在 Windows Server 上的 HYPER-V 中最新消息What's new in Hyper-V on Windows Server

適用於:Windows Server 2019,Microsoft HYPER-V Server 2016 中,Windows Server 2016Applies To: Windows Server 2019, Microsoft Hyper-V Server 2016, Windows Server 2016

這篇文章說明在 Windows Server 2019、 Windows Server 2016 和 Microsoft HYPER-V Server 2016 的新功能和變更功能的 HYPER-V。This article explains the new and changed functionality of Hyper-V on Windows Server 2019, Windows Server 2016, and Microsoft Hyper-V Server 2016. 若要使用的新功能與 Windows Server 2012 R2 建立和移動或匯入到執行 Windows Server 2019 上 HYPER-V 的伺服器或 Windows Server 2016 的虛擬機器上,您必須手動升級虛擬機器設定版本。To use new features on virtual machines created with Windows Server 2012 R2 and moved or imported to a server that runs Hyper-V on Windows Server 2019 or Windows Server 2016, you'll need to manually upgrade the virtual machine configuration version. 如需相關指示,請參閱 < 升級的虛擬機器版本For instructions, see Upgrade virtual machine version.

以下是這篇文章中包含的內容,以及功能是新的或更新。Here's what's included in this article and whether the functionality is new or updated.

Windows Server 版 1903,Windows Server, version 1903

將 HYPER-V 管理員新增至 Server Core 安裝 (更新)Add Hyper-V Manager to Server Core installations (updated)

您可能已經知道,我們建議使用 Windows Server,在生產環境中的半年通道時,使用 Server Core 安裝選項。As you might know, we recommend using the Server Core installation option when using Windows Server, Semi-Annual Channel in production. 不過,預設的 Server Core 省略了一些有用的管理工具。However, Server Core by default omits a number of useful management tools. 您可以新增許多的最常用的工具來安裝應用程式相容性功能,但仍有某些遺漏的工具。You can add many of the most commonly used tools by installing the App Compatibility feature, but there have still been some missing tools.

因此,根據客戶意見反應,我們新增一個更多的工具在此版本的應用程式相容性功能:HYPER-V 管理員 (virtmgmt.msc)。So, based on customer feedback, we added one more tools to the App Compatibility feature in this version: Hyper-V Manager (virtmgmt.msc).

如需詳細資訊,請參閱 < Server Core 應用程式相容性功能For more info, see Server Core app compatibility feature.

Windows Server 2019Windows Server 2019

安全性:受防護的虛擬機器改良 (新)Security: Shielded Virtual Machines improvements (new)

  • 分支辦公室的改善Branch office improvements

    您現在可以運用全新的遞補 HGS離線模式功能,在間歇連線到主機守護者服務的電腦上執行受防護的虛擬機器。You can now run shielded virtual machines on machines with intermittent connectivity to the Host Guardian Service by leveraging the new fallback HGS and offline mode features. 遞補 HGS 可讓您為 Hyper-V 設定第二組 URL,在無法連線到主要 HGS 伺服器時可嘗試使用。Fallback HGS allows you to configure a second set of URLs for Hyper-V to try if it can't reach your primary HGS server.

    離線模式可在即使無法連線到 HGS 時仍繼續啟動受防護 VM,只要 VM 已成功啟動一次且主機的安全性設定未變更。Offline mode allows you to continue to start up your shielded VMs, even if HGS can't be reached, as long as the VM has started successfully once, and the host's security configuration has not changed.

  • 疑難排解增強功能Troubleshooting improvements

    我們也透過啟用 VMConnect 加強的工作階段模式和 PowerShell Direct 支援,簡化疑難排解受防護的虛擬機器We've also made it easier to troubleshoot your shielded virtual machines by enabling support for VMConnect Enhanced Session Mode and PowerShell Direct. 如果您遺失 VM 的網路連線,並且需要更新其設定來還原存取,這些工具會非常有用。These tools are particularly useful if you've lost network connectivity to your VM and need to update its configuration to restore access.

    這些功能不需要進行設定,當受防護 VM 放置於執行 Windows Server 版本 1803 或更新版本的 Hyper-V 主機時,就會自動變為可用。These features do not need to be configured, and they become available automatically when a shielded VM is placed on a Hyper-V host running Windows Server version 1803 or later.

  • Linux 支援Linux support

    如果您執行混合的作業系統環境,Windows Server 2019 現在支援在受防護的虛擬機器中執行 Ubuntu、Red Hat Enterprise Linux 和 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server。If you run mixed-OS environments, Windows Server 2019 now supports running Ubuntu, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, and SUSE Linux Enterprise Server inside shielded virtual machines.

