iSCSI 目標開機概觀iSCSI target boot overview

適用於:Windows Server (半年度管道)、Windows Server 2016Applies to: Windows Server (Semi-Annual Channel), Windows Server 2016

Windows Server 中的 iSCSI 目標伺服器可透過儲存在集中位置的單一作業系統映像,將數百部電腦開機。iSCSI Target Server in Windows Server can boot hundreds of computers from a single operating system image that is stored in a centralized location. 這個做法可以提升效率、管理性、可用性以及安全性。This improves efficiency, manageability, availability, and security.

功能描述Feature description

您可以透過差異虛擬硬碟 (VHDs),使用單一作業系統映像 (「母片映像」) 執行多達 256 部電腦的開機。By using differencing virtual hard disks (VHDs), you can use a single operating system image (the "master image") to boot up to 256 computers. 例如,假設您使用大約為 20 GB 的作業系統映像部署了 Windows Server,而您使用兩個鏡像磁碟機做為開機磁碟區。As an example, let's assume that you deployed Windows Server with an operating system image of approximately 20 GB, and you used two mirrored disk drives to act as the boot volume. 僅要將 256 部電腦的作業系統映像開機,您將需要大約 10 TB 的存放空間。You would have needed approximately 10 TB of storage for only the operating system image to boot 256 computers. 利用 iSCSI 目標伺服器,您會將 40 GB 供作業系統基礎映像使用,以及將 2 GB 供每個伺服器執行個體差異虛擬硬碟使用,總共 552 GB 用於作業系統映像。With iSCSI Target Server, you will use 40 GB for the operating system base image, and 2 GB for differencing virtual hard disks per server instance, totaling 552 GB for the operating system images. 相較於單獨儲存作業系統映像,這可以節省 90% 以上的儲存空間。This provides a savings of over 90% on storage for the operating system images alone.

實際應用Practical applications

使用受到控制的作業系統映像可提供下列優點:Using a controlled operating system image provides the following benefits:

更安全且容易管理。More secure and easier to manage. 有些企業要求以實際鎖定在集中位置的儲存裝置來保護資料。Some enterprises require that data be secured by physically locking storage in a centralized location. 在這種情況下,伺服器會從遠端存取資料,包括作業系統映像。In this scenario, servers access the data remotely, including the operating system image. 有了 iSCSI 目標伺服器,系統管理員可以集中管理作業系統開機映像,並控制要在母片映像中使用的應用程式。With iSCSI Target Server, administrators can centrally manage the operating system boot images, and control which applications to use for the master image.

快速部署。Rapid deployment. 因為母片映像是使用 Sysprep 準備,當電腦從母片映像開機時,會略過 Windows 安裝期間所進行的檔案複製和安裝階段,直接進入自訂階段。Because the master image is prepared by using Sysprep, when computers boot from the master image, they skip the file copying and installation phase that occurs during Windows Setup, and they go straight to the customization phase. 在 Microsoft 內部測試中,於 34 分鐘內部署了 256 部電腦。In Microsoft internal testing, 256 computers were deployed in 34 minutes.

快速復原。Fast recovery. 因為作業系統映像是裝載在執行 iSCSI 目標伺服器的電腦上,所以如果需要更換無磁碟用戶端,新的電腦可以指向作業系統映像,然後立即開機。Because the operating system images are hosted on the computer running iSCSI Target Server, if a diskless client needs to be replaced, the new computer can point to the operating system image, and boot up immediately.


許多廠商提供存放區域網路 (SAN) 開機解決方案,可供 iSCSI 目標伺服器在採用商用硬體的 Windows Server 中使用。Various vendors provide a storage area network (SAN) boot solution, which can be used by the iSCSI Target Server in Windows Server on commodity hardware.

硬體需求Hardware requirements

iSCSI 目標伺服器不需要特殊硬體即可進行功能上的驗證。iSCSI Target Server does not require special hardware for functional verification. 在包含大規模部署的資料中心,應該針對特定硬體驗證設計。In data centers with large-scale deployments, the design should be validated against specific hardware. 給您作參考,Microsoft 內部測試指出 256 電腦的部署需要在 RAID 10 設定中有 24 個 15000 RPM 的磁碟用於儲存體。For reference, Microsoft internal testing indicated that a 256 computer deployment required 24x15k-RPM disks in a RAID 10 configuration for storage. 最佳的網路頻寬為 10 GB。A network bandwidth of 10 GB is optimal. 一般預估為每 1 GB 的網路介面卡供 60 部 iSCSI 開機伺服器使用。A general estimate is 60 iSCSI boot servers per 1 GB network adapter.

此案例中不需要網路介面卡,並且可以使用軟體開機載入器 (例如 iPXE 開放來源開機韌體)。A network adapter is not required for this scenario, and a software boot loader can be used (such as iPXE open source boot firmware).

軟體需求Software requirements

iSCSI 目標伺服器可以隨著伺服器管理員中的檔案和 iSCSI 服務角色服務安裝。iSCSI Target Server can be installed as part of the File and iSCSI Services role service in Server Manager.


不支援從 iSCSI (無論是從 Windows iSCSI 目標伺服器或協力廠商的目標實作) 將 Nano 伺服器開機。Booting Nano Server from iSCSI (either from the Windows iSCSI Target Server, or a 3rd party target implementation) is not supported.

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