Windows Server 的儲存空間Storage in Windows Server

適用於:Windows Server (半年度管道)、Windows Server 2016Applies To: Windows Server (Semi-Annual Channel), Windows Server 2016

Icon representing a drive Windows Server 中的儲存空間可以提供新功能和改進功能,讓軟體定義資料中心 (SDDC) 的客戶可以專注處理虛擬化工作負載。Storage in Windows Server provides new and improved features for software-defined datacenter (SDDC) customers focusing on virtualized workloads. WindowsServer 也會為使用檔案伺服器搭配現有工作負載的企業客戶提供廣泛的支援。Windows Server also provides extensive support for enterprise customers using file servers with existing workloads.

若要了解儲存空間的新功能,請參閱儲存空間的新功能容錯移轉叢集的新功能To find out about what's new in storage, see What's new in storage and What's new in Failover Clustering.

如需 WindowsServer 中內含的儲存技術概觀,請參閱下列清單 (依工作負載分類)。For an overview of storage technologies included in Windows Server, see the following list (categorized by workload).

適用於虛擬化工作負載的軟體定義存放裝置Software-defined storage for virtualized workloads

  • 儲存空間 - 儲存空間現在包含對儲存空間直接存取的支援,儲存空間直接存取為儲存空間叢集的新架構,可直接使用連接的本機存放裝置 (包括 SATA 和 NVME 裝置)。Storage Spaces - Storage Spaces now includes support for Storage Spaces Direct - a new architecture for Storage Spaces clusters that uses directly attached local storage - including SATA and NVME devices. 其他增強功能包括能夠在加入新的實體磁碟和更快速的虛擬磁碟修復時間之後,將磁碟使用量最佳化。Other enhancements include the ability to optimize disk usage after adding new physical disks and faster virtual disk repair times.

  • 儲存體複本 (新增) - 儲存體複本是可針對災害整備與復原啟用叢集或伺服器之間的儲存體診斷、區塊層級的同步複寫,以及針對高可用性的跨站台容錯移轉叢集延伸。Storage Replica (new) - Storage Replica enables storage-agnostic, block-level, synchronous replication between clusters or servers for disaster preparedness and recovery, as well as stretching of a failover cluster across sites for high availability. 同步複寫可在具備當機時保持一致磁碟區的實體站台中啟用資料的鏡像,確保檔案系統層級零資料遺失。Synchronous replication enables mirroring of data in physical sites with crash-consistent volumes, ensuring zero data loss at the file system level. 非同步複寫允許超出本土範圍的網站擴充功能。Asynchronous replication allows site extension beyond metropolitan ranges.

  • 存放裝置 QoS (新增) - 存放裝置服務品質 (QoS) 可提供方法,以使用 Hyper-V 與向外延展檔案伺服器角色來集中監視和管理虛擬機器的存放裝置效能。Storage QoS (new) - Storage Quality of Service (QoS) provides a way to centrally monitor and manage storage performance for virtual machines using Hyper-V and the Scale-Out File Server roles. 此功能會使用相同的檔案伺服器叢集,來自動改善多個虛擬機器之間的存放裝置資源公平性,並允許以標準化的 IOPS 單位設定特定最小和最大效能目標。The feature automatically improves storage resource fairness between multiple virtual machines using the same file server cluster and allows specific minimum and maximum performance goals to be configured in units of normalized IOPs.

  • 重複資料刪除 - 重複資料刪除是一項 WindowsServer 2016 功能,可協助降低重複資料對儲存體成本的影響。Data Deduplication - Data Deduplication is a feature of Windows Server 2016 that can help reduce the impact of redundant data on storage costs. 啟用時,重複資料刪除功能會藉由檢查磁碟區上資料重複的情況,最佳化磁碟區上的可用空間。When enabled, Data Deduplication optimizes free space on a volume by examining the data on the volume for duplication. 識別完成之後,重複的磁碟區資料集部分只會儲存一次並 (選擇性) 進行壓縮,進一步節省空間。Once identified, duplicated portions of the volume's dataset are stored once and are (optionally) compressed for additional savings. 重複資料刪除可將備援最佳化,而不必犧牲資料精確度或完整性。Data Deduplication optimizes redundancies without compromise data fidelity or integrity.

一般用途的檔案伺服器General-purpose file servers

  • 工作資料夾 - 利用工作資料夾,除了公司電腦,使用者可以在個人電腦和裝置 (通常稱為「帶您自己的裝置 (BYOD)」) 上儲存和存取工作檔案。Work Folders - With Work Folders users can store and access work files on personal computers and devices, often referred to as bring-your-own device (BYOD), in addition to corporate PCs. 使用者獲得方便儲存工作檔案的位置,而他們能夠從任何地方存取這類檔案。Users gain a convenient location to store work files, and they can access them from anywhere. 組織將檔案儲存在集中管理的檔案伺服器上,並選擇性地指定使用者裝置原則 (例如加密和鎖定畫面密碼),藉此維持對公司資料的控制權。Organizations maintain control over corporate data by storing the files on centrally managed file servers, and optionally specifying user device policies such as encryption and lock-screen passwords.