Windows Server 2016Windows Server 2016

與連線待命相容(新)Compatible with Connected Standby (new)

使用 Always on/always Connected (AOAC) 電源模式的電腦上安裝 HYPER-V 角色時連線待命電源狀態現已推出。When the Hyper-V role is installed on a computer that uses the Always On/Always Connected (AOAC) power model, the Connected Standby power state is now available.

不連續的裝置指派(新)Discrete device assignment (new)

這項功能可讓您為某些 PCIe 硬體裝置中的虛擬機器直接存取和獨佔存取權。This feature lets you give a virtual machine direct and exclusive access to some PCIe hardware devices. 使用裝置,如此一來,就會略過 HYPER-V 虛擬化堆疊,會導致更快速的存取。Using a device in this way bypasses the Hyper-V virtualization stack, which results in faster access. 如需支援的硬體的詳細資訊,請參閱 「 不連續的裝置指派 」 中適用於 Windows Server 2016 上的 HYPER-V 系統需求For details on supported hardware, see "Discrete device assignment" in System requirements for Hyper-V on Windows Server 2016. 如需詳細資訊,包括如何使用這個功能和考量,請參閱文章 「離散的裝置指派 — 描述和背景」 在虛擬化部落格。For details, including how to use this feature and considerations, see the post "Discrete Device Assignment — Description and background" in the Virtualization blog.

適用於第 1 代虛擬機器的作業系統磁碟加密支援(新)Encryption support for the operating system disk in generation 1 virtual machines (new)

您現在可以保護在第 1 代虛擬機器中使用 BitLocker 磁碟機加密作業系統磁碟。You can now protect the operating system disk using BitLocker drive encryption in generation 1 virtual machines. 新功能,主要的儲存體,會建立小型的專用的磁碟機,來儲存系統磁碟機的 BitLocker 金鑰。A new feature, key storage, creates a small, dedicated drive to store the system drive’s BitLocker key. 這是完成而不是使用虛擬信賴平台模組 (TPM),這僅適用於第 2 代虛擬機器。This is done instead of using a virtual Trusted Platform Module (TPM), which is available only in generation 2 virtual machines. 若要解密磁碟,並啟動虛擬機器,HYPER-V 主機必須是已獲授權的受防護網狀架構的一部分,或其中一個虛擬機器的守護者具有私密金鑰。To decrypt the disk and start the virtual machine, the Hyper-V host must either be part of an authorized guarded fabric or have the private key from one of the virtual machine's guardians. 金鑰的儲存體需要第 8 版的虛擬機器。Key storage requires a version 8 virtual machine. 如需有關虛擬機器版本,請參閱更新虛擬機器版本,在 Windows 10 或 Windows Server 2016 的 HYPER-V 中For information on virtual machine version, see Upgrade virtual machine version in Hyper-V on Windows 10 or Windows Server 2016.

主機資源保護(新)Host resource protection (new)

這項功能可協助防止虛擬機器超過其共用系統資源的使用,藉由尋找過多的層級的活動。This feature helps prevent a virtual machine from using more than its share of system resources by looking for excessive levels of activity. 這可協助降低主機或其他虛擬機器的效能時,防止虛擬機器的過多的活動。This can help prevent a virtual machine's excessive activity from degrading the performance of the host or other virtual machines. 當監視偵測到虛擬機器,具有過多的活動時,將虛擬機器有較少的資源。When monitoring detects a virtual machine with excessive activity, the virtual machine is given fewer resources. 此監視和強制執行預設為關閉。This monitoring and enforcement is off by default. 使用 Windows PowerShell 來開啟或關閉。Use Windows PowerShell to turn it on or off. 若要將它開啟,執行此命令:To turn it on, run this command:

Set-VMProcessor TestVM -EnableHostResourceProtection $true

如需有關此指令程式的詳細資訊,請參閱 < Set-vmprocessorFor details about this cmdlet, see Set-VMProcessor.

熱新增和移除網路介面卡和記憶體(新)Hot add and remove for network adapters and memory (new)

您現在可以新增或移除網路介面卡,當虛擬機器執行時,不會產生停機時間。You can now add or remove a network adapter while the virtual machine is running, without incurring downtime. 這適用於執行 Windows 或 Linux 作業系統的第 2 代虛擬機器。This works for generation 2 virtual machines that run either Windows or Linux operating systems.

