儲存體遷移服務總覽Storage Migration Service overview

適用于: Windows Server 2019、Windows Server 2016、Windows Server 2012 R2、Windows Server (半年通道)Applies to: Windows Server 2019, Windows Server 2016, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Server (Semi-Annual Channel)

儲存體遷移服務可讓您更輕鬆地將存放裝置遷移至 Windows Server 或 Azure。Storage Migration Service makes it easier to migrate storage to Windows Server or to Azure. 它提供了一種圖形化工具,可清查 Windows 和 Linux 伺服器上的資料,然後將資料傳輸到較新的伺服器或 Azure 虛擬機器。It provides a graphical tool that inventories data on Windows and Linux servers and then transfers the data to newer servers or to Azure virtual machines. 儲存體遷移服務也提供將伺服器身分識別傳送至目的地伺服器的選項,讓應用程式和使用者可以存取其資料,而不需要變更連結或路徑。Storage Migration Service also provides the option to transfer the identity of a server to the destination server so that apps and users can access their data without changing links or paths.

本主題討論為何您會想要使用儲存體遷移服務、遷移程式的運作方式、來源與目的地伺服器的需求,以及儲存體遷移服務的新功能This topic discusses why you'd want to use Storage Migration Service, how the migration process works, what the requirements are for source and destination servers, and what's new in Storage Migration Service.

為何要使用儲存體遷移服務Why use Storage Migration Service

使用儲存體遷移服務,因為您有一部伺服器(或許多伺服器)想要遷移至較新的硬體或虛擬機器。Use Storage Migration Service because you've got a server (or a lot of servers) that you want to migrate to newer hardware or virtual machines. 儲存體遷移服務的設計目的是要協助執行下列作業:Storage Migration Service is designed to help by doing the following:

  • 清查多部伺服器及其資料Inventory multiple servers and their data
  • 從來源伺服器快速傳輸檔案、檔案共用和安全性設定Rapidly transfer files, file shares, and security configuration from the source servers
  • 選擇性接管來源伺服器的身分識別(也稱為「剪下」),讓使用者和應用程式不必變更任何專案即可存取現有的資料Optionally take over the identity of the source servers (also known as cutting over) so that users and apps don't have to change anything to access existing data
  • 從 Windows 系統管理中心使用者介面管理一或多個遷移Manage one or multiple migrations from the Windows Admin Center user interface

此圖顯示儲存體遷移服務將檔案從來源伺服器遷移至目的地伺服器、Azure Vm 或 Azure 檔案同步的 & 設定。

圖1:儲存體遷移服務的來源和目的地Figure 1: Storage Migration Service sources and destinations

遷移程式的運作方式How the migration process works

遷移是三個步驟的程式:Migration is a three-step process:

  1. 清查伺服器以收集其檔案和設定的相關資訊(如 [圖 2] 所示)。Inventory servers to gather info about their files and configuration (shown in Figure 2).
  2. 將資料從來源伺服器傳輸(複製) 到目的地伺服器。Transfer (copy) data from the source servers to the destination servers.
  3. 切換至新的伺服器(選擇性)。Cut over to the new servers (optional).
    目的地伺服器會假設來源伺服器先前的身分識別,讓應用程式和使用者不必變更任何專案。The destination servers assume the source servers' former identities so that apps and users don't have to change anything.
    來源伺服器會進入維護狀態,其中仍包含它們一律具有的相同檔案(我們絕對不會移除來源伺服器中的檔案),但無法供使用者和應用程式使用。The source servers enter a maintenance state where they still contain the same files they always have (we never remove files from the source servers) but are unavailable to users and apps. 然後您就可以方便地解除委任伺服器。You can then decommission the servers at your convenience.

螢幕擷取畫面,顯示已準備好掃描的伺服器 圖2:儲存體遷移服務清查伺服器Screenshot showing a server ready to be scanned Figure 2: Storage Migration Service inventorying servers

以下影片示範如何使用儲存體遷移服務來採用伺服器,例如現在不支援的 Windows Server 2008 R2 伺服器,以及將存放裝置移至較新的伺服器。Here's a video showing how to use Storage Migration Service to take a server, such as a Windows Server 2008 R2 server that's now out of support, and move the storage to a newer server.

需求Requirements

若要使用儲存體遷移服務,您需要下列各項:To use Storage Migration Service, you need the following:

  • 用來遷移檔案和資料的來源伺服器容錯移轉叢集A source server or failover cluster to migrate files and data from
  • 執行 Windows Server 2019 (叢集或獨立)以遷移至的目的地伺服器A destination server running Windows Server 2019 (clustered or standalone) to migrate to. Windows Server 2016 和 Windows Server 2012 R2 也可以運作,但速度大約是50%Windows Server 2016 and Windows Server 2012 R2 work as well but are around 50% slower
  • 執行 Windows Server 2019 以管理遷移的協調器伺服器An orchestrator server running Windows Server 2019 to manage the migration
    如果您只是要遷移少數伺服器,而且其中一部伺服器正在執行 Windows Server 2019,您可以使用它作為協調器。If you're migrating only a few servers and one of the servers is running Windows Server 2019, you can use that as the orchestrator. 如果您要遷移更多伺服器,建議使用個別的 orchestrator 伺服器。If you're migrating more servers, we recommend using a separate orchestrator server.
  • 除非您偏好使用 PowerShell 來管理遷移,否則執行 Windows 系統管理中心的電腦或伺服器會執行儲存體遷移服務使用者介面。A PC or server running Windows Admin Center to run the Storage Migration Service user interface, unless you prefer using PowerShell to manage the migration. Windows 管理中心和 Windows Server 2019 版本必須至少為1809版。The Windows Admin Center and Windows Server 2019 version must both be at least version 1809.