  • 離線檔案、資料夾重新導向以及漫遊使用者設定檔 - 資料夾重新導向與離線檔案一併使用時,可將本機資料夾 (例如 [文件] 資料夾) 的路徑重新導向到網路位置,同時在本機快取該資料夾的內容,以提升速度及可用性。Offline Files, Folder Redirection, and Roaming User Profiles - Folder Redirection and Offline Files are used together to redirect the path of local folders (such as the Documents folder) to a network location, while caching the contents locally for increased speed and availability. 您可以使用漫遊使用者設定檔將使用者設定檔重新導向到網路位置。Roaming User Profiles is used to redirect a user profile to a network location.

  • DFS 命名空間 - 可讓您將位於不同伺服器上的共用資料夾,群組成一或多個邏輯結構命名空間。DFS Namespaces - Enables you to group shared folders that are located on different servers into one or more logically structured namespaces. 每個命名空間對使用者顯示為含有一系列子資料夾的單一共用資料夾。Each namespace appears to users as a single shared folder with a series of subfolders. 不過,命名空間的基本結構可以包含多個檔案共用,而它們位於不同伺服器與多個站台。However, the underlying structure of the namespace can consist of numerous file shares that are located on different servers and in multiple sites.

  • DFS 複寫 - 可讓您在多個伺服器與站台有效率地複寫資料夾 (包括 DFS 命名空間路徑參照的資料夾)。DFS Replication - Enables you to efficiently replicate folders (including those referred to by a DFS namespace path) across multiple servers and sites. DFS 複寫使用的壓縮演算法稱為遠端差異壓縮 (RDC)。DFS Replication uses a compression algorithm known as remote differential compression (RDC). RDC 會偵測到檔案中資料的變更,然後讓 DFS 複寫僅複寫已變更的檔案區塊,而不是複寫整個檔案。RDC detects changes to the data in a file, and it enables DFS Replication to replicate only the changed file blocks instead of the entire file.

  • 檔案伺服器資源管理員 - 檔案伺服器資源管理員可讓您管理和分類儲存在檔案伺服器上的資料。File Server Resource Manager - File Server Resource Manager enables you to manage and classify data stored on file servers. 檔案伺服器資源管理員包含下列功能:File Server Resource Manager includes the following functionality:

    • 檔案分類 - 檔案分類 (也稱為檔案分類基礎結構 (FCI)) 可透過自動化分類程序,讓您深入了解資料,以便更有效地管理資料。File Classification - File Classification, also known as File Classification Infrastructure, provides insight into your data by automating classification processes so that you can manage your data more effectively. 您可以分類檔案,並以該分類為基礎套用原則。You can classify files and apply policies based on this classification. 這些原則的範例包括限制檔案存取、檔案加密以及檔案到期的動態存取控制。Example policies include dynamic access control for restricting access to files, file encryption, and file expiration. 您可以使用檔案分類規則自動分類檔案,或修改所選檔案或資料夾的屬性來手動分類檔案。Files can be classified automatically by using file classification rules or manually by modifying the properties of a selected file or folder.

    • 檔案檢測 - 檔案檢測協助您控制使用者可在檔案伺服器上儲存的檔案類型。File Screens - File screens help you control the types of files that user can store on a file server. 您可以限制可以儲存在共用檔案上的副檔名。You can limit the extension that can be stored on your shared files. 例如,您可以建立一個檔案檢測,不允許在檔案伺服器的個人共用資料夾中儲存副檔名為 MP3 的檔案。For example, you can create a file screen that does not allow files with an MP3 extension to be stored in personal shared folders on a file server.

    • 檔案管理工作 - 檔案管理工作能讓您根據檔案的分類來套用條件性原則或動作。File Management Tasks - File Management Tasks enables you to apply a conditional policy or action to files based on their classification. 檔案管理工作的條件包括檔案位置、分類屬性、檔案建立日期、檔案上次修改日期,或檔案上次存取時間。The conditions of a file management task include the file location, the classification properties, the date the file was created, the last modified date of the file, or the last time the file was accessed. 檔案管理工作可以採取的動作包括使檔案到期、加密檔案或執行自訂命令的能力。The actions that a file management task can take include the ability to expire files, encrypt files, or run a custom command.

    • 配額 - 配額可讓您限制磁碟區或資料夾允許使用的空間,而且可以自動套用到磁碟區上建立的新資料夾。Quotas - Quotas allow you to limit the space that is allowed for a volume or folder, and they can be automatically applied to new folders that are created on a volume. 您也可以定義能夠套用至新磁碟區或資料夾的配額範本。You can also define quota templates that can be applied to new volumes or folders.