您也可以調整指派給虛擬機器執行時,即使您沒有啟用動態記憶體的記憶體數量。You can also adjust the amount of memory assigned to a virtual machine while it's running, even if you haven't enabled Dynamic Memory. 這適用於第 1 代和第 2 代虛擬機器,執行 Windows Server 2016 或 Windows 10。This works for both generation 1 and generation 2 virtual machines, running Windows Server 2016 or Windows 10.

HYPER-V 管理員改善(更新)Hyper-V Manager improvements (updated)

  • 備用認證支援-您現在可以使用一組不同的認證在 HYPER-V 管理員中當您連接到另一部 Windows Server 2016 或 Windows 10 的遠端主機。Alternate credentials support - You can now use a different set of credentials in Hyper-V Manager when you connect to another Windows Server 2016 or Windows 10 remote host. 您也可以儲存這些認證可讓您更輕鬆地再次登入。You can also save these credentials to make it easier to log on again.

  • 管理舊版-使用 HYPER-V 管理員在 Windows Server 2019、 Windows Server 2016 和 Windows 10 中,您可以管理 Windows Server 2012 中,Windows 8、 Windows Server 2012 R2 和 Windows 8.1 上執行 HYPER-V 的電腦。Manage earlier versions - With Hyper-V Manager in Windows Server 2019, Windows Server 2016, and Windows 10, you can manage computers running Hyper-V on Windows Server 2012, Windows 8, Windows Server 2012 R2 and Windows 8.1.

  • 更新管理通訊協定-HYPER-V 管理員進行通訊與遠端 HYPER-V 主機使用 WS-MAN 通訊協定允許 CredSSP、 Kerberos 或 NTLM 驗證。Updated management protocol - Hyper-V Manager now communicates with remote Hyper-V hosts using the WS-MAN protocol, which permits CredSSP, Kerberos or NTLM authentication. 當您使用 CredSSP 來連線到遠端 HYPER-V 主機時,您可以執行即時移轉而不啟用限制的委派在 Active Directory 中。When you use CredSSP to connect to a remote Hyper-V host, you can do a live migration without enabling constrained delegation in Active Directory. WS MAN 架構基礎結構也可讓您更輕鬆地啟用遠端管理的主機。The WS-MAN-based infrastructure also makes it easier to enable a host for remote management. WS-MAN 透過連接埠 80 連線,預設會開啟此連接埠。WS-MAN connects over port 80, which is open by default.

透過 Windows Update 的整合服務傳遞(更新)Integration services delivered through Windows Update (updated)

Windows 客體整合服務更新是透過 Windows Update 散發。Updates to integration services for Windows guests are distributed through Windows Update. 如需服務提供者和私人雲端主機服務提供者,這樣會讓租用戶擁有之虛擬機器的未授權者手中套用更新的控制項。For service providers and private cloud hosters, this puts the control of applying updates into the hands of the tenants who own the virtual machines. 租用戶現在可以更新自己的 Windows 虛擬機器的所有更新,包括 integration services 中,使用單一方法。Tenants can now update their Windows virtual machines with all updates, including the integration services, using a single method. 如需 Linux 客體的整合服務的詳細資訊,請參閱Linux 和 FreeBSD 虛擬機器在 HYPER-V 上For details about integration services for Linux guests, see Linux and FreeBSD Virtual Machines on Hyper-V.

重要

不再需要 vmguest.iso 映像檔,因此它不包含 Windows Server 2016 上的 HYPER-V。The vmguest.iso image file is no longer needed, so it isn't included with Hyper-V on Windows Server 2016.

Linux 安全開機(新)Linux Secure Boot (new)

第 2 代虛擬機器上執行的 Linux 作業系統現在可以啟用安全開機選項進行開機。Linux operating systems running on generation 2 virtual machines can now boot with the Secure Boot option enabled. Ubuntu 14.04 和更新版本、 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 和更新版本、 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 和更新版本和 CentOS 7.0 和更新版本會執行 Windows Server 2016 主機上啟用安全開機。Ubuntu 14.04 and later, SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 and later, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 and later, and CentOS 7.0 and later are enabled for Secure Boot on hosts that run Windows Server 2016. 您第一次啟動虛擬機器之前,您必須設定虛擬機器,以使用 Microsoft UEFI 憑證授權單位。Before you boot the virtual machine for the first time, you must configure the virtual machine to use the Microsoft UEFI Certificate Authority. 您可以從 HYPER-V 管理員、 Virtual Machine Manager 或 提升權限的 Windows Powershell 工作階段來這樣做。You can do this from Hyper-V Manager, Virtual Machine Manager, or an elevated Windows Powershell session. 適用於 Windows PowerShell,執行下列命令:For Windows PowerShell, run this command:

Set-VMFirmware TestVM -SecureBootTemplate MicrosoftUEFICertificateAuthority  

如需 HYPER-V 的 Linux 虛擬機器的相關詳細資訊,請參閱Linux 和 FreeBSD 虛擬機器在 HYPER-V 上For more information about Linux virtual machines on Hyper-V, see Linux and FreeBSD Virtual Machines on Hyper-V. 如需有關此指令程式的詳細資訊,請參閱Set-vmfirmwareFor more information about the cmdlet, see Set-VMFirmware.

