儲存空間直接存取概觀Storage Spaces Direct overview

適用於:Windows Server 2016Applies to: Windows Server 2016

儲存空間直接存取會使用業界標準的伺服器搭配本機連接的磁碟機,以比傳統 SAN 或 NAS 陣列更少的成本來建立高可用性、高延展性的軟體定義存放裝置。Storage Spaces Direct uses industry-standard servers with local-attached drives to create highly available, highly scalable software-defined storage at a fraction of the cost of traditional SAN or NAS arrays. 其交集或超收斂架構大幅簡化採購及部署,同時功能例如快取、 儲存層和清除程式碼,例如 RDMA 網路和 NVMe 磁碟機的最新的硬體創新新,以及傳送unrivaled 的效率和效能。Its converged or hyper-converged architecture radically simplifies procurement and deployment, while features such as caching, storage tiers, and erasure coding, together with the latest hardware innovations such as RDMA networking and NVMe drives, deliver unrivaled efficiency and performance.

儲存空間直接存取包含在 Windows Server 2016 Datacenter 和 Windows Server Insider Preview 組建中。Storage Spaces Direct is included in Windows Server 2016 Datacenter and Windows Server Insider Preview Builds.

存放空間的其他應用程式的等共用 SAS 叢集和獨立伺服器,請參閱存放空間概觀 (英文)For other applications of Storage Spaces, such as Shared SAS clusters and stand-alone servers, see Storage Spaces overview. 如果您正在尋找有關在 Windows 10 PC 上使用存放空間的資訊,請參閱Windows 10] 中的儲存空間If you're looking for info about using Storage Spaces on a Windows 10 PC, see Storage Spaces in Windows 10.

了解Understand 規劃Plan
部署Deploy 管理Manage
疑難排解Troubleshooting 內部預覽的內容Insider Preview content


快速影片概觀 (5 分鐘)Quick Video Overview (5 minutes)

儲存空格直接在 Microsoft Ignite 2017 (1 小時)Storage Spaces Direct at Microsoft Ignite 2017 (1 hour)

YouTube 上觀賞Watch on YouTube

啟動在 Microsoft Ignite 2016 (1 小時) 的事件Launch Event at Microsoft Ignite 2016 (1 hour)

YouTube 上觀賞Watch on YouTube

主要優點Key benefits

簡單。Simplicity. 從執行 WindowsServer 2016 的業界標準伺服器到您的第一個儲存空間直接存取叢集,只要 15 分鐘。Go from industry-standard servers running Windows Server 2016 to your first Storage Spaces Direct cluster in under 15 minutes. 對於 System Center 使用者而言,部署只需一個核取方塊。For System Center users, deployment is just one checkbox.
無可比擬的效能。Unrivaled Performance. 不論是全快閃式或混合式,由於儲存空間直接存取的 Hypervisor 內嵌架構、其內建的讀取/寫入快取,以及對於在 PCIe 匯流排上直接裝載尖端 NVMe 磁碟機的支援,讓它具有一致性且低延遲的特性,輕鬆超越每部伺服器 150,000 個混合式 4k 隨機 IOPSWhether all-flash or hybrid, Storage Spaces Direct easily exceeds 150,000 mixed 4k random IOPS per server with consistent, low latency thanks to its hypervisor-embedded architecture, its built-in read/write cache, and support for cutting-edge NVMe drives mounted directly on the PCIe bus.
容錯。內建復原功能會處理磁碟機、伺服器或元件失敗,並保有持續可用性。 Fault Tolerance. Built-in resiliency handles drive, server, or component failures with continuous availability. 也可針對較大型的部署設定底座和機架容錯Larger deployments can also be configured for chassis and rack fault tolerance. 當硬體故障時,只需進行交換;軟體會自行修復,不需複雜的管理步驟。When hardware fails, just swap it out; the software heals itself, with no complicated management steps.
資源效率。Resource Efficiency. 清除編碼可提供多達 2.4 倍的儲存空間效率,透過獨特的創新 (例如本機重建程式碼和 ReFS 即時分層) 來將這些獲益延展至硬碟機和混合式熱/冷工作負載,同時將 CPU 耗用量降到最低,以便讓資源回到最需要它們的地方 (VM)。Erasure coding delivers up to 2.4x greater storage efficiency, with unique innovations like Local Reconstruction Codes and ReFS real-time tiers to extend these gains to hard disk drives and mixed hot/cold workloads, all while minimizing CPU consumption to give resources back to where they're needed most - the VMs.
管理性。Manageability. 使用存放裝置 QoS 控制項,利用每個 VM 之 IOPS 的最小值和最大值限制來抑制過度忙碌的 VM。Use Storage QoS Controls to keep overly busy VMs in check with minimum and maximum per-VM IOPS limits. 健全狀況服務提供連續的內建監視和警示,而新的 API 可讓您輕鬆收集豐富、整個叢集的效能和容量計量。The Health Service provides continuous built-in monitoring and alerting, and new APIs make it easy to collect rich, cluster-wide performance and capacity metrics.
延展性。Scalability. 如果每個叢集的儲存空間最大可達 1 拍位元組 (1,000 TB),則最多可擴展到 16 部伺服器和超過 400 個磁碟機。Go up to 16 servers and over 400 drives, for up to 1 petabyte (1,000 terabytes) of storage per cluster. 若要向外延展,只需新增磁碟機或新增更多伺服器;儲存空間直接存取就會自動將新的磁碟機上架,並開始使用它們。To scale out, simply add drives or add more servers; Storage Spaces Direct will automatically onboard new drives and begin using them. 存放裝置效率與效能在規模上可如預期般提升。Storage efficiency and performance improve predictably at scale.

