在 HYPER-V 上的 Linux 和 FreeBSD 虛擬機器的功能描述Feature Descriptions for Linux and FreeBSD virtual machines on Hyper-V

適用於:Windows Server 2016 中,HYPER-V Server 2016 中,Windows Server 2012 R2 Hyper-V Server 2012 R2 中,Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V Server 2012,Windows Server 2008 R2、 Windows 10、 Windows 8.1,Windows 8,Windows 7.1、 Windows 7Applies To: Windows Server 2016, Hyper-V Server 2016, Windows Server 2012 R2, Hyper-V Server 2012 R2, Windows Server 2012, Hyper-V Server 2012, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows 10, Windows 8.1, Windows 8, Windows 7.1, Windows 7

使用 Linux 和 FreeBSD 虛擬機器上時,本文會說明中的元件,例如核心、 網路、 儲存體和記憶體可用的功能。This article describes features available in components such as core, networking, storage, and memory when using Linux and FreeBSD on a virtual machine.

核心Core

功能Feature 描述Description
整合式的關機Integrated shutdown 使用此功能,以系統管理員可以關閉虛擬機器從 HYPER-V 管理員。With this feature, an administrator can shut down virtual machines from the Hyper-V Manager. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱 < 作業系統關機For more information, see Operating system shutdown.
時間同步處理Time synchronization 這項功能可確保虛擬機器內的維護時間保持與維護的時間同步在主機上。This feature ensures that the maintained time inside a virtual machine is kept synchronized with the maintained time on the host. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱 < 時間同步化For more information, see Time synchronization.
Windows Server 2016 正確時間Windows Server 2016 Accurate Time 這項功能可讓使用 Windows Server 2016 正確時間功能,進而改善與主應用程式 1 毫秒的時間同步,客體會精確度。This feature allows the guest to use the Windows Server 2016 Accurate Time capability, which improves time synchronization with the host to 1ms accuracy. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱Windows Server 2016 正確時間For more information, see Windows Server 2016 Accurate Time
多處器支援Multiprocessing support 這項功能,虛擬機器可以使用多個處理器的主機上設定多個虛擬 Cpu。With this feature, a virtual machine can use multiple processors on the host by configuring multiple virtual CPUs.
活動訊號Heartbeat 主應用程式可以使用這項功能,來追蹤虛擬機器的狀態。With this feature, the host to can track the state of the virtual machine. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱 < 活動訊號For more information, see Heartbeat.
整合式的滑鼠支援Integrated mouse support 利用此功能,使用滑鼠在虛擬機器的桌面即可也使用虛擬機器的 Windows Server 桌面與 HYPER-V 主控台之間的順暢地滑鼠。With this feature, you can use a mouse on a virtual machine's desktop and also use the mouse seamlessly between the Windows Server desktop and the Hyper-V console for the virtual machine.
HYPER-V 特定的存放裝置Hyper-V specific Storage device 這項功能會授與高效能儲存體裝置的存取權連接至虛擬機器。This feature grants high-performance access to storage devices that are attached to a virtual machine.
HYPER-V 特定網路裝置Hyper-V specific Network device 這項功能會高效能的存取權授與連接至虛擬機器的網路介面卡。This feature grants high-performance access to network adapters that are attached to a virtual machine.