更多的記憶體和第 2 代虛擬機器和 HYPER-V 主機的處理器(更新)More memory and processors for generation 2 virtual machines and Hyper-V hosts (updated)

從第 8 版開始,第 2 代虛擬機器可以使用更多的記憶體和虛擬處理器。Starting with version 8, generation 2 virtual machines can use significantly more memory and virtual processors. 主機也可以設定更多的記憶體和虛擬處理器與比先前支援。Hosts also can be configured with significantly more memory and virtual processors than were previously supported. 這些變更支援新的案例,例如執行電子商務的線上交易處理 (OLTP) 和資料倉儲 (DW) 的大型記憶體內部資料庫。These changes support new scenarios such as running e-commerce large in-memory databases for online transaction processing (OLTP) and data warehousing (DW). Windows Server 部落格最近發佈的 5.5 tb 的記憶體和執行 4 TB 的記憶體內資料庫的 128 個虛擬處理器與虛擬機器的效能結果。The Windows Server blog recently published the performance results of a virtual machine with 5.5 terabytes of memory and 128 virtual processors running 4 TB in-memory database. 效能已超過 95%的實體伺服器的效能。Performance was greater than 95% of the performance of a physical server. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱 < Windows Server 2016 HYPER-V 記憶體中的交易處理的大型 VM 效能For details, see Windows Server 2016 Hyper-V large-scale VM performance for in-memory transaction processing. 如需有關虛擬機器版本的詳細資訊,請參閱更新虛擬機器版本,在 Windows 10 或 Windows Server 2016 的 HYPER-V 中For details about virtual machine versions, see Upgrade virtual machine version in Hyper-V on Windows 10 or Windows Server 2016. 支援的最大組態的完整清單,請參閱規劃 Windows Server 2016 中的 HYPER-V 延展性For the full list of supported maximum configurations, see Plan for Hyper-V scalability in Windows Server 2016.

巢狀虛擬化(新)Nested virtualization (new)

這項功能可讓您使用做為 HYPER-V 主機的虛擬機器,並建立該虛擬化主機的虛擬機器。This feature lets you use a virtual machine as a Hyper-V host and create virtual machines within that virtualized host. 這可以是特別適用於開發和測試環境。This can be especially useful for development and test environments. 若要使用巢狀虛擬化,您將需要:To use nested virtualization, you'll need:

  • 若要在至少執行 Windows Server 2019、 Windows Server 2016 或 Windows 10 上實體 HYPER-V 主機和虛擬化的主機。To run at least Windows Server 2019, Windows Server 2016 or Windows 10 on both the physical Hyper-V host and the virtualized host.

  • 處理器,配備 Intel VT x (巢狀虛擬化是僅適用於 Intel 處理器這一次)。A processor with Intel VT-x (nested virtualization is available only for Intel processors at this time).

如需詳細資訊和指示,請參閱 < 執行 HYPER-V 的巢狀虛擬化的虛擬機器中For details and instructions, see Run Hyper-V in a Virtual Machine with Nested Virtualization.

網路功能(新)Networking features (new)

新的網路功能包括:New networking features include:

  • 遠端直接記憶體存取 (RDMA) 和交換器內嵌小組 (SET)Remote direct memory access (RDMA) and switch embedded teaming (SET). 您可以設定繫結至 HYPER-V 虛擬交換器,不論是否也會使用設定的網路介面卡的 RDMA。You can set up RDMA on network adapters bound to a Hyper-V virtual switch, regardless of whether SET is also used. 集合會提供一些與 NIC 小組的相同功能的虛擬交換器。SET provides a virtual switch with some of same capabilities as NIC teaming. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱 < 遠端直接記憶體存取 (RDMA) 和 Switch Embedded Teaming (SET)For details, see Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA) and Switch Embedded Teaming (SET).

  • 虛擬機器的多個佇列 (VMMQ)Virtual machine multi queues (VMMQ). 藉由配置每個虛擬機器的多個硬體佇列改善 VMQ 輸送量。Improves on VMQ throughput by allocating multiple hardware queues per virtual machine. 預設的佇列會變成一組虛擬機器,佇列和佇列之間分散流量。The default queue becomes a set of queues for a virtual machine, and traffic is spread between the queues.

