復原檔案系統 (ReFS) 概觀Resilient File System (ReFS) overview

適用於:Windows Server (半年度管道)、Windows Server 2016、Windows Server 2012 R2、Windows Server 2012Applies to: Windows Server (Semi-Annual Channel), Windows Server 2016, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Server 2012

復原檔案系統 (ReFS) 是 Microsoft 最新的檔案系統,設計用來將資料可用性最大化、在各種工作負載間有效率地調整為極大型的資料集,以及透過復原損毀來提供資料完整性。The Resilient File System (ReFS) is Microsoft's newest file system, designed to maximize data availability, scale efficiently to large data sets across diverse workloads, and provide data integrity by means of resiliency to corruption. 其會設法因應一組擴充的儲存體案例,並建立基礎供未來創新所用。It seeks to address an expanding set of storage scenarios and establish a foundation for future innovations.

主要優點Key benefits

復原Resiliency

ReFS 所引入的新功能可精準偵測損毀,並在維持上線狀態時修正該類損毀,進而協助提升您資料的完整性及可用性:ReFS introduces new features that can precisely detect corruptions and also fix those corruptions while remaining online, helping provide increased integrity and availability for your data:

  • 完整性資料流 - ReFS 對中繼資料使用總和檢查碼,對檔案資料則為予以選用,使 ReFS 可穩固偵測損毀。Integrity-streams - ReFS uses checksums for metadata and optionally for file data, giving ReFS the ability to reliably detect corruptions.
  • 儲存空間整合 - 與鏡像或同位空間共用時,ReFS 可使用儲存空間提供的資料其他備份檔,自動修復偵測到的損毀。Storage Spaces integration - When used in conjunction with a mirror or parity space, ReFS can automatically repair detected corruptions using the alternate copy of the data provided by Storage Spaces. 修復程序可以將範圍局部縮小為毀損的區域並線上執行,而不需要讓任何磁碟區停機。Repair processes are both localized to the area of corruption and performed online, requiring no volume downtime.
  • 殘餘資料 - 若磁碟區變為損毀且該損毀資料的其他備份檔不存在,ReFS 會從命名空間移除損毀資料。Salvaging data - If a volume becomes corrupted and an alternate copy of the corrupted data doesn't exist, ReFS removes the corrupt data from the namespace. ReFS 會在處理多數無法修正的損毀時使磁碟區維持上線狀態,但極少情況會需要 ReFS 使磁碟區離線。ReFS keeps the volume online while it handles most non-correctable corruptions, but there are rare cases that require ReFS to take the volume offline.
  • 主動式錯誤修正 - ReFS 除了在讀取與寫入前驗證資料之外,還引入稱作清除程式的資料完整性掃描器。Proactive error correction - In addition to validating data before reads and writes, ReFS introduces a data integrity scanner, known as a scrubber. 此清除程式會定期掃描磁碟區、識別隱藏的損毀,以及主動觸發該毀損資料的修復。This scrubber periodically scans the volume, identifying latent corruptions and proactively triggering a repair of corrupt data.

效能Performance

ReFS 除了提供復原改善外,還引入了供重視效能的虛擬工作負載所用的新功能。In addition to providing resiliency improvements, ReFS introduces new features for performance-sensitive and virtualized workloads. 即時階層最佳化、區塊複製及疏鬆 VDL 為 ReFS 功能演化的最佳範例,設計用來支援動態及多種工作負載:Real-time tier optimization, block cloning, and sparse VDL are good examples of the evolving capabilities of ReFS, which are designed to support dynamic and diverse workloads:

  • 鏡像加速的同位 - 鏡像加速的同位為您的資料提供不僅效能高,而且容量也很有效率的儲存體。Mirror-accelerated parity - Mirror-accelerated parity delivers both high performance and also capacity efficient storage for your data.

    • 為了提供效能高且容量有效率的儲存體,ReFS 將磁碟區分為兩個邏輯儲存群組,稱為階層。To deliver both high performance and capacity efficient storage, ReFS divides a volume into two logical storage groups, known as tiers. 這些階層可具備自己專屬的磁碟機及復原類型,讓各個階層針對效能或容量進行最佳化。These tiers can have their own drive and resiliency types, allowing each tier to optimize for either performance or capacity. 部分範例設定包括:Some example configurations include:
| <span data-ttu-id="13792-123">效能層</span><span class="sxs-lookup"><span data-stu-id="13792-123">Performance tier</span></span> | <span data-ttu-id="13792-124">容量層</span><span class="sxs-lookup"><span data-stu-id="13792-124">Capacity tier</span></span> |
|----------------|-----------------|
 <span data-ttu-id="13792-125">鏡像 SSD</span><span class="sxs-lookup"><span data-stu-id="13792-125">Mirrored SSD</span></span> | <span data-ttu-id="13792-126">鏡像 HDD</span><span class="sxs-lookup"><span data-stu-id="13792-126">Mirrored HDD</span></span> |
 <span data-ttu-id="13792-127">鏡像 SSD</span><span class="sxs-lookup"><span data-stu-id="13792-127">Mirrored SSD</span></span> | <span data-ttu-id="13792-128">同位 SSD</span><span class="sxs-lookup"><span data-stu-id="13792-128">Parity SSD</span></span> |
 <span data-ttu-id="13792-129">鏡像 SSD</span><span class="sxs-lookup"><span data-stu-id="13792-129">Mirrored SSD</span></span> | <span data-ttu-id="13792-130">同位 HDD</span><span class="sxs-lookup"><span data-stu-id="13792-130">Parity HDD</span></span> |   