網路功能Networking

功能Feature 描述Description
大型訊框Jumbo frames 利用此功能,系統管理員可以增加大小網路框架超過 1500 個位元組,這可能導致大幅提升網路效能。With this feature, an administrator can increase the size of network frames beyond 1500 bytes, which leads to a significant increase in network performance.
VLAN 標記和主幹連線VLAN tagging and trunking 這項功能可讓您設定虛擬機器的虛擬 LAN (VLAN) 流量。This feature allows you to configure virtual LAN (VLAN) traffic for virtual machines.
即時移轉Live Migration 使用此功能,您可以移轉虛擬機器從一部主機到另一部主機。With this feature, you can migrate a virtual machine from one host to another host. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱 < 虛擬機器即時移轉概觀For more information, see Virtual Machine Live Migration Overview.
靜態 IP 資料隱碼攻擊Static IP Injection 利用此功能,您可以在它有其不同的主機上的複本容錯移轉之後複寫虛擬機器的靜態 IP 的位址。With this feature, you can replicate the static IP address of a virtual machine after it has been failed over to its replica on a different host. 這類 IP 複寫可確保網路工作負載繼續順暢地運作,容錯移轉事件之後。Such IP replication ensures that network workloads continue to work seamlessly after a failover event.
vRSS (虛擬接收端調整)vRSS (Virtual Receive Side Scaling) 從虛擬網路介面卡的負載分配的虛擬機器中的多個虛擬處理器。如需詳細資訊,請參閱 < Windows Server 2012 R2 中的虛擬接收端調整Spreads the load from a virtual network adapter across multiple virtual processors in a virtual machine.For more information, see Virtual Receive-side Scaling in Windows Server 2012 R2.
TCP 分割和總和檢查碼卸載TCP Segmentation and Checksum Offloads 傳輸區隔與總和檢查碼網路資料傳輸期間使用從來賓 CPU 的主機虛擬交換器或網路介面卡。Transfers segmentation and checksum work from the guest CPU to the host virtual switch or network adapter during network data transfers.
大型接收卸載 (LRO)Large Receive Offload (LRO) 藉由彙總到較大的緩衝區,並減少 CPU 額外負荷的多個封包的高頻寬連線的輸入的輸送量的增加。Increases inbound throughput of high-bandwidth connections by aggregating multiple packets into a larger buffer, decreasing CPU overhead.
SR-IOVSR-IOV 單一根目錄 I/O 裝置使用 DDA 允許來賓存取權,以降低的延遲,並增加的輸送量的特定 nic 介面卡的部分。Single Root I/O devices use DDA to allow guests access to portions of specific NIC cards allowing for reduced latency and increased throughput. SR-IOV 需要在主機上的最新狀態的實體函式 (PF) 驅動程式和客體上的虛擬函式 (VF) 驅動程式。SR-IOV requires up to date physical function (PF) drivers on the host and virtual function (VF) drivers on the guest.

儲存體Storage

功能Feature 描述Description
VHDX 調整大小VHDX resize 利用此功能,系統管理員可以調整連結至虛擬機器的大小固定.vhdx 檔案。With this feature, an administrator can resize a fixed-size .vhdx file that is attached to a virtual machine. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱 < 線上的虛擬硬碟調整大小概觀For more information, see Online Virtual Hard Disk Resizing Overview.
虛擬光纖通道Virtual Fibre Channel 使用此功能,虛擬機器可以辨識的光纖通道裝置,並將它掛接到原生。With this feature, virtual machines can recognize a fiber channel device and mount it natively. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱 Hyper-V 虛擬光纖通道概觀For more information, see Hyper-V Virtual Fibre Channel Overview.
即時虛擬機器備份Live virtual machine backup 這項功能有助於減少時間即時的虛擬機器備份的零。This feature facilitates zero down time backup of live virtual machines.

請注意,備份作業不成功,如果虛擬機器具有虛擬硬碟 (Vhd) 所裝載的遠端儲存體,例如伺服器訊息區塊 (SMB) 共用或 iSCSI 磁碟區。Note that the backup operation does not succeed if the virtual machine has virtual hard disks (VHDs) that are hosted on remote storage such as a Server Message Block (SMB) share or an iSCSI volume. 此外,請確定備份的目標不會位於相同的磁碟區,您將備份的磁碟區上。Additionally, ensure that the backup target does not reside on the same volume as the volume that you back up.
修剪支援TRIM support 修剪提示通知的磁碟機,某些先前所配置的磁區不再需要應用程式,且可加以清除。TRIM hints notify the drive that certain sectors that were previously allocated are no longer required by the app and can be purged. 通常在應用程式透過檔案,讓大型的空間配置,然後自我管理的配置檔案,例如虛擬硬碟檔案時,會運用這個程序。This process is typically used when an app makes large space allocations via a file and then self-manages the allocations to the file, for example, to virtual hard disk files.
SCSI WWNSCSI WWN Storvsc 驅動程式擷取的裝置連接至虛擬機器的節點與連接埠的全球名稱 (WWN) 資訊,並建立適當的 sysfs 檔案。The storvsc driver extracts World Wide Name (WWN) information from the port and node of devices attached to the virtual machine and creates the appropriate sysfs files.