部署選項Deployment options

儲存空間直接存取是為兩個不同的部署選項而設計:Storage Spaces Direct was designed for two distinct deployment options:


使用個別叢集進行運算和儲存。Storage and compute in separate clusters. 交集的部署選項 (也就是「分離式」) 會在儲存空間直接存取上方設定向外延展檔案伺服器 (SoFS) 層,以便透過 SMB3 檔案共用提供網路連接的儲存空間。The converged deployment option, also known as 'disaggregated', layers a Scale-out File Server (SoFS) atop Storage Spaces Direct to provide network-attached storage over SMB3 file shares. 這樣就能為從存放裝置叢集獨立出來的電腦/工作負載調整範圍,對於 Hyper-V IaaS (基礎結構即服務) 等適用於服務提供者和企業的大規模部署非常重要。This allows for scaling compute/workload independently from the storage cluster, essential for larger-scale deployments such as Hyper-V IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service) for service providers and enterprises.

儲存空間直接存取使用「向外延展檔案伺服器」功能向其他伺服器或叢集的 Hyper-V VM 提供儲存空間


使用一個叢集進行運算和儲存。One cluster for compute and storage. 超交集的部署選項會在提供儲存空間以便在本機磁碟區上儲存其檔案的伺服器上,直接執行 Hyper-V 虛擬機器或 SQL Server 資料庫。The hyper-converged deployment option runs Hyper-V virtual machines or SQL Server databases directly on the servers providing the storage, storing their files on the local volumes. 這樣就不需要設定檔案伺服器存取權和權限,並可降低小至中型企業或遠端辦公室/分公司部署的硬體成本。This eliminates the need to configure file server access and permissions, and reduces hardware costs for small-to-medium business or remote office/branch office deployments. 請參閱直接部署存放空間See Deploy Storage Spaces Direct.

儲存空間直接存取向同一個叢集中的 Hyper-V VM 提供儲存空間

運作方式How it works

儲存空間直接存取是在 WindowsServer 2012 中首次引進的儲存空間演進。Storage Spaces Direct is the evolution of Storage Spaces, first introduced in Windows Server 2012. 它會利用 WindowsServer 中您現在熟知的許多功能,例如,容錯移轉叢集、叢集共用磁碟區 (CSV) 檔案系統、伺服器訊息區 (SMB) 3,當然還包括儲存空間。It leverages many of the features you know today in Windows Server, such as Failover Clustering, the Cluster Shared Volume (CSV) file system, Server Message Block (SMB) 3, and of course Storage Spaces. 它也引進了新技術,最值得注意的是軟體存放匯流排。It also introduces new technology, most notably the Software Storage Bus.