強烈建議協調器和目的地電腦至少要有兩個核心或兩個個 vcpu,以及至少 2 GB 的記憶體。We strongly recommend that the orchestrator and destination computers have at least two cores or two vCPUs, and at least 2 GB of memory. 使用更多的處理器和記憶體,清查和傳輸作業的速度大幅提升。Inventory and transfer operations are significantly faster with more processors and memory.

安全性需求、儲存體遷移服務 proxy 服務和防火牆埠Security requirements, the Storage Migration Service proxy service, and firewall ports

  • 一種遷移帳戶,這是來源電腦和 orchestrator 電腦上的系統管理員。A migration account that is an administrator on the source computers and the orchestrator computer.

  • 一種遷移帳戶,其為目的地電腦和 orchestrator 電腦上的系統管理員。A migration account that is an administrator on the destination computers and the orchestrator computer.

  • Orchestrator 電腦必須已啟用「檔案及印表機共用」(SMB輸入)防火牆規則。The orchestrator computer must have the File and Printer Sharing (SMB-In) firewall rule enabled inbound.

  • 來源和目的地電腦必須啟用下列防火牆規則(不過您可能已經啟用)The source and destination computers must have the following firewall rules enabled inbound (though you might already have them enabled):

    • 檔案及印表機共用 (SMB-In)File and Printer Sharing (SMB-In)
    • Netlogon 服務(NP-IN)Netlogon Service (NP-In)
    • Windows Management Instrumentation (DCOM)Windows Management Instrumentation (DCOM-In)
    • Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI-In)Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI-In)

    提示

    在 Windows Server 2019 電腦上安裝儲存體遷移服務 Proxy 服務時,會自動在該電腦上開啟必要的防火牆埠。Installing the Storage Migration Service Proxy service on a Windows Server 2019 computer automatically opens the necessary firewall ports on that computer. 若要這麼做,請連線到 Windows 管理中心的目的地伺服器,然後移至伺服器管理員(在 Windows 系統管理中心) >角色和功能,選取 儲存體 遷移服務 Proxy,然後選取 安裝To do so, connect to the destination server in Windows Admin Center and then go to Server Manager (in Windows Admin Center) > Roles and features, select Storage Migration Service Proxy, and then select Install.

  • 如果電腦屬於 Active Directory Domain Services 網域,它們應該全都屬於相同的樹系。If the computers belong to an Active Directory Domain Services domain, they should all belong to the same forest. 如果您想要在進行剪下時將來源的功能變數名稱傳輸到目的地,目的地伺服器也必須位於與來源伺服器相同的網域中。The destination server must also be in the same domain as the source server if you want to transfer the source's domain name to the destination when cutting over. 技術上的轉換會跨網域運作,但是目的地的完整功能變數名稱會與來源不同 。Cutover technically works across domains, but the fully-qualified domain name of the destination will be different from the source...

來源伺服器的需求Requirements for source servers

來源伺服器必須執行下列其中一個作業系統:The source server must run one of the following operating systems:

  • Windows Server 半年通道Windows Server, Semi-Annual Channel
  • Windows Server 2019Windows Server 2019
  • Windows Server 2016Windows Server 2016
  • Windows Server 2012 R2Windows Server 2012 R2
  • Windows Server 2012Windows Server 2012
  • Windows Server 2008 R2Windows Server 2008 R2
  • Windows Server 2008Windows Server 2008
  • Windows Server 2003 R2Windows Server 2003 R2
  • Windows Server 2003Windows Server 2003
  • Windows Small Business Server 2003 R2Windows Small Business Server 2003 R2
  • Windows Small Business Server 2008Windows Small Business Server 2008
  • Windows Small Business Server 2011Windows Small Business Server 2011
  • Windows Server 2012 EssentialsWindows Server 2012 Essentials
  • Windows Server 2012 R2 EssentialsWindows Server 2012 R2 Essentials
  • Windows Server 2016 EssentialsWindows Server 2016 Essentials
  • Windows Server 2019 EssentialsWindows Server 2019 Essentials
  • Windows Storage Server 2008Windows Storage Server 2008
  • Windows Storage Server 2008 R2Windows Storage Server 2008 R2
  • Windows Storage Server 2012Windows Storage Server 2012
  • Windows Storage Server 2012 R2Windows Storage Server 2012 R2
  • Windows Storage Server 2016Windows Storage Server 2016

注意: Windows Small Business Server 和 Windows Server Essentials 是網域控制站。Note: Windows Small Business Server and Windows Server Essentials are domain controllers. 儲存體遷移服務無法從網域控制站進行切換,但可以清查和傳輸檔案。Storage Migration Service can't yet cut over from domain controllers, but can inventory and transfer files from them.