記憶體Memory

功能Feature 描述Description
PAE 核心支援PAE Kernel Support 實體位置延伸 (PAE) 技術可讓 32 位元核心,以存取超過 4 GB 的實體的位址空間。Physical Address Extension (PAE) technology allows a 32-bit kernel to access a physical address space that is larger than 4GB. 較舊的 Linux 散發套件,例如 RHEL 5.x 用來寄送另一項核心,已啟用 PAE。Older Linux distributions such as RHEL 5.x used to ship a separate kernel that was PAE enabled. 更新的發行例如 RHEL 6.x 有預先建置的 PAE 支援。Newer distributions such as RHEL 6.x have pre-built PAE support.
MMIO 間距的組態Configuration of MMIO gap 設備製造商可以利用這項功能,來設定記憶體對應 I/O (MMIO) 間距的位置。With this feature, appliance manufacturers can configure the location of the Memory Mapped I/O (MMIO) gap. MMIO 差距通常會用來將設備只夠 Operating Systems (JeOS) 和實際的軟體基礎結構提供設備之間可用的實體記憶體中。The MMIO gap is typically used to divide the available physical memory between an appliance's Just Enough Operating Systems (JeOS) and the actual software infrastructure that powers the appliance.
動態記憶體的熱新增Dynamic Memory - Hot-Add 主應用程式可以動態增加或減少虛擬機器可以使用的記憶體數量,在作業時。The host can dynamically increase or decrease the amount of memory available to a virtual machine while it is in operation. 佈建之前,系統管理員會啟用動態記憶體的虛擬機器設定 面板中,並指定虛擬機器的啟動記憶體、 最小記憶體和最大記憶體。Before provisioning, the Administrator enables Dynamic Memory in the Virtual Machine Settings panel and specify the Startup Memory, Minimum Memory, and Maximum Memory for the virtual machine. 您可以變更虛擬機器時無法停用動態記憶體的作業和只有最小值和最大值設定。When the virtual machine is in operation Dynamic Memory cannot be disabled and only the Minimum and Maximum settings can be changed. (它是最佳的作法,來指定這些記憶體大小為 128 MB 的倍數)。(It is a best practice to specify these memory sizes as multiples of 128MB.)

當虛擬機器第一次啟動時可用的記憶體是否等於啟動記憶體When the virtual machine is first started available memory is equal to the Startup Memory. 由於應用程式工作負載的記憶體需求增加時 HYPER-V 可能會以動態方式配置更多記憶體的熱新增的機制,透過虛擬機器如果支援該版本的核心。As Memory Demand increases due to application workloads Hyper-V may dynamically allocate more memory to the virtual machine via the Hot-Add mechanism, if supported by that version of the kernel. 最大配置的記憶體數量的值會受限於最大記憶體參數。The maximum amount of memory allocated is capped by the value of the Maximum Memory parameter.

HYPER-V 管理員中的 [記憶體] 索引標籤會顯示指派給虛擬機器的記憶體數量,但虛擬機器內的記憶體統計資料會顯示最高的已配置的記憶體數量。The Memory tab of Hyper-V manager will display the amount of memory assigned to the virtual machine, but memory statistics within the virtual machine will show the highest amount of memory allocated.

如需詳細資訊,請參閱 < HYPER-V 動態記憶體概觀For more information, see Hyper-V Dynamic Memory Overview.