- <span data-ttu-id="13792-131">這些階層設定後,ReFS 會加以使用為經常存取的資料提供快速的儲存體,並為非經常存取的資料提供容量有效率的儲存體。</span><span class="sxs-lookup"><span data-stu-id="13792-131">Once these tiers are configured, ReFS use them to deliver fast storage for hot data and capacity-efficient storage for cold data:</span></span>
    - <span data-ttu-id="13792-132">所有寫入都會在效能層發生,而維持在效能層中的大型資料區塊將有效率地即時移至容量層。</span><span class="sxs-lookup"><span data-stu-id="13792-132">All writes will occur in the performance tier, and large chunks of data that remain in the performance tier will be efficiently moved to the capacity tier in real-time.</span></span>
    - <span data-ttu-id="13792-133">若使用[混合部署](../storage-spaces/choosing-drives.md) (混合快閃與 HDD 磁碟機),[儲存空間直接存取中的快取](../storage-spaces/understand-the-cache.md)將協助加快讀取速度,及降低虛擬工作負載資料分散特性的影響。</span><span class="sxs-lookup"><span data-stu-id="13792-133">If using a [hybrid deployment](../storage-spaces/choosing-drives.md) (mixing flash and HDD drives), [the cache in Storage Spaces Direct](../storage-spaces/understand-the-cache.md) will help accelerate reads, reducing the effect of data fragmentation characteristic of virtualized workloads.</span></span> <span data-ttu-id="13792-134">否則,若使用全快閃部署,讀取也將於效能層發生。</span><span class="sxs-lookup"><span data-stu-id="13792-134">Otherwise, if using an all-flash deployment, reads will also occur in the performance tier.</span></span> 

注意

對於伺服器部署,鏡像加速的同位僅支援儲存空間直接存取For Server deployments, mirror-accelerated parity is only supported on Storage Spaces Direct.

  • 高速 VM 作業 - ReFS 引入新功能,特別將目標擺在改善虛擬工作負載的效能:Accelerated VM operations - ReFS introduces new functionality specifically targeted to improve the performance of virtualized workloads:

    • 區塊複製 - 區塊複製會加快複製作業的速度,達成快速且低影響的 VM 檢查點合併作業。Block cloning - Block cloning accelerates copy operations, enabling quick, low-impact VM checkpoint merge operations.
    • 疏鬆 VDL - 疏鬆 VDL 可讓 ReFS 將檔案快速歸零,將建立固定 VHD 所需的時間從 10 幾分鐘降至只需幾秒。Sparse VDL - Sparse VDL allows ReFS to zero files rapidly, reducing the time needed to create fixed VHDs from 10s of minutes to mere seconds.
  • 變數叢集大小 - ReFS 支援 4K 與 64K 叢集大小。Variable cluster sizes - ReFS supports both 4K and 64K cluster sizes. 4K 為多數部署的建議叢集大小,但 64K 叢集適用於大型循序 IO 工作負載。4K is the recommended cluster size for most deployments, but 64K clusters are appropriate for large, sequential IO workloads.

延展性Scalability

ReFS 設計用來支援超大型資料集 (百萬個 TB) 而不會對效能有負面影響,比先前的檔案系統達到更大的規模。ReFS is designed to support extremely large data sets--millions of terabytes--without negatively impacting performance, achieving greater scale than prior file systems.

