伺服器對伺服器儲存體複寫Server to Server Storage Replication

適用於:Windows Server (半年度管道)、Windows Server 2016Applies to: Windows Server (Semi-Annual Channel), Windows Server 2016

您可以使用儲存體複本設定兩部伺服器來同步處理資料,讓每個都有相同磁碟區的相同複本。You can use Storage Replica to configure two servers to sync data so that each has an identical copy of the same volume. 本主題提供這種伺服器對伺服器複寫組態的一些背景,以及如何設定和管理環境。This topic provides some background of this server-to-server replication configuration, as well as how to set it up and manage the environment.

若要管理儲存體複本,您可以使用 PowerShell,或 Azure Server management tools (Azure 伺服器管理工具)。To manage Storage Replica you can use PowerShell, or the Azure Server management tools.

重要

在此案例中,每部伺服器都應該位於不同的實體或邏輯網站中。In this scenario, each server should be in a different physical or logical site. 每部伺服器都必須能夠透過網路,彼此進行通訊。Each server must be able to communicate with the other via a network.

詞彙Terms

本逐步解說使用下列環境做為範例:This walkthrough uses the following environment as an example:

  • 兩部伺服器,名為 SR SRV05SR SRV06Two servers, named SR-SRV05 and SR-SRV06.

  • 代表示兩個不同資料中心的一對邏輯「網站」,一個名為 Redmond,而另一個名 BellevueA pair of logical "sites" that represent two different data centers, with one called Redmond and one called Bellevue.

這個圖表顯示與建築物 9 的伺服器進行複寫之建築物 5 的伺服器

圖 1:伺服器對伺服器複寫Figure 1: Server to server replication

必要條件Prerequisites

  • Active Directory Domain Services 樹系 (不需要執行 Windows Server 2016)。Active Directory Domain Services forest (does not need to run Windows Server 2016).
  • 在兩部伺服器安裝 Windows Server 2016 Datacenter Edition。Two servers with Windows Server 2016 Datacenter Edition installed.
  • 使用 SAS JBOD、光纖通道 SAN、iSCSI 目標,或本機 SCSI/SATA 儲存體的兩組儲存體。Two sets of storage, using SAS JBODs, fibre channel SAN, iSCSI target, or local SCSI/SATA storage. 儲存體應包含 HDD 和 SSD 兩者混合的媒體。The storage should contain a mix of HDD and SSD media. 您必須設定每組儲存體只能供各自的伺服器使用,不得共用存取。You will make each storage set available only to each of the servers, with no shared access.
  • 每組存放裝置必須允許建立至少兩個虛擬磁碟,一個供複寫的資料使用,另一個供記錄檔使用。Each set of storage must allow creation of at least two virtual disks, one for replicated data and one for logs. 實體存放裝置的所有資料磁碟上,必須都要有相同的磁區大小。The physical storage must have the same sector sizes on all the data disks. 實體存放裝置的所有記錄檔磁碟上,必須都要有相同的磁區大小。The physical storage must have the same sector sizes on all the log disks.
  • 每部伺服器上至少要有一個乙太網路/TCP 連線,以進行同步複寫,但最好是 RDMA。At least one ethernet/TCP connection on each server for synchronous replication, but preferably RDMA.
  • 適當的防火牆與路由器規則,以允許在所有節點之間提供 ICMP、SMB (連接埠 445,若為 SMB 直接傳輸,需再加上 5445) 以及 WS-MAN (連接埠 5985) 雙向流量。Appropriate firewall and router rules to allow ICMP, SMB (port 445, plus 5445 for SMB Direct) and WS-MAN (port 5985) bi-directional traffic between all nodes.
  • 針對同步複寫,伺服器間的網路頻寬必須足以容納您的 IO 寫入工作負載,以及平均 =5ms 的來回延遲。A network between servers with enough bandwidth to contain your IO write workload and an average of =5ms round trip latency, for synchronous replication. 非同步複寫沒有建議的延遲值。Asynchronous replication does not have a latency recommendation.
  • 複寫的儲存體不可位於包含 Windows 作業系統資料夾的磁碟機上。The replicated storage cannot be located on the drive containing the Windows operating system folder.

