資產建立程序Asset creation process

Windows Mixed Reality 是以 Microsoft 在 DirectX 中所做的投資數十年為基礎。Windows Mixed Reality builds on the decades of investment Microsoft has made into DirectX. 開發人員在建立3D 圖形時,所擁有的所有經驗和技能,會持續對 HoloLens 有價值。All of the experience and skills developers have with building 3D graphics continues to be valuable with HoloLens.

您為專案建立的資產有許多圖形和表單。The assets you create for a project come in many shapes and forms. 它們可以由一連串的材質/影像、音訊、影片、3D 模型和動畫組成。They can be composed of a series of textures/images, audio, video, 3D models, and animations. 我們無法開始討論可用來建立專案中不同類型資產的所有工具。We can't begin to cover all the tools that are available to create the different types of assets used in a project. 在本文中,我們將著重于3D 資產建立方法。For this article, we'll focus on 3D asset creation methods.

概念、建立、整合和反復專案流程Concept, creation, integration and iteration flow
概念、建立、整合和反復專案流程Concept, creation, integration, and iteration flow

考量事項Things to consider

當您在查看體驗時,您想要建立,將它視為您可以用來嘗試建立最佳體驗的 預算When looking at the experience, you're trying to create, think of it as a budget that you can spend to try to create the best experience. 您可以在資產中使用的 多邊形材質類型 數目不一定有任何硬性限制。There aren't necessarily any hard limits on the number of polygons or material types you can use in your assets. 將它視為一組預算的取捨。Think of it more as a budgeted set of tradeoffs.

以下是您體驗的範例預算。Below is an example budget for your experience. 效能不是單一失敗點,而是以一千個剪下死亡。Performance isn't a single point of failure, but death by a thousand cuts.

資產Assets CPUCPU GPUGPU 記憶體Memory
多邊形Polygons 0%0% 5%5% 10%10%
紋理Textures 5%5% 15%15%25%25%
著色器Shaders 15%15% 35%35% 0%0%
DynamicsDynamics
物理特性Physics 5%5% 15%15% 0%0%
即時光源Real-time lighting 10%10% 0%0% 0%0%
媒體 (音訊/影片) Media (audio/video) - 15%15% 25%25%
腳本/邏輯Script/logic 25%25% 0%0% 5%5%
一般負荷General overhead 5%5% 5%5% 5%5%
總計Total 65%65% 90%90% 70%70%

總資產數Total number of assets

  • 場景中有多少可用的資產?How many assets are active in the scene?

資產的複雜度Complexity of assets

開發人員和演出者都必須考慮裝置和圖形引擎的功能。Both the developers and artists have to consider the capabilities of the device and the graphics engine. Microsoft HoloLens 具有裝置內建的所有計算和圖形。Microsoft HoloLens has all of the computational and graphics built into the device. 它會共用開發人員可在行動平臺上找到的功能。It shares the capabilities developers would find on a mobile platform.

無論您的體驗是否以全像全像 裝置或沉浸式裝置為目標,資產建立程式都相同。The asset creation process is the same whether your experience targets a holographic device or an immersive device. 要注意的主要事項是裝置功能和規模。The primary thing to note is the device capability and scale. 您可以看到真實世界的混合現實,因此您會想要根據體驗來維持正確的規模。You can see the real world in mixed reality, so you'll want to maintain the correct scale based on the experience.

撰寫資產Authoring assets

我們將從取得專案資產的方法開始:We'll start with the ways to get assets for your project:

  1. 建立資產 (Authoring tools 和物件捕捉) Creating Assets (Authoring tools and object capture)
  2. 購買資產 (線上購買資產) Purchasing Assets (Buying assets online)
  3. (取得現有資產) 來移植資產Porting Assets (Taking existing assets)
  4. 從協力廠商匯入資產 (外包資產) Outsourcing Assets (Importing assets from third parties)

建立資產Creating assets

Authoring toolsAuthoring tools
首先,您可以用數種不同的方式建立自己的資產。First you can create your own assets in several different ways. 3D 演出者使用各種應用程式和工具來建立包含 網格材質材質 的模型。3D artists use various applications and tools to create models, which consist of meshes, textures, and materials. 然後,這會以檔案格式儲存,讓應用程式使用的圖形引擎可以匯入或使用,例如 。FBX。OBJThis is then saved in a file format that can be imported or used by the graphics engine used by the