  • 服務品質 (QoS 的軟體定義網路)Quality of service (QoS) for software-defined networks. 管理透過虛擬交換器中的預設類別的頻寬流量的預設類別。Manages the default class of traffic through the virtual switch within the default class bandwidth.

如需有關新網路功能的詳細資訊,請參閱的新網路功能For more about new networking features, see What's new in Networking.

生產檢查點(新)Production checkpoints (new)

生產檢查點是虛擬機器的 「 時間中點 」 映像。Production checkpoints are "point-in-time" images of a virtual machine. 這些可讓您將虛擬機器執行生產工作負載時,支援原則符合的檢查點。These give you a way to apply a checkpoint that complies with support policies when a virtual machine runs a production workload. 生產檢查點根據在客體內,而不是已儲存狀態的備份技術而定。Production checkpoints are based on backup technology inside the guest instead of a saved state. 對於 Windows 虛擬機器,會使用磁碟區快照服務 (VSS)。For Windows virtual machines, the Volume Snapshot Service (VSS) is used. 針對 Linux 虛擬機器,檔案系統緩衝區排清建立與檔案系統一致檢查點。For Linux virtual machines, the file system buffers are flushed to create a checkpoint that's consistent with the file system. 如果您想要使用儲存的狀態為基礎的檢查點,請改為選擇標準檢查點。If you'd rather use checkpoints based on saved states, choose standard checkpoints instead. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱 < 在 HYPER-V 中的標準或生產檢查點之間的選擇For details, see Choose between standard or production checkpoints in Hyper-V.

重要

新的虛擬機器會使用實際執行檢查點為預設值。New virtual machines use production checkpoints as the default.

復原 HYPER-V 叢集升級(新)Rolling Hyper-V Cluster upgrade (new)

您現在可以新增執行 Windows Server 2019 或 Windows Server 2016 的 HYPER-V 叢集與執行 Windows Server 2012 R2 節點的節點。You can now add a node running Windows Server 2019 or Windows Server 2016 to a Hyper-V Cluster with nodes running Windows Server 2012 R2. 這可讓您升級叢集,而不需要停機。This allows you to upgrade the cluster without downtime. 叢集會在 Windows Server 2012 R2 的功能層級執行,直到您升級叢集中所有節點,然後使用 Windows PowerShell cmdlet 來更新叢集功能等級Update-clusterfunctionallevelThe cluster runs at a Windows Server 2012 R2 feature level until you upgrade all nodes in the cluster and update the cluster functional level with the Windows PowerShell cmdlet, Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel.

重要

更新叢集功能等級之後,您無法將它返回到 Windows Server 2012 R2。After you update the cluster functional level, you can't return it to Windows Server 2012 R2.

針對 Windows Server 2012 R2 的功能等級,與執行 Windows Server 2012 R2、 Windows Server 2019 和 Windows Server 2016 的節點的 HYPER-V 叢集,請注意下列各項:For a Hyper-V cluster with a functional level of Windows Server 2012 R2 with nodes running Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Server 2019 and Windows Server 2016, note the following:

  • 管理叢集、 HYPER-V 和虛擬機器從執行 Windows Server 2016 或 Windows 10 的節點。Manage the cluster, Hyper-V, and virtual machines from a node running Windows Server 2016 or Windows 10.

  • 您可以在所有 HYPER-V 叢集中的節點之間都移動虛擬機器。You can move virtual machines between all of the nodes in the Hyper-V cluster.

  • 若要使用新的 HYPER-V 功能,所有節點都必須都執行 Windows Server 2016 或,叢集功能等級必須加以更新。To use new Hyper-V features, all nodes must run Windows Server 2016 or and the cluster functional level must be updated.

  • 不升級現有的虛擬機器的虛擬機器設定版本。The virtual machine configuration version for existing virtual machines isn't upgraded. 只在您升級叢集功能等級之後,您可以升級設定版本。You can upgrade the configuration version only after you upgrade the cluster functional level.

  • 您所建立的虛擬機器會與 Windows Server 2012 R2 虛擬機器組態層級 5 相容。Virtual machines that you create are compatible with Windows Server 2012 R2, virtual machine configuration level 5.

之後,您要更新的叢集功能等級:After you update the cluster functional level:

  • 您可以啟用 HYPER-V 的新功能。You can enable new Hyper-V features.