支援的部署Supported deployments

儲存空間直接存取Storage Spaces Direct

建議針對虛擬工作負載或網路連接儲存裝置,將 ReFS 部署在儲存空間直接存取上:Deploying ReFS on Storage Spaces Direct is recommended for virtualized workloads or network-attached storage:

  • 鏡像加速的同位以及儲存空間直接存取中的快取會提供效能高且容量有效率的儲存體。Mirror-accelerated parity and the cache in Storage Spaces Direct deliver high performance and capacity-efficient storage.
  • 引入區塊複製與疏鬆 VDL 大幅提升了 .vhdx 檔案作業的速度,例如建立、合併及擴充。The introduction of block clone and sparse VDL dramatically accelerates .vhdx file operations, such as creation, merge, and expansion.
  • 完整性資料流、線上修復及替代資料複本可讓 ReFS 及儲存空間直接存取共同偵測並修正中繼資料及資料內的損毀。Integrity-streams, online repair, and alternate data copies enable ReFS and Storage Spaces Direct to jointly to detect and correct corruptions within both metadata and data.
  • ReFS 提供可擴充和支援大型資料集的功能。ReFS provides the functionality to scale and support large data sets.

儲存空間內含 SAS 磁碟機機箱Storage Spaces with SAS drive enclosures

在儲存空間 (含共用 SAS 機箱) 上部署 ReFS,很適合用來裝載封存資料和存放使用者文件:Deploying ReFS on Storage Spaces with shared SAS enclosures is suitable for hosting archival data and storing user documents:

  • 完整性資料流、線上修復及替代資料複本可讓 ReFS 與儲存空間共同偵測並修正中繼資料及資料內的損毀。Integrity-streams, online repair, and alternate data copies enable ReFS and Storage Spaces to jointly to detect and correct corruptions within both metadata and data.
  • 儲存空間部署也可以使用 ReFS 中的提供的區塊複製和延展性。Storage Spaces deployments can also utilize block-cloning and the scalability offered in ReFS.

基本磁碟Basic disks

在基本磁碟上部署 ReFS,最適合自行實作軟體復原及可用性解決方案的應用程式。Deploying ReFS on basic disks is best suited for applications that implement their own software resiliency and availibility solutions.

  • 自行導入復原及可用性軟體解決方案的應用程式可以善加利用完整性資料流、區塊複製,以及擴充和支援大型資料集的功能。Applications that introduce their own resiliency and availability software solutions can leverage integrity-streams, block-cloning, and the ability to scale and support large data sets.

注意

連接 SAN 的儲存體不支援 ReFS。ReFS is not supported on SAN-attached storage.

功能比較Feature comparison

限制Limits

功能Feature ReFSReFS NTFSNTFS
檔案名稱長度上限Maximum file name length 255 個 Unicode 字元255 Unicode characters 255 個 Unicode 字元255 Unicode characters
路徑名稱長度上限Maximum path name length 32K Unicode 字元32K Unicode characters 32K Unicode 字元32K Unicode characters
檔案大小上限Maximum file size 18 EB (艾位元組)18 EB (exabytes) 18 EB (艾位元組)18 EB (exabytes)
磁碟區大小上限Maximum volume size 4.7 ZB (澤位元組)4.7 ZB (zettabytes) 256 TB256 TB

功能Functionality

您可以在 ReFS 和 NTFS 中使用下列功能:The following features are available on ReFS and NTFS:

功能Functionality ReFSReFS NTFSNTFS
BitLocker 加密BitLocker encryption Yes Yes
叢集共用磁碟區 (CSV) 支援Cluster Shared Volume (CSV) support Yes Yes
軟式連結Soft links Yes Yes
容錯移轉叢集支援Failover cluster support Yes Yes
存取控制清單Access-control lists Yes Yes
USN 日誌USN journal Yes Yes
變更通知Changes notifications Yes Yes
連接點Junction points Yes Yes
掛接點Mount points Yes Yes
重新分析點Reparse points Yes Yes
磁碟區快照Volume snapshots Yes Yes
檔案識別碼File IDs Yes Yes
OplocksOplocks Yes Yes
疏鬆檔案Sparse files Yes Yes
已命名的資料流Named streams Yes Yes

只有在 ReFS 中才可以使用下列功能:The following features are only available on ReFS:

功能Functionality ReFSReFS NTFSNTFS
區塊複製Block clone Yes No
疏鬆 VDLSparse VDL Yes No
鏡像加速的同位Mirror-accelerated parity 是 (在儲存空間直接存取上)Yes (on Storage Spaces Direct) No

目前下列功能無法在 ReFS 上使用:The following features are unavailable on ReFS at this time:

功能Functionality ReFSReFS NTFSNTFS
檔案系統壓縮File system compression No Yes
檔案系統加密File system encryption No Yes
重複資料刪除Data Deduplication No Yes
交易Transactions No Yes
永久連結Hard links No Yes
物件識別碼Object IDs No Yes
簡短名稱Short names No Yes
擴充屬性Extended attributes No Yes
磁碟配額Disk quotas No Yes
可開機Bootable No Yes
在抽取式媒體上受支援Supported on removable media No Yes
NTFS 儲存層NTFS storage tiers No Yes

另請參閱See also