以下是儲存空間直接存取堆疊的概觀:Here's an overview of the Storage Spaces Direct stack:


網路硬體。Networking Hardware. 儲存空間直接存取會使用 SMB3 (包括 SMB Direct 與 SMB 多重通道),透過乙太網路在伺服器之間進行通訊。Storage Spaces Direct uses SMB3, including SMB Direct and SMB Multichannel, over Ethernet to communicate between servers. We strongly recommend 10+ GbE with remote-direct memory access (RDMA), either iWARP or RoCE.We strongly recommend 10+ GbE with remote-direct memory access (RDMA), either iWARP or RoCE.

儲存硬體。Storage Hardware. 從 2 到 16 部伺服器,以及本機連接的 SATA、SAS 或 NVMe 磁碟機。From 2 to 16 servers with local-attached SATA, SAS, or NVMe drives. 每部伺服器必須至少有 2 個固態磁碟機,以及至少 4 個額外的磁碟機。Each server must have at least 2 solid-state drives, and at least 4 additional drives. SATA 和 SAS 裝置應該位於主機匯流排介面卡 (HBA) 和 SAS 擴展器後面。The SATA and SAS devices should be behind a host-bus adapter (HBA) and SAS expander. 我們強烈建議使用由我們的合作夥伴所推出的精心工程設計且廣泛驗證的平台 (敬請期待)。We strongly recommend the meticulously engineered and extensively validated platforms from our partners (coming soon).

容錯移轉叢集。Failover Clustering. WindowsServer 的內建叢集功能可用來連接伺服器。The built-in clustering feature of Windows Server is used to connect the servers.

軟體存放匯流排。Software Storage Bus. 軟體存放匯流排是儲存空間直接存取的新功能。The Software Storage Bus is new in Storage Spaces Direct. 它橫跨叢集並建立軟體定義的存放裝置網狀架構,因此,所有伺服器都能看見彼此的所有本機磁碟機。It spans the cluster and establishes a software-defined storage fabric whereby all the servers can see all of each other's local drives. 您可以將它視為取代既昂貴又嚴格的光纖通道或共用 SAS 纜線。You can think of it as replacing costly and restrictive Fibre Channel or Shared SAS cabling.

存放匯流排層快取。Storage Bus Layer Cache. 軟體存放匯流排可將現有最快的磁碟機 (例如 SSD) 動態繫結到速度較慢的磁碟機 (例如 HDD),以提供伺服器端的讀取/寫入快取,加速 IO 並提高輸送量。The Software Storage Bus dynamically binds the fastest drives present (e.g. SSD) to slower drives (e.g. HDDs) to provide server-side read/write caching that accelerates IO and boosts throughput.

儲存集區。Storage Pool. 形成儲存空間基礎的磁碟機集合稱為儲存集區。The collection of drives that form the basis of Storage Spaces is called the storage pool. 它會自動建立,而且會自動探索所有適合的磁碟機並加以新增。It is automatically created, and all eligible drives are automatically discovered and added to it. 強烈建議您在每個叢集中使用一個叢集搭配預設設定。We strongly recommend you use one pool per cluster, with the default settings. 如需深入了解,請閱讀我們的深入探討儲存集區 (英文)。Read our Deep Dive into the Storage Pool to learn more.

儲存空間。Storage Spaces. 儲存空間會使用鏡像、清除編碼或兩者,為虛擬「磁碟」提供容錯功能。Storage Spaces provides fault tolerance to virtual "disks" using mirroring, erasure coding, or both. 您可以將它視為集區中使用磁碟機之由分散式軟體定義的 RAID。You can think of it as distributed, software-defined RAID using the drives in the pool. 在儲存空間直接存取中,儘管也會提供底座和機架容錯功能,但這些虛擬磁碟通常能夠復原兩個同時發生的磁碟或伺服器失敗 (例如 3 向鏡像,每個資料複本都位於不同的伺服器上)。In Storage Spaces Direct, these virtual disks typically have resiliency to two simultaneous drive or server failures (e.g. 3-way mirroring, with each data copy in a different server) though chassis and rack fault tolerance is also available.

彈性檔案系統 (ReFS)。Resilient File System (ReFS). ReFS 是基於虛擬化目的而建置的首要檔案系統。ReFS is the premier filesystem purpose-built for virtualization. 其中包括大幅加速 .vhdx 檔案操作 (例如建立、擴充,以及合併檢查點),以及內建的總和檢查碼來偵測並修正位元錯誤。It includes dramatic accelerations for .vhdx file operations such as creation, expansion, and checkpoint merging, and built-in checksums to detect and correct bit errors. 它還引進了即時層,可根據使用量,在所謂的「熱」和「冷」儲存層之間即時輪換資料。It also introduces real-time tiers that rotate data between so-called "hot" and "cold" storage tiers in real-time based on usage.