這其中許多需求都可以使用 Test-SRTopology cmdlet 來判斷。Many of these requirements can be determined by using the Test-SRTopology cmdlet. 如果您至少在一部伺服器上安裝儲存體複本或儲存體複本管理工具功能,便可存取此工具。You get access to this tool if you install Storage Replica or the Storage Replica Management Tools features on at least one server. 只要安裝此 Cmdlet 即可,不需要將儲存體複本設定為使用此工具。There is no need to configure Storage Replica to use this tool, only to install the cmdlet. 詳細資訊收錄於下列步驟。More information is included in the steps below.

佈建作業系統、功能、角色、儲存體及網路Provision operating system, features, roles, storage, and network

  1. 使用 Windows Server 2016 Datacenter (桌面體驗) 的安裝類型,在兩個伺服器節點上安裝 Windows Server 2016。Install Windows Server 2016 on both server nodes with an installation type of Windows Server 2016 Datacenter (Desktop Experience). 請不要選擇標準版 (如果有的話),因為當中不包含儲存體複本。Do not choose Standard Edition if it is available, as it does not contain Storage Replica.

  2. 新增網路資訊並加入網域,然後予以重新啟動。Add network information and join them to the domain, then restart them.

    注意

    從此時開始,一律要以所有伺服器上內建系統管理員群組成員的網域使用者身分登入。From this point on, always logon as a domain user who is a member of the built-in administrator group on all servers. 請務必記住,在圖形化伺服器安裝或在 Windows 10 電腦上執行時,一開始要提升 PowerShell 和 CMD 命令提示字元的權限。Always remember to elevate your PowerShell and CMD prompts going forward when running on a graphical server installation or on a Windows 10 computer.

  3. 將第一組 JBOD 儲存體機箱、iSCSI 目標、FC SAN 或本機固定式磁碟 (DAS) 儲存體連線到 Redmond 網站中的伺服器。Connect first set of JBOD storage enclosure, iSCSI target, FC SAN, or local fixed disk (DAS) storage to the server in site Redmond.

  4. 將第二組儲存體連線到 Bellevue 網站中的伺服器。Connect second set of storage to the server in site Bellevue.

  5. 若適當,在兩個節點上安裝最新的廠商儲存體和機箱韌體與驅動程式、最新的廠商 HBA 驅動程式、最新的廠商 BIOS/UEFI 韌體、最新的廠商網路驅動程式,以及最新的主機板晶片組驅動程式。As appropriate, install latest vendor storage and enclosure firmware and drivers, latest vendor HBA drivers, latest vendor BIOS/UEFI firmware, latest vendor network drivers, and latest motherboard chipset drivers on both nodes. 視需要重新啟動節點。Restart nodes as needed.

    注意

    如需設定共用儲存體和網路硬體,請參閱硬體廠商的文件。Consult your hardware vendor documentation for configuring shared storage and networking hardware.

  6. 確定伺服器的 BIOS/UEFI 設定能提供高效能,例如停用 C-State、設定 QPI 速度、啟用 NUMA,以及設定最高的記憶體頻率。Ensure that BIOS/UEFI settings for servers enable high performance, such as disabling C-State, setting QPI speed, enabling NUMA, and setting highest memory frequency. 務必將 Windows Server 中的電源管理設定為高效能。Ensure power management in Windows Server is set to high performance. 視需要重新啟動。Restart as required.

  7. 如下所示設定角色:Configure roles as follows:

    • 圖形化方法Graphical method

      1. 執行 ServerManager.exe,並新增所有伺服器節點以建立伺服器群組。Run ServerManager.exe and create a Server Group, adding all server nodes.

      2. 在每個節點上安裝 [檔案伺服器][儲存體複本] 角色和功能,然後予以重新啟動。Install the File Server and Storage Replica roles and features on each of the nodes and restart them.