    • 存放裝置報告 - 存放裝置報告可用來協助您識別磁碟使用量的趨勢,以及資料的分類方式。Storage Reports - Storage reports are used to help you identify trends in disk usage and how your data is classified. 您也可以監視選取的使用者群組是否嘗試儲存未授權的檔案。You can also monitor a selected group of users for attempts to save unauthorized files.

  • iSCSI 目標伺服器 - iSCSI 目標伺服器使用網際網路 SCSI (iSCSI) 標準,為網路上的其他伺服器與應用程式提供區塊儲存區。iSCSI Target Server - iSCSI Target Server provides block storage to other servers and applications on the network by using the Internet SCSI (iSCSI) standard.

  • iSCSI 目標開機 - Windows Server 中的 iSCSI 目標伺服器可透過儲存在集中位置的單一作業系統映像,將數百部電腦開機。iSCSI Target Boot - iSCSI Target Server in Windows Server can boot hundreds of computers from a single operating system image that is stored in a centralized location. 這個做法可以提升效率、管理性、可用性以及安全性。This improves efficiency, manageability, availability, and security.

檔案系統、通訊協定等。File systems, protocols, etc.

  • ReFS - ReFS 是一個具彈性的檔案系統,可將資料可用性最大化、在各種工作負載間有效率地調整為非常大型的資料集,以及透過對於毀損的彈性 (不論是軟體或硬體失敗) 來提供資料完整性。ReFS - ReFS is a resilient file system that maximizes data availability, scales efficiently to very large data sets across diverse workloads, and provides data integrity by means of resiliency to corruption (regardless of software or hardware failures).

  • SMB - 伺服器訊息區 (SMB) 通訊協定是網路檔案共用通訊協定,允許電腦上的應用程式讀取和寫入檔案,以及要求來自電腦網路中伺服器程式的服務。SMB - The Server Message Block (SMB) protocol is a network file sharing protocol that allows applications on a computer to read and write to files and to request services from server programs in a computer network. SMB 通訊協定可以用於其 TCP/IP 通訊協定或其他網路通訊協定的最上方。The SMB protocol can be used on top of its TCP/IP protocol or other network protocols. 使用 SMB 通訊協定,應用程式 (或應用程式的使用者) 可以存取遠端伺服器上的檔案或其他資源。Using the SMB protocol, an application (or the user of an application) can access files or other resources at a remote server. 這允許應用程式讀取、建立及更新遠端伺服器上的檔案。This allows applications to read, create, and update files on the remote server. 它也可以與任何設定來接收 SMB 用戶端要求的伺服器程式進行通訊。It can also communicate with any server program that is set up to receive an SMB client request.

  • 存放裝置類別記憶體 - 存放裝置類別記憶體 (例如 NVDIMM-N 裝置) 可提供類似電腦記憶體的效能 (高速),但是具備一般存放磁碟機的資料持續性。Storage-class memory - Storage-class memory such as NVDIMM-N devices provide performance similar to computer memory (really fast), but with the data persistence of normal storage drives. 存放裝置類別記憶體對於 Windows 就如同一般的磁碟機 (只是速度更快),但其裝置健全狀況的管理方式有一些差異。Windows treats storage-class memory similary to normal drives (just faster), but there are some differences in the way device health is managed.

  • BitLocker - 即使電腦遭到篡改,或者當作業系統未執行時,BitLocker 磁碟機加密都會以加密格式將資料儲存於磁碟區。BitLocker - BitLocker Drive Encryption stores data on volumes in an encrypted format, even if the computer is tampered with or when the operating system is not running. 這有助於防範離線攻擊,攻擊是藉由停用或規避已安裝的作業系統,或是透過實際取出硬碟以個別攻擊資料。This helps protect against offline attacks, attacks made by disabling or circumventing the installed operating system, or made by physically removing the hard drive to attack the data separately.

  • NTFS - NTFS (最新版 Windows 和 WindowsServer 的主要檔案系統) 提供一組完整的功能,包括安全性描述元、加密、磁碟配額,以及豐富的中繼資料,並且可與叢集共用磁碟區 (CSV) 搭配使用,以提供持續可用的磁碟區,讓您可以從容錯移轉叢集的多個節點同時存取。NTFS - NTFS—the primary file system for recent versions of Windows and Windows Server—provides a full set of features including security descriptors, encryption, disk quotas, and rich metadata, and can be used with Cluster Shared Volumes (CSV) to provide continuously available volumes that can be accessed simultaneously from multiple nodes of a Failover Cluster.

  • NFS - 網路檔案系統 (NFS) 可為擁有由 Windows 和非 Windows 電腦所組成之異質環境的企業,提供檔案共用解決方案。NFS - Network File System (NFS) provides a file sharing solution for enterprises that have heterogeneous environments that consist of both Windows and non-Windows computers.

另請參閱See also