叢集共用磁碟區。Cluster Shared Volumes. CSV 檔案系統會將所有 ReFS 磁碟區統一為可透過任何伺服器存取的單一命名空間,如此一來,對每部伺服器來說,每個磁碟區的外觀與行為就像是其本機掛接的。The CSV file system unifies all the ReFS volumes into a single namespace accessible through any server, so that to each server, every volume looks and acts like it's mounted locally.

向外延展檔案伺服器。Scale-Out File Server. 這最後一層僅適用於交集的部署。This final layer is necessary in converged deployments only. 它會透過網路使用 SMB3 存取通訊協定為使用者提供遠端檔案存取 (例如執行 Hyper-V 的其他叢集),有效地使儲存空間直接存取轉換為網路連接儲存裝置 (NAS)。It provides remote file access using the SMB3 access protocol to clients, such as another cluster running Hyper-V, over the network, effectively turning Storage Spaces Direct into network-attached storage (NAS).

用於管理儲存空間直接存取的工具Tools for managing Storage Spaces Direct

已經部署儲存空間之後,您將執行的管理工作包括監視故障的實體磁碟或其他問題、更換故障的磁碟,以及更新韌體和驅動程式。After you've deployed your storage, some of the management tasks you'll perform include monitoring for failed physical disks or other issues, replacing disks that fail, and updating firmware and drivers. 查看下表中的常用管理選項。See the following table for common management options.

工具Tool 優點Advantages 缺點Disadvantages
Windows Admin CenterWindows Admin Center -強大且容易使用-Powerful and easy to use
-圖形會顯示為監視個別叢集與伺服器-Graphical displays for monitoring individual clusters and servers
-必須安裝 (它是很容易安裝仍能得到...)-Must be installed (it is pretty easy to install though...)
Windows PowerShellWindows PowerShell - 對儲存所有方面的完整控制- Complete control over all aspects of storage
- 透過撰寫指令碼可以自動化- Can automate by writing scripts
- 強大的範例指令碼- Powerful example scripts available
-好比以視覺方式監視整體儲存狀況的管理- Better for management than visually monitoring overall storage health
- 指令碼需要開發和測試- Scripts require development and testing
System Center Virtual Machine Manager (VMM) 和 Operations ManagerSystem Center Virtual Machine Manager (VMM) & Operations Manager - 便於使用- Easy to use
- 監視多系統的圖形顯示- Graphical displays for monitoring multiple systems
- 常見問題警示- Alerting for common problems
- 用於管理 VM 與儲存空間的常見工具- Common tool for managing VMs and storage
- 某些工作需要 Windows PowerShell- Some tasks require Windows PowerShell
- 需要 System Center 授權- Requires System Center licenses
- 如果尚未安裝 System Center 或部署規模大於現有部署處理所及,可能需要額外的基礎結構- Might require additional infrastructure if you don't already have System Center or are deploying at a scale that's greater than your existing deployment can handle
容錯移轉叢集管理員和伺服器管理員Failover Cluster Manager & Server Manager - 便於使用- Easy to use
- 適用於監視的圖形顯示- Graphical displays for monitoring
- 某些工作需要 Windows PowerShell- Some tasks require Windows PowerShell
- 當處理儲存空間時,伺服器管理員中自動重新整理緩慢- Slow automatic refreshes in Server Manager when working with storage
- 處理大量物件時效能與可用性會減少- Performance and usability decreases with large numbers of objects

如需使用 VMM 搭配儲存空間直接存取的詳細資訊,請參閱在 VMM 中管理儲存空間直接存取在 VMM 網狀架構中管理儲存空間直接存取的儲存空間For more info about using VMM with Storage Spaces Direct, see Manage Storage Spaces Direct in VMM, and Manage storage in Storage Spaces Direct in the VMM fabric.

開始使用Get started

在 Microsoft Azure 中,立即試用儲存空間直接存取,或從 Windows Server 評估版下載 Windows Server 的 180 天授權評估版。Try Storage Spaces Direct in Microsoft Azure, or download a 180-day-licensed evaluation copy of Windows Server from Windows Server Evaluations.

另請參閱See also