  • 若要提供新的虛擬機器功能,使用更新 VmConfigurationVersion cmdlet 來手動更新虛擬機器組態層級。To make new virtual machine features available, use the Update-VmConfigurationVersion cmdlet to manually update the virtual machine configuration level. 如需相關指示,請參閱 < 升級的虛擬機器版本For instructions, see Upgrade virtual machine version.

  • 您無法將節點新增至執行 Windows Server 2012 R2 HYPER-V 叢集。You can't add a node to the Hyper-V Cluster that runs Windows Server 2012 R2.

注意

在 Windows 10 上的 HYPER-V 不支援容錯移轉叢集。Hyper-V on Windows 10 doesn't support failover clustering.

如需詳細資訊和指示,請參閱 < 叢集作業系統輪流升級For details and instructions, see the Cluster Operating System Rolling Upgrade.

共用虛擬硬碟(更新)Shared virtual hard disks (updated)

您現在可以調整共用虛擬硬碟 (.vhdx 檔案) 用於進行來賓叢集處理,而不需要停機。You can now resize shared virtual hard disks (.vhdx files) used for guest clustering, without downtime. 共用虛擬硬碟可以成長或壓縮虛擬機器仍在線上運作。Shared virtual hard disks can be grown or shrunk while the virtual machine is online. 客體叢集現在也可以保護共用虛擬硬碟進行災害復原使用 HYPER-V 複本。Guest clusters can now also protect shared virtual hard disks by using Hyper-V Replica for disaster recovery.

集合上啟用複寫。Enable replication on the collection. 集合上啟用複寫時只透過 WMI 介面公開Enabling replication on a collection is only exposed through the WMI interface. 請參閱文件Msvm_CollectionReplicationService 類別如需詳細資訊。See the documentation for Msvm_CollectionReplicationService class for more details. 您無法管理的集合,以透過 PowerShell cmdlet 或 UI 的複寫。You cannot manage replication of a collection through PowerShell cmdlet or UI. Vm 應該是來存取集合的特定功能,HYPER-V 叢集的一部分的主機上。The VMs should be on hosts that are part of a Hyper-V cluster to access features that are specific to a collection. 這包括共用 VHD-HYPER-V 複本不支援在獨立主機上的共用的 Vhd。This includes Shared VHD - shared VHDs on stand-alone hosts are not supported by Hyper-V Replica.

共用 vhd 中遵循的指導方針Virtual Hard Disk Sharing Overview,並確定您共用的 Vhd 是客體叢集的一部分。Follow the guidelines for shared VHDs in Virtual Hard Disk Sharing Overview, and be sure that your shared VHDs are part of a guest cluster.

具有共用的 VHD,但沒有相關聯的客體叢集的集合無法建立 (不論是否將共用的 VHD 包含參考點建立時,或無法) 集合的參考點。A collection with a shared VHD but no associated guest cluster cannot create reference points for the collection (regardless of whether the shared VHD is included in the reference point creation or not).

虛擬機器備份(新)Virtual machine backup(new)

如果您要備份單一虛擬機器 (不論主機是否已叢集化),您不應該使用 VM 群組。If you are backing up a single virtual machine (regardless of whether host is clustered or not), you should not use a VM group. 也不應該使用快照集的集合。Nor should you use a snapshot collection. VM 群組和快照集的集合是適用於僅供備份使用共用的 vhdx 客體叢集。VM groups and snapshot collection are meant to be used solely for backing up guest clusters that are using shared vhdx. 相反地,您應該採取的快照集,使用HYPER-V WMI v2 提供者Instead, you should take a snapshot using the Hyper-V WMI v2 provider. 同樣地,不要使用容錯移轉叢集 WMI 提供者Likewise, do not use the Failover Cluster WMI provider.

受防護的虛擬機器(新)Shielded virtual machines (new)

受防護的虛擬機器使用的數個功能,讓它更難 HYPER-V 系統管理員和主機上的惡意程式碼檢查、 竄改或竊取資料從受防護的虛擬機器的狀態。Shielded virtual machines use several features to make it harder for Hyper-V administrators and malware on the host to inspect, tamper with, or steal data from the state of a shielded virtual machine. 資料和狀態加密後,HYPER-V 系統管理員無法看到視訊輸出和磁碟,而且可以限制為只在已知的良好的主機,由主機守護者伺服器上執行虛擬機器。Data and state is encrypted, Hyper-V administrators can't see the video output and disks, and the virtual machines can be restricted to run only on known, healthy hosts, as determined by a Host Guardian Server. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱 < 受防護網狀架構與受防護的 VmFor details, see Guarded Fabric and Shielded VMs.