動態記憶體-佔用Dynamic Memory - Ballooning 主應用程式可以動態增加或減少虛擬機器可以使用的記憶體數量,在作業時。The host can dynamically increase or decrease the amount of memory available to a virtual machine while it is in operation. 佈建之前,系統管理員會啟用動態記憶體的虛擬機器設定 面板中,並指定虛擬機器的啟動記憶體、 最小記憶體和最大記憶體。Before provisioning, the Administrator enables Dynamic Memory in the Virtual Machine Settings panel and specify the Startup Memory, Minimum Memory, and Maximum Memory for the virtual machine. 您可以變更虛擬機器時無法停用動態記憶體的作業和只有最小值和最大值設定。When the virtual machine is in operation Dynamic Memory cannot be disabled and only the Minimum and Maximum settings can be changed. (它是最佳的作法,來指定這些記憶體大小為 128 MB 的倍數)。(It is a best practice to specify these memory sizes as multiples of 128MB.)

當虛擬機器第一次啟動時可用的記憶體是否等於啟動記憶體When the virtual machine is first started available memory is equal to the Startup Memory. 由於應用程式工作負載的記憶體需求增加時 HYPER-V 可能會動態配置到虛擬機器 (請見上方) 的熱新增機制透過更多的記憶體。As Memory Demand increases due to application workloads Hyper-V may dynamically allocate more memory to the virtual machine via the Hot-Add mechanism (above). 隨著記憶體需求的降低 HYPER-V 可能會自動取消佈建的球形文字說明機制透過虛擬機器的記憶體。As Memory Demand decreases Hyper-V may automatically deprovision memory from the virtual machine via the Balloon mechanism. HYPER-V 會取消佈建下列記憶體最小記憶體參數。Hyper-V will not deprovision memory below the Minimum Memory parameter.

HYPER-V 管理員中的 [記憶體] 索引標籤會顯示指派給虛擬機器的記憶體數量,但虛擬機器內的記憶體統計資料會顯示最高的已配置的記憶體數量。The Memory tab of Hyper-V manager will display the amount of memory assigned to the virtual machine, but memory statistics within the virtual machine will show the highest amount of memory allocated.

如需詳細資訊,請參閱 < HYPER-V 動態記憶體概觀For more information, see Hyper-V Dynamic Memory Overview.

執行階段記憶體大小調整Runtime Memory Resize 系統管理員可以設定可用的記憶體數量的虛擬機器時在作業中,增加記憶體 (「 熱新增 」),或減少 (「 熱移除 」)。An administrator can set the amount of memory available to a virtual machine while it is in operation, either increasing memory ("Hot Add") or decreasing it ("Hot Remove"). 記憶體時,會傳回至 HYPER-V 上,透過 balloon 驅動程式 (請參閱 「 動態記憶體-佔用 」)。Memory is returned to Hyper-V via the balloon driver (see "Dynamic Memory - Ballooning"). Balloon 驅動程式會維護最小可用的記憶體之後佔用,稱為 「 下限 」,因此指派的記憶體數量無法會縮小到低於目前的需求,再加上此 floor 數量。The balloon driver maintains a minimum amount of free memory after ballooning, called the "floor", so assigned memory cannot be reduced below the current demand plus this floor amount. HYPER-V 管理員中的 [記憶體] 索引標籤會顯示指派給虛擬機器的記憶體數量,但虛擬機器內的記憶體統計資料會顯示最高的已配置的記憶體數量。The Memory tab of Hyper-V manager will display the amount of memory assigned to the virtual machine, but memory statistics within the virtual machine will show the highest amount of memory allocated. (它是最佳的作法,若要指定記憶體值為 128 MB 的倍數)。(It is a best practice to specify memory values as multiples of 128MB.)

視訊Video

功能Feature 描述Description
Hyper-v 特定視訊裝置Hyper-V-specific video device 這項功能會針對虛擬機器提供高效能圖形和優異的解析度。This feature provides high-performance graphics and superior resolution for virtual machines. 此裝置不提供增強的工作階段模式或 RemoteFX 功能。This device does not provide Enhanced Session Mode or RemoteFX capabilities.