    • Windows PowerShell 方法Windows PowerShell method

      在 SR-SRV06 或遠端管理電腦上,於 Windows PowerShell 主控台執行下列命令,以安裝所需的功能與角色,並予以重新啟動:On SR-SRV06 or a remote management computer, run the following command in a Windows PowerShell console to install the required features and roles and restart them:

      $Servers = 'SR-SRV05','SR-SRV06'  
      
      $Servers | ForEach { Install-WindowsFeature -ComputerName $_ -Name Storage-Replica,FS-FileServer -IncludeManagementTools -restart }  
      

      如需這些步驟的詳細資訊,請參閱安裝或解除安裝角色、角色服務或功能For more information on these steps, see Install or Uninstall Roles, Role Services, or Features

  8. 如下所示設定儲存體:Configure storage as follows:

    重要

    • 您必須在每個機箱上建立兩個磁碟區︰一個供資料使用,而另一個供記錄檔使用。You must create two volumes on each enclosure: one for data and one for logs.
    • 記錄檔和資料磁碟必須初始化為 GPT,而非多位元率 (MBR)。Log and data disks must be initialized as GPT, not MBR.
    • 這兩個資料磁碟區的大小必須相同。The two data volumes must be of identical size.
    • 這兩個記錄檔磁碟區的大小應該相同。The two log volumes should be of identical size.
    • 所有複寫的資料磁碟都必須有相同的磁區大小。All replicated data disks must have the same sector sizes.
    • 所有記錄檔磁碟都必須有相同的磁區大小。All log disks must have the same sector sizes.
    • 記錄檔磁碟區應該使用快閃記憶儲存體,例如 SSD。The log volumes should use flash-based storage, such as SSD. Microsoft 建議記錄檔儲存體應該要比資料儲存體更快。Microsoft recommends that the log storage be faster than the data storage. 記錄檔磁碟區不得用於其他工作負載。Log volumes must never be used for other workloads.
    • 資料磁碟可以使用 HDD、SSD 或階層式組合,而且可以使用鏡像或同位空間,或是 RAID 1 或 10、RAID 5 或 RAID 50。The data disks can use HDD, SSD, or a tiered combination and can use either mirrored or parity spaces or RAID 1 or 10, or RAID 5 or RAID 50.
    • 記錄磁碟區預設必須至少有 9 GB,而且根據記錄需求,可能會更大或更小。The log volume must be at least 9GB by default and may be larger or smaller based on log requirements.
    • 檔案伺服器角色只有在操作 Test-SRTopology 時才需要,因為它會開啟必要的防火牆連接埠進行測試。The File Server role is only necessary for Test-SRTopology to operate, as it opens the necessary firewall ports for testing.
    • 對於 JBOD 機箱:For JBOD enclosures:

      1. 請確定每部伺服器只能看到該網站的儲存體機箱,同時已正確設定 SAS 連線。Ensure that each server can see that site's storage enclosures only and that the SAS connections are correctly configured.

      2. 遵循在獨立伺服器上部署儲存空間中提供的步驟 1-3,使用 Windows PowerShell 或伺服器管理員,使用儲存空間佈建儲存體。Provision the storage using Storage Spaces by following Steps 1-3 provided in the Deploy Storage Spaces on a Stand-Alone Server using Windows PowerShell or Server Manager.

    • 對於 iSCSI 儲存體:For iSCSI storage:

      1. 請確定每個叢集只能看到該網站的儲存體機箱。Ensure that each cluster can see that site's storage enclosures only. 如果使用 iSCSI,您應該使用一張以上的網路介面卡。You should use more than one single network adapter if using iSCSI.

      2. 使用廠商的文件來佈建儲存體。Provision the storage using your vendor documentation. 如果使用 Windows iSCSI 目標,請參閱 iSCSI 目標區塊儲存體,作法If using Windows-based iSCSI Targeting, consult iSCSI Target Block Storage, How To.

    • 對於 FC SAN 儲存體︰For FC SAN storage:

      1. 請確定每個叢集只能看到該網站的儲存體機箱,同時您已將主機適當地分區。Ensure that each cluster can see that site's storage enclosures only and that you have properly zoned the hosts.

      2. 使用廠商的文件來佈建儲存體。Provision the storage using your vendor documentation.

    • 對於本機固定式磁碟 (DAS) 儲存體︰For local fixed disk (DAS) storage:

      • 請確定儲存體不包含系統磁碟區、分頁檔或傾印檔案。Ensure the storage does not contain a system volume, page file, or dump files.

      • 使用廠商的文件來佈建儲存體。Provision the storage using your vendor documentation.

  9. 啟動 Windows PowerShell,然後使用 Test-SRTopology Cmdlet 來判斷您是否符合所有儲存體複本需求。Start Windows PowerShell and use the Test-SRTopology cmdlet to determine if you meet all the Storage Replica requirements. 您可以在僅查看需求的模式中,使用此 Cmdlet 進行快速測試,還可以在評估長時間執行效能的模式中使用。You can use the cmdlet in a requirements-only mode for a quick test as well as a long running performance evaluation mode.