如果協調器執行的是 Windows Server、1903版或更新版本,或如果協調器執行舊版的 Windows Server 並安裝KB4512534 ,您可以遷移下列其他來源類型:You can migrate the following additional source types if the orchestrator is running Windows Server, version 1903 or later, or if the orchestrator is running an earlier version of Windows Server with KB4512534 installed:

  • 執行 Windows Server 2012、Windows Server 2012 R2、Windows Server 2016、Windows Server 2019 的容錯移轉叢集Failover clusters running Windows Server 2012, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Server 2016, Windows Server 2019
  • 使用 Samba 的 Linux 伺服器。Linux servers that use Samba. 我們已測試過下列各項:We've tested the following:
    • CentOS 7CentOS 7
    • Debian GNU/Linux 8Debian GNU/Linux 8
    • RedHat Enterprise Linux 7。6RedHat Enterprise Linux 7.6
    • SUSE Linux Enterprise Server (SLES) 11 SP4SUSE Linux Enterprise Server (SLES) 11 SP4
    • Ubuntu 16.04 LTS 和 12.04.5 l t LTSUbuntu 16.04 LTS and 12.04.5 LTS
    • Samba 4.8、4.7、4.3、4.2 和3。6Samba 4.8, 4.7, 4.3, 4.2, and 3.6

目的地伺服器的需求Requirements for destination servers

目的地伺服器必須執行下列其中一個作業系統:The destination server must run one of the following operating systems:

  • Windows Server 半年通道Windows Server, Semi-Annual Channel
  • Windows Server 2019Windows Server 2019
  • Windows Server 2016Windows Server 2016
  • Windows Server 2012 R2Windows Server 2012 R2

提示

執行 Windows Server 2019 或 Windows Server、半年通道或更新版本的目的地伺服器,具有舊版 Windows Server 的兩倍傳輸效能。Destination servers running Windows Server 2019 or Windows Server, Semi-Annual Channel or later have double the transfer performance of earlier versions of Windows Server. 這種效能提升的原因是包含內建的儲存體遷移服務 proxy 服務,這也會開啟必要的防火牆埠(如果尚未開啟)。This performance boost is due to the inclusion of a built-in Storage Migration Service proxy service, which also opens the necessary firewall ports if they're not already open.

Azure VM 遷移Azure VM Migration

Windows Admin Center 1910 版可讓您部署 Azure 虛擬機器。Windows Admin Center version 1910 allows you to deploy Azure virtual machines. 這會將 VM 部署整合到儲存體遷移服務。This integrates VM deployment into Storage Migration Service. 不要在部署您的工作負載之前以手動方式在 Azure 入口網站中建立新的伺服器和 Vm,而是可能遺失必要的步驟和設定-Windows 管理中心可以部署 Azure VM、設定其儲存體、將其加入您的網域、安裝角色,以及然後設定您的分散式系統。Instead of building new servers and VMs in the Azure Portal by hand prior to deploying your workload - and possibly missing required steps and configuration - Windows Admin Center can deploy the Azure VM, configure its storage, join it to your domain, install roles, and then set up your distributed system.

以下影片顯示如何使用儲存體遷移服務來遷移至 Azure Vm。Here's a video showing how to use Storage Migration Service to migrate to Azure VMs.

儲存體遷移服務的新功能What's new in Storage Migration Service

Windows 管理中心1910版新增了部署 Azure 虛擬機器的功能。Windows Admin Center version 1910 adds the ability to deploy Azure virtual machines. 這會將 Azure VM 部署整合到儲存體遷移服務。This integrates Azure VM deployment into Storage Migration Service. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱AZURE VM 遷移For more info, see Azure VM migration.

在 Windows Server、1903版或更新版本上執行儲存體遷移伺服器協調器,或安裝了KB4512534的舊版 windows server 時,可以使用下列新功能:The following new features are available when running the Storage Migration Server orchestrator on Windows Server, version 1903 or later, or an earlier version of Windows Server with KB4512534 installed:

  • 將本機使用者和群組遷移到新伺服器Migrate local users and groups to the new server
  • 從容錯移轉叢集遷移存放裝置、遷移至容錯移轉叢集,以及在獨立伺服器與容錯移轉叢集之間進行遷移Migrate storage from failover clusters, migrate to failover clusters, and migrate between standalone servers and failover clusters
  • 從使用 Samba 的 Linux 伺服器遷移儲存空間Migrate storage from a Linux server that uses Samba
  • 使用 Azure 檔案同步,更輕鬆地同步已遷移至 Azure 的共用More easily sync migrated shares into Azure by using Azure File Sync
  • 遷移新的網路,例如 AzureMigrate to new networks such as Azure

另請參閱See also