其他Miscellaneous

功能Feature 描述Description
KVP (索引鍵 / 值組) exchangeKVP (Key-Value pair) exchange 這項功能提供的索引鍵/值組 (KVP) exchange 服務虛擬機器。This feature provides a key/value pair (KVP) exchange service for virtual machines. 通常系統管理員會使用 KVP 機制執行讀取和寫入虛擬機器上的自訂資料作業。Typically administrators use the KVP mechanism to perform read and write custom data operations on a virtual machine. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱資料交換:使用索引鍵 / 值組共用有關 HYPER-V 主機與客體之間For more information, see Data Exchange: Using key-value pairs to share information between the host and guest on Hyper-V.
非遮罩式插斷Non-Maskable Interrupt 這項功能,以系統管理員可以透過發出非遮罩式插斷 (nmi) 傳送至虛擬機器。With this feature, an administrator can issue Non-Maskable Interrupts (NMI) to a virtual machine. NMIs 可用於取得損毀傾印的變得沒有回應,因為應用程式錯誤的作業系統。NMIs are useful in obtaining crash dumps of operating systems that have become unresponsive due to application bugs. 在您重新啟動之後,您可以診斷這些損毀傾印。These crash dumps can be diagnosed after you restart.
從主機到客體檔案複製File copy from host to guest 這項功能可讓檔案從主機實體電腦複製到客體虛擬機器而不使用網路介面卡。This feature allows files to be copied from the host physical computer to the guest virtual machines without using the network adaptor. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱 < 客體服務For more information, see Guest services.
lsvmbus 命令lsvmbus command 此命令會取得類似於類 lspci 的資訊命令上的 HYPER-V 虛擬機器匯流排 (VMBus) 裝置的相關資訊。This command gets information about devices on the Hyper-V virtual machine bus (VMBus) similiar to information commands like lspci.
HYPER-V 通訊端Hyper-V Sockets 這是主機和客體作業系統之間的其他通訊通道。This is an additional communication channel between the host and guest operating system. 若要載入,並使用 HYPER-V 通訊端核心模組,請參閱讓您自己的整合服務To load and use the Hyper-V Sockets kernel module, see Make your own integration services.
PCI 通過/DDAPCI Passthrough/DDA Windows Server 2016 系統管理員可以通過 PCI Express 的裝置,透過不連續的裝置指派機制。With Windows Server 2016 administrators can pass through PCI Express devices via the Discrete Device Assignment mechanism. 常見的裝置是網路卡、 圖形卡和特殊的存放裝置。Common devices are network cards, graphics cards, and special storage devices. 虛擬機器將會需要適當的驅動程式使用公開的硬體。The virtual machine will require the appropriate driver to use the exposed hardware. 硬體必須指派給虛擬機器,才能使用。The hardware must be assigned to the virtual machine for it to be used.

如需詳細資訊,請參閱 < 離散的裝置指派-描述和背景For more information, see Discrete Device Assignment - Description and Background.

DDA 是 SR-IOV 網路功能的必要條件。DDA is a pre-requisite for SR-IOV networking. 虛擬通訊埠必須要指派給虛擬機器和虛擬機器必須使用正確的虛擬函式 (VF) 驅動程式進行多工裝置。Virtual ports will need to be assigned to the virtual machine and the virtual machine must use the correct Virtual Function (VF) drivers for device multiplexing.

第 2 代虛擬機器Generation 2 virtual machines

功能Feature 描述Description
使用 UEFI 開機Boot using UEFI 這項功能可讓開機使用統一可延伸韌體介面 (UEFI) 的虛擬機器。This feature allows virtual machines to boot using Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI).

如需詳細資訊,請參閱第 2 代虛擬機器概觀For more information, see Generation 2 Virtual Machine Overview.
安全開機Secure boot 這項功能可讓虛擬機器,以使用基礎的 UEFI 安全開機模式。This feature allows virtual machines to use UEFI based secure boot mode. 當虛擬機器開機在安全模式下時,使用 UEFI 資料存放區中的簽章驗證各種作業系統元件。When a virtual machine is booted in secure mode, various operating system components are verified using signatures present in the UEFI data store.

如需詳細資訊,請參閱安全開機For more information, see Secure Boot.

另請參閱See Also