    例如,若要驗證建議的節點,其中每一個都有 F:G: 磁碟區,且要執行測試長達 30 分鐘:For example, to validate the proposed nodes that each have a F: and G: volume and run the test for 30 minutes:

     MD c:\temp  
    
     Test-SRTopology -SourceComputerName SR-SRV05 -SourceVolumeName f: -SourceLogVolumeName g: -DestinationComputerName SR-SRV06 -DestinationVolumeName f: -DestinationLogVolumeName g: -DurationInMinutes 30 -ResultPath c:\temp  
    

    重要

    在指定的來源磁碟區上,若在評估期間使用的測試伺服器沒有任何寫入 IO 負載,請考慮新增工作負載,否則不會產生有用的報告。When using a test server with no write IO load on the specified source volume during the evaluation period, consider adding a workload or it will not generate a useful report. 您應該使用和實際執行類似的工作負載來測試,才能看出實際的數字與建議的記錄檔大小。You should test with production-like workloads in order to see real numbers and recommended log sizes. 或者,只要在測試期間,將一些檔案複製到來源磁碟區,或下載並執行 DISKSPD,就可以產生寫入 IO。Alternatively, simply copy some files into the source volume during the test or download and run DISKSPD to generate write IOs. 例如,會寫入 D: 磁碟區長達十分鐘的少量 IO 工作負載範例︰For instance, a sample with a low write IO workload for ten minutes to the D: volume:

    Diskspd.exe -c1g -d600 -W5 -C5 -b8k -t2 -o2 -r -w5 -i100 d:\test

  10. 檢查 TestSrTopologyReport.html 報告,確定您符合儲存體複本需求。Examine the TestSrTopologyReport.html report to ensure that you meet the Storage Replica requirements.

    這個畫面顯示拓撲報告

使用 Windows PowerShell 設定伺服器對伺服器複寫Configure Server to Server Replication using Windows PowerShell

現在,您將使用 Windows PowerShell 設定伺服器對伺服器複寫。Now you will configure server-to-server replication using Windows PowerShell. 您必須直接在節點上,或從包含 Windows Server 2016 RSAT 管理工具的遠端管理電腦,執行下列所有步驟。You must perform all of the steps below on the nodes directly or from a remote management computer that contains the Windows Server 2016 RSAT management tools.

使用免費的伺服器管理員工具 (SMT) 即可支援儲存體複本的圖形化管理。Graphical Management of Storage Replica is supported using the free Server Manager Tool (SMT). 請檢查這組管理工具之 Preview 可用性的 Azure 文件。Please examine Azure documentation for Preview availability of this set of management tools. 在 SMT 上市之後,將會更新本文件。This document will be updated afer SMT reaches general availability.

  1. 請確定您以系統管理員身分使用提升權限的 Powershell 主控台。Ensure you are using an elevated Powershell console as an administrator.
  2. 設定伺服器對伺服器複寫時,要指定來源和目的地磁碟、來源和目的地記錄檔、來源和目的地節點,以及記錄檔大小。Configure the server-to-server replication, specifying the source and destination disks, the source and destination logs, the source and destination nodes, and the log size.

    New-SRPartnership -SourceComputerName sr-srv05 -SourceRGName rg01 -SourceVolumeName f: -SourceLogVolumeName g: -DestinationComputerName sr-srv06 -DestinationRGName rg02 -DestinationVolumeName f: -DestinationLogVolumeName g:  
    

    輸出:Output:

    DestinationComputerName : SR-SRV06
    DestinationRGName       : rg02
    SourceComputerName      : SR-SRV05
    PSComputerName          :
    

    重要

    預設記錄檔大小為 8 GB。The default log size is 8GB. 根據 Test-SRTopology Cmdlet 的結果,您可能會決定以較高或較低的值來使用 -LogSizeInBytes。Depending on the results of the Test-SRTopology cmdlet, you may decide to use -LogSizeInBytes with a higher or lower value.

