windows PowerShell session with elevated user rights, and then type the following command, where <name> is the role service or feature that you want to install (see the following table for a list of relevant role service or feature names):

Install-WindowsFeature <name>
角色服務或功能Role service or feature 名稱Name
DFS 命名空間DFS Namespaces FS-DFS-Namespace
DFS 管理工具DFS Management Tools RSAT-DFS-Mgmt-Con

例如,若要安裝 [遠端伺服器管理工具] 功能的 [分散式檔案系統工具] 部分,請輸入:For example, to install the Distributed File System Tools portion of the Remote Server Administration Tools feature, type:

Install-WindowsFeature RSAT-DFS-Mgmt-Con

若要安裝 [遠端伺服器管理工具] 功能的 [DFS 命名空間] 及 [分散式檔案系統工具] 部分,請輸入:To install the DFS Namespaces, and the Distributed File System Tools portions of the Remote Server Administration Tools feature, type:

Install-WindowsFeature FS-DFS-Namespace, RSAT-DFS-Mgmt-Con

與 Azure 虛擬機器的互通性Interoperability with Azure virtual machines

已經測試過在 Microsoft Azure 的虛擬機器上使用 DFS 命名空間,但是有一些限制和您必須遵循的需求。Using DFS Namespaces on a virtual machine in Microsoft Azure has been tested; however, there are some limitations and requirements that you must follow.

  • 您無法叢集化 Azure 虛擬機器中的獨立命名空間。You can’t cluster stand-alone namespaces in Azure virtual machines.

  • 您可以在 Azure 虛擬機器中裝載網域型命名空間 (包括使用 Azure Active Directory 的環境),但是單一命名空間不能同時包含內部部署命名空間伺服器和 Azure VM 中裝載的命名空間伺服器,即使正在使用 Active Directory 同盟服務也是如此。You can host domain-based namespaces in Azure virtual machines, including environments with Azure Active Directory, though a single namespace can’t encompass both on premise namespace servers and namespace servers hosted in Azure VMs, even when using Active Directory Federation Services.

若要深入了解如何開始使用 Azure 虛擬機器,請參閱 Azure 虛擬機器文件To learn about how to get started with Azure virtual machines, see Azure virtual machines documentation.

請參閱See also

如需其他相關資訊,請參閱下列資源。For additional related information, see the following resources.

內容類型Content type 參考References
產品評估Product evaluation Windows Server 中的 DFS 命名空間和 DFS 複寫的新功能What's New in DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication in Windows Server
部署Deployment DFS 命名空間延展性考量DFS Namespace Scalability Considerations
操作Operations DFS 命名空間:常見問題集DFS Namespaces: Frequently Asked Questions
社群資源Community resources 檔案服務和儲存體 TechNet 論壇The File Services and Storage TechNet Forum
通訊協定Protocols 檔案服務 Windows Server 通訊協定File Services Windows Server Protocols
相關技術Related technologies 容錯移轉叢集Failover Clustering