注意

受防護的虛擬機器會與 HYPER-V 複本相容。Shielded virtual machines are compatible with Hyper-V Replica. 將受防護的虛擬機器的複寫,您必須授權您想要複寫至主應用的程式,才能執行該受防護的虛擬機器。To replicate a shielded virtual machine, the host you want to replicate to must be authorized to run that shielded virtual machine.

啟動叢集虛擬機器的優先順序(新)Start order priority for clustered virtual machines (new)

這項功能可讓您更充分的叢集的虛擬機器已啟動或重新啟動第一次。This feature gives you more control over which clustered virtual machines are started or restarted first. 這可讓您更輕鬆地開始提供服務之前使用這些服務的虛擬機器的虛擬機器。This makes it easier to start virtual machines that provide services before virtual machines that use those services. 定義集、 將虛擬機器放在集,並指定相依性。Define sets, place virtual machines in sets, and specify dependencies. 使用 Windows PowerShell cmdlet 來管理設定,例如新增 ClusterGroupSetGet ClusterGroupSet,並新增 ClusterGroupSetDependencyUse Windows PowerShell cmdlets to manage the sets, such as New-ClusterGroupSet, Get-ClusterGroupSet, and Add-ClusterGroupSetDependency. ..

儲存體服務品質 (QoS)(更新)Storage quality of service (QoS) (updated)

您現在可在向外延展檔案伺服器上建立存放裝置 QoS 原則,並將它們指派給 Hyper-V 虛擬機器上的一或多個虛擬磁碟。You can now create storage QoS policies on a Scale-Out File Server and assign them to one or more virtual disks on Hyper-V virtual machines. 儲存體效能會隨儲存體負載的變動自動進行調整以符合原則。Storage performance is automatically readjusted to meet policies as the storage load fluctuates. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱 < 存放裝置服務品質For details, see Storage Quality of Service.

虛擬機器設定檔案格式(更新)Virtual machine configuration file format (updated)

虛擬機器設定檔會使用新的格式,讓您讀取和寫入設定資料更有效率。Virtual machine configuration files use a new format that makes reading and writing configuration data more efficient. 格式也可讓資料損毀比較不可能發生儲存體失敗時。The format also makes data corruption less likely if a storage failure occurs. 虛擬機器設定資料檔使用的副檔名為.vmcx 檔案和執行階段狀態資料檔案使用的副檔名為.vmrs 檔案。Virtual machine configuration data files use a .vmcx file name extension and runtime state data files use a .vmrs file name extension.

重要

.Vmcx 副檔名表示二進位檔案。The .vmcx file name extension indicates a binary file. 不支援編輯.vmcx 或.vmrs 檔案。Editing .vmcx or .vmrs files isn't supported.

虛擬機器設定版本(更新)Virtual machine configuration version (updated)

版本代表虛擬機器的組態,以儲存狀態,以及快照集檔案的 HYPER-V 版本的相容性。The version represents the compatibility of the virtual machine's configuration, saved state, and snapshot files with the version of Hyper-V. 第 5 版的虛擬機器與 Windows Server 2012 R2 相容,並可在 Windows Server 2012 R2 和 Windows Server 2016 上執行。Virtual machines with version 5 are compatible with Windows Server 2012 R2 and can run on both Windows Server 2012 R2 and Windows Server 2016. Windows Server 2012 R2 上,與在 Windows Server 2016 和 Windows Server 2019 中引進的版本的虛擬機器將不會執行在 HYPER-V 中。Virtual machines with versions introduced in Windows Server 2016 and Windows Server 2019 won't run in Hyper-V on Windows Server 2012 R2.

如果您移動或匯入執行 Windows Server 2016 上的 HYPER-V 的伺服器或 Windows Server 2019 的虛擬機器,從 Windows Server 2012 R2 時,不自動更新虛擬機器的設定。If you move or import a virtual machine to a server that runs Hyper-V on Windows Server 2016 or Windows Server 2019 from Windows Server 2012 R2, the virtual machine's configuration isn't automatically updated. 這表示您可以將虛擬機器移回執行 Windows Server 2012 R2 的伺服器。This means you can move the virtual machine back to a server that runs Windows Server 2012 R2. 但是,這也表示您無法使用新的虛擬機器功能,直到您手動更新虛擬機器組態的版本。But, this also means you can't use the new virtual machine features until you manually update the version of the virtual machine configuration.

如需檢查和升級版本的指示,請參閱升級的虛擬機器版本For instructions on checking and upgrading the version, see Upgrade virtual machine version. 這篇文章也會列出一些功能引進的版本。This article also lists the version in which some features were introduced.