  3. 若要取得複寫來源和目的地狀態,請使用 Get-SRGroupGet-SRPartnership,如下所示:To get replication source and destination state, use Get-SRGroup and Get-SRPartnership as follows:

    Get-SRGroup  
    Get-SRPartnership  
    (Get-SRGroup).replicas  
    

    輸出:Output:

    CurrentLsn             : 0
    DataVolume             : F:\
    LastInSyncTime         :
    LastKnownPrimaryLsn    : 1
    LastOutOfSyncTime      :
    NumOfBytesRecovered    : 37731958784
    NumOfBytesRemaining    : 30851203072
    PartitionId            : c3999f10-dbc9-4a8e-8f9c-dd2ee6ef3e9f
    PartitionSize          : 68583161856
    ReplicationMode        : synchronous
    ReplicationStatus      : InitialBlockCopy
    PSComputerName         :
    
  4. 判斷複寫進度,如下所示︰Determine the replication progress as follows:

    1. 在來源伺服器上,執行下列命令,並檢查 5015、5002、5004、1237、5001 及 2200 事件︰On the source server, run the following command and examine events 5015, 5002, 5004, 1237, 5001, and 2200:

      Get-WinEvent -ProviderName Microsoft-Windows-StorageReplica -max 20  
      
    2. 在目的地伺服器上,執行下列命令來查看可顯示建立合作關係的儲存體複本事件。On the destination server, run the following command to see the Storage Replica events that show creation of the partnership. 此事件會說明已複製的位元組數目和所花費的時間。This event states the number of copied bytes and the time taken. 範例:Example:

      Get-WinEvent -ProviderName Microsoft-Windows-StorageReplica | Where-Object {$_.ID -eq "1215"} | fl  
      
      TimeCreated  : 4/8/2016 4:12:37 PM  
      ProviderName : Microsoft-Windows-StorageReplica  
      Id           : 1215  
      Message      : Block copy completed for replica.  
      
              ReplicationGroupName: rg02  
              ReplicationGroupId: {616F1E00-5A68-4447-830F-B0B0EFBD359C}  
              ReplicaName: f:\  
              ReplicaId: {00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000}  
              End LSN in bitmap:   
              LogGeneration: {00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000}  
              LogFileId: 0  
              CLSFLsn: 0xFFFFFFFF  
              Number of Bytes Recovered: 68583161856  
              Elapsed Time (ms): 117  
      

      注意

      儲存體複本會將目的地磁碟區與其磁碟機代號或掛接點卸載。Storage Replica dismounts the destination volumes and their drive letters or mount points. 這是原本設計的做法。This is by design.

    3. 或者,複本的目的地伺服器群組會隨時說明待複製的位元組數目,並可透過 PowerShell 進行查詢。Alternatively, the destination server group for the replica states the number of byte remaining to copy at all times, and can be queried through PowerShell. 例如:For example:

      (Get-SRGroup).Replicas | Select-Object numofbytesremaining  
      

      和進度範例 (將不會終止) 一樣:As a progress sample (that will not terminate):

      while($true) {  
      
       $v = (Get-SRGroup -Name "RG02").replicas | Select-Object numofbytesremaining  
       [System.Console]::Write("Number of bytes remaining: {0}`r", $v.numofbytesremaining)  
       Start-Sleep -s 5  
      }  
      
    4. 在目的地伺服器上,執行下列命令,並檢查 5009、1237、5001、5015、5005 及 2200 事件,以了解處理進度。On the destination server, run the following command and examine events 5009, 1237, 5001, 5015, 5005, and 2200 to understand the processing progress. 此序列中應該不會有任何錯誤警告。There should be no warnings of errors in this sequence. 其中將會有許多指出進度的 1237 事件。There will be many 1237 events; these indicate progress.

      Get-WinEvent -ProviderName Microsoft-Windows-StorageReplica | FL  
      

管理複寫Manage replication

現在您將會管理與操作伺服器對伺服器複寫的基礎結構。Now you will manage and operate your server-to-server replicated infrastructure. 您可以直接在節點上,或從包含 Windows Server 2016 RSAT 管理工具的遠端管理電腦,執行下列所有步驟。You can perform all of the steps below on the nodes directly or from a remote management computer that contains the Windows Server 2016 RSAT management tools.

  1. 使用 Get-SRPartnershipGet-SRGroup 來判斷目前的複寫來源與目的地及其狀態。Use Get-SRPartnership and Get-SRGroup to determine the current source and destination of replication and their status.

  2. 若要測量複寫效能,請在來源和目的地節點上使用 Get-Counter Cmdlet。To measure replication performance, use the Get-Counter cmdlet on both the source and destination nodes. 計數器名稱如下:The counter names are:

    • \Storage Replica Partition I/O Statistics()\Number of times flush paused\Storage Replica Partition I/O Statistics()\Number of times flush paused

    • \Storage Replica Partition I/O Statistics()\Number of pending flush I/O\Storage Replica Partition I/O Statistics()\Number of pending flush I/O

    • \Storage Replica Partition I/O Statistics()\Number of requests for last log write\Storage Replica Partition I/O Statistics()\Number of requests for last log write

    • \Storage Replica Partition I/O Statistics()\Avg. Flush Queue Length\Storage Replica Partition I/O Statistics()\Avg. Flush Queue Length

    • \Storage Replica Partition I/O Statistics()\Current Flush Queue Length\Storage Replica Partition I/O Statistics()\Current Flush Queue Length

    • \Storage Replica Partition I/O Statistics()\Number of Application Write Requests\Storage Replica Partition I/O Statistics()\Number of Application Write Requests

    • \Storage Replica Partition I/O Statistics()\Avg. Number of requests per log write\Storage Replica Partition I/O Statistics()\Avg. Number of requests per log write

    • \Storage Replica Partition I/O Statistics()\Avg. App Write Latency\Storage Replica Partition I/O Statistics()\Avg. App Write Latency

    • \Storage Replica Partition I/O Statistics()\Avg. App Read Latency\Storage Replica Partition I/O Statistics()\Avg. App Read Latency

    • \Storage Replica Statistics()\Target RPO\Storage Replica Statistics()\Target RPO

    • \Storage Replica Statistics()\Current RPO\Storage Replica Statistics()\Current RPO

    • \Storage Replica Statistics()\Avg. Log Queue Length\Storage Replica Statistics()\Avg. Log Queue Length

    • \Storage Replica Statistics()\Current Log Queue Length\Storage Replica Statistics()\Current Log Queue Length

    • \Storage Replica Statistics()\Total Bytes Received\Storage Replica Statistics()\Total Bytes Received

    • \Storage Replica Statistics()\Total Bytes Sent\Storage Replica Statistics()\Total Bytes Sent

    • \Storage Replica Statistics()\Avg. Network Send Latency\Storage Replica Statistics()\Avg. Network Send Latency

    • \Storage Replica Statistics()\Replication State\Storage Replica Statistics()\Replication State

    • \Storage Replica Statistics()\Avg. Message Round Trip Latency\Storage Replica Statistics()\Avg. Message Round Trip Latency

    • \Storage Replica Statistics()\Last Recovery Elapsed Time\Storage Replica Statistics()\Last Recovery Elapsed Time

    • \Storage Replica Statistics()\Number of Flushed Recovery Transactions\Storage Replica Statistics()\Number of Flushed Recovery Transactions

    • \Storage Replica Statistics()\Number of Recovery Transactions\Storage Replica Statistics()\Number of Recovery Transactions

    • \Storage Replica Statistics()\Number of Flushed Replication Transactions\Storage Replica Statistics()\Number of Flushed Replication Transactions

    • \Storage Replica Statistics()\Number of Replication Transactions\Storage Replica Statistics()\Number of Replication Transactions

    • \Storage Replica Statistics()\Max Log Sequence Number\Storage Replica Statistics()\Max Log Sequence Number

    • \Storage Replica Statistics()\Number of Messages Received\Storage Replica Statistics()\Number of Messages Received

    • \Storage Replica Statistics()\Number of Messages Sent\Storage Replica Statistics()\Number of Messages Sent

    如需 Windows PowerShell 中效能計數器的詳細資訊,請參閱 Get-CounterFor more information on performance counters in Windows PowerShell, see Get-Counter.

  3. 若要移動一個網站的複寫方向,請使用 Set-SRPartnership Cmdlet。To move the replication direction from one site, use the Set-SRPartnership cmdlet.