重要

  • 更新的版本之後,您無法移動虛擬機器來執行 Windows Server 2012 R2 的伺服器。After you update the version, you can't move the virtual machine to a server that runs Windows Server 2012 R2.
  • 您無法降級至舊版的設定。You can't downgrade the configuration to a previous version.
  • 更新 VMVersion叢集功能等級是 Windows Server 2012 R2 時,將會封鎖在 HYPER-V 叢集上的 cmdlet。The Update-VMVersion cmdlet is blocked on a Hyper-V Cluster when the cluster functional level is Windows Server 2012 R2.

第 2 代虛擬機器的 Virtualization-based 安全性(新)Virtualization-based security for generation 2 virtual machines (new)

虛擬化型安全性可提供功能,例如 Device Guard 和 Credential Guard,防範惡意程式碼中提供加強的保護,防止他人入侵的作業系統。Virtualization-based security powers features such as Device Guard and Credential Guard, offering increased protection of the operating system against exploits from malware. 從第 8 版的層代 2 的客體虛擬機器中使用虛擬化型安全性。Virtualization based-security is available in generation 2 guest virtual machines starting with version 8. 如需有關虛擬機器版本,請參閱更新虛擬機器版本,在 Windows 10 或 Windows Server 2016 的 HYPER-V 中For information on virtual machine version, see Upgrade virtual machine version in Hyper-V on Windows 10 or Windows Server 2016.

Windows 容器(新)Windows Containers (new)

Windows 容器可讓一個電腦系統上執行許多隔離的應用程式。Windows Containers allow many isolated applications to run on one computer system. 它們是快速的建置,而且是可高度擴充且可攜式。They're fast to build and are highly scalable and portable. 兩種類型的容器執行階段可供使用,各有不同程度的應用程式隔離。Two types of container runtime are available, each with a different degree of application isolation. Windows Server 容器會使用命名空間和處理序隔離。Windows Server Containers use namespace and process isolation. HYPER-V 容器會使用輕量級的虛擬機器,每個容器。Hyper-V Containers use a light-weight virtual machine for each container.

主要功能包括:Key features include:

  • 網站和應用程式使用 HTTPS 的支援Support for web sites and applications using HTTPS

  • Nano 伺服器可以裝載 Windows Server 和 HYPER-V 容器Nano server can host both Windows Server and Hyper-V Containers

  • 能夠管理透過容器的共用資料夾的資料Ability to manage data through container shared folders

  • 限制容器資源的能力Ability to restrict container resources

如需詳細資訊,包括快速入門指南,請參閱Windows 容器文件For details, including quick start guides, see the Windows Containers Documentation.

Windows PowerShell Direct(新)Windows PowerShell Direct (new)

這可讓您的虛擬機器中執行 Windows PowerShell 命令,從主應用程式。This gives you a way to run Windows PowerShell commands in a virtual machine from the host. Windows PowerShell Direct 在主機與虛擬機器之間執行。Windows PowerShell Direct runs between the host and the virtual machine. 這表示它不需要網路或防火牆需求,而且不論您的遠端管理設定運作。This means it doesn't require networking or firewall requirements, and it works regardless of your remote management configuration.

Windows PowerShell Direct 是現有的工具,HYPER-V 系統管理員用來連線到 HYPER-V 主機上的虛擬機器的替代方案:Windows PowerShell Direct is an alternative to the existing tools that Hyper-V administrators use to connect to a virtual machine on a Hyper-V host:

  • 遠端管理工具,例如 PowerShell 或遠端桌面Remote management tools such as PowerShell or Remote Desktop

  • HYPER-V 虛擬機器連線 (VMConnect)Hyper-V Virtual Machine Connection (VMConnect)

這些工具正常運作,但有取捨:VMConnect 很可靠,但可能難以自動化。Those tools work well, but have trade-offs: VMConnect is reliable, but can be hard to automate. 遠端 PowerShell 很強大,但可能難以設定及維護。Remote PowerShell is powerful, but can be hard to set up and maintain. 這些取捨可能變得更加重要,因為 HYPER-V 部署規模擴大的。These trade-offs may become more important as your Hyper-V deployment grows. Windows PowerShell Direct 應付這個狀況,提供功能強大的指令碼和自動化體驗,很簡單,只要使用 VMConnect。Windows PowerShell Direct addresses this by providing a powerful scripting and automation experience that's as simple as using VMConnect.

如需需求和指示,請參閱使用 PowerShell Direct 管理 Windows 虛擬機器For requirements and instructions, see Manage Windows virtual machines with PowerShell Direct.