    Set-SRPartnership -NewSourceComputerName sr-srv06 -SourceRGName rg02 -DestinationComputerName sr-srv05 -DestinationRGName rg01  
    

    警告

    正在進行初始同步處理時,Windows Server 2016 不會阻止角色切換,因為如果您尚未完成初始複寫,即嘗試切換,可能會導致資料遺失。Windows Server 2016 prevents role switching when the initial sync is ongoing, as it can lead to data loss if you attempt to switch before allowing initial replication to complete. 在完成初始同步處理之前,請勿強制切換方向。Do not force switch directions until the initial sync is complete.

    檢查事件記錄檔,以查看複寫方向變更以及復原模式發生的情況,接著予以調解。Check the event logs to see the direction of replication change and recovery mode occur, and then reconcile. 然後寫入 IO 就可以寫入新的來源伺服器所擁有的儲存體。Write IOs can then write to the storage owned by the new source server. 變更複寫方向,將會在先前的來源電腦上封鎖寫入 IO。Changing the replication direction will block write IOs on the previous source computer.

  4. 若要移除複寫,在任何節點上使用 Get-SRGroupGet-SRPartnershipRemove-SRGroupRemove-SRPartnershipTo remove replication, use Get-SRGroup, Get-SRPartnership, Remove-SRGroup, and Remove-SRPartnership on each node. 請確定您僅在目前的複寫來源上執行 Remove-SRPartnership Cmdlet,而不是在目的地伺服器上執行。Ensure you run the Remove-SRPartnership cmdlet on the current source of replication only, not on the destination server. 在兩部伺服器上執行 Remove-GroupRun Remove-Group on both servers. 例如,若要從兩部伺服器移除所有複寫︰For example, to remove all replication from two servers:

    Get-SRPartnership  
    Get-SRPartnership | Remove-SRPartnership  
    Get-SRGroup | Remove-SRGroup  
    

以儲存體複本取代 DFS 複寫Replacing DFS Replication with Storage Replica

許多 Microsoft 客戶會將 DFS 複寫部署為非結構化使用者資料 (例如主資料夾和部門共用) 的嚴重損壞修復解決方案。Many Microsoft customers deploy DFS Replication as a disaster recovery solution for unstructured user data like home folders and departmental shares. DFS 複寫已隨附於 Windows Server 2003 R2 和所有更新版本的作業系統中,並在低頻寬網路上運作,這會吸引具有許多節點的高延遲及低變化環境。DFS Replication has shipped in Windows Server 2003 R2 and all later operating systems and operates on low bandwidth networks, which makes it attractive for high latency and low change environments with many nodes. 不過,DFS 複寫如同資料複寫解決方案,有一些值得注意的限制︰However, DFS Replication has notable limitations as a data replication solution:

  • 它不會複寫使用中或開啟的檔案。It does not replicate in-use or open files.
  • 它不會以同步方式複寫。It does not replicate synchronously.
  • 其非同步複寫延遲可能是好幾分鐘,好幾小時,甚至好幾天。Its asynchronous replication latency can be many minutes, hours, or even days.
  • 它所依賴的資料庫在電源中斷後可能需要冗長的一致性檢查。It relies on a database that can require lengthy consistency checks after a power interruption.
  • 它通常會設定為多重主機,以允許對雙向流動的變更,進而可能覆寫較新的資料。It is generally configured as multi-master, which allows changes to flow in both directions, possibly overwriting newer data.

儲存體複本沒有這些限制。Storage Replica has none of these limitations. 不過,它所擁有的一些限制可能會使其在部分環境中變得比較不吸引人︰It does, however, have several that might make it less interesting in some environments:

  • 它只允許磁碟區之間的一對一複寫。It only allows one-to-one replication between volumes. 它可能會複寫多部伺服器之間的不同磁碟區。It is possible to replicate different volumes between multiple servers.
  • 雖然它支援非同步複寫,但是它不是針對低頻寬、高延遲網路而設計。While it supports asynchronous replication, it is not designed for low bandwidth, high latency networks.
  • 它不允許使用者在複寫正在進行時,存取目的地上受保護的資料It does not allow user access to the protected data on the destination while replication is ongoing

如果這些不會成為裹足不前的因素,儲存體複本可讓您使用這個較新的技術取代 DFS 複寫伺服器。If these are not blocking factors, Storage Replica allows you to replace DFS Replication servers with this newer technology.
高階程序為︰The process is, at a high level:

  1. 在兩部伺服器上安裝 Windows Server 2016,並設定您的儲存體。Install Windows Server 2016 on two servers and configure your storage. 這可能表示升級一組現有的伺服器或全新安裝。This could mean upgrading an existing set of servers or cleanly installing.
  2. 請確定您想要複寫的任何資料存在於一個或多個資料磁碟區上,而不是在 C: 磁碟機上。Ensure that any data you want to replicate exists on one or more data volumes and not on the C: drive.
    a.a. 您也可以使用備份或檔案複本,在另一部伺服器上植入資料以節省時間,並使用精簡佈建的儲存體。You can also seed the data on the other server to save time, using a backup or file copies, as well as use thin provisioned storage. 與 DFS 複寫不同的是,不需要使類似中繼資料的安全性完全相符。Making the metadata-like security match perfectly is unnecessary, unlike DFS Replication.
  3. 共用來源伺服器上的資料,並讓它能夠透過 DFS 命名空間存取。Share the data on your source server and make it accessible through a DFS Namespace. 為確保伺服器名稱變更為嚴重損壞網站中的伺服器名稱時仍然可以存取該伺服器,此作業相當重要。This is important, to ensure that users can still access it if the server name changes to one in a disaster site.
    a.a. 您可以在正常作業期間將無法使用的目的地伺服器上建立相符的共用。You can create matching shares on the destination server, which will be unavailable during normal operations,
    b.b. 請勿在「DFS 命名空間」命名空間中,新增目的地伺服器,否則,請確定已停用其所有資料夾目標。Do not add the destination server to the DFS Namespaces namespace, or if you do, ensure that all its folder targets are disabled.
  4. 啟用儲存體複本的複寫,並完成初始同步。複寫可以使用同步或非同步方式進行。Enable Storage Replica replication and complete initial sync. Replication can be either synchronous or asynchronous.
    a.a. 不過,建議使用同步方式,才能保證目的地伺服器上的 IO 資料一致性。However, synchronous is recommended in order to guarantee IO data consistency on the destination server.
    b.b. 我們強烈建議啟用 [磁碟區陰影複製],並使用 VSSADMIN 或您選擇的其他工具,定期製作快照。We strongly recommend enabling Volume Shadow Copies and periodically taking snapshots with VSSADMIN or your other tools of choice. 這樣會保證應用程式將其資料檔案一致清除至磁碟。This will guarantee applications flush their data files to disk consistently. 萬一發生嚴重損壞,您可以在可能已使用非同步方式部分複寫的目的地伺服器上,復原快照中的檔案。In the event of a disaster, you can recover files from snapshots on the destination server that might have been partially replicated asynchronously. 快照集複寫及檔案。Snapshots replicate along with files.
  5. 正常運作,直到發生嚴重損壞為止。Operate normally until there is a disaster.
  6. 切換目的地伺服器成為新的來源,向使用者呈現其複寫的磁碟區。Switch the destination server to be the new source, which surfaces its replicated volumes to users.
  7. 如果使用同步複寫,除非使用者所使用的應用程式在失去來源伺服器期間寫入沒有交易保護的資料 (這與複寫無關),否則將不需要還原任何資料。If using synchronous replication, no data restore will be necessary unless the user was using an application that was writing data without transaction protection (this is irrespective of replication) during loss of the source server. 如果使用非同步複寫,比較需要使用 VSS 快照掛接,但請考慮在所有情況下都使用 VSS,讓應用程式取得一致的快照。If using asynchronous replication, the need for a VSS snapshot mount is higher but consider using VSS in all circumstances for application consistent snapshots.
  8. 新增伺服器及其共用做為 DFS 命名空間資料夾目標。Add the server and its shares as a DFS Namespace folder target.
  9. 接著,使用者可以存取其資料。Users can then access their data.

    注意

    嚴重損壞修復規劃是一個複雜的主題,需要非常注意細節。Disaster Recovery planning is a complex subject and requires great attention to detail. 強烈建議您建立年度即時容錯移轉步驟 Runbook 和效能。Creation of runbooks and the performance of annual live failover drills is highly recommended. 當實際的災害來襲時,混亂將會主導一切,而且可能無法連絡到有經驗的人員。When an actual disaster strikes, chaos will rule and experienced personnel may be unavailable.

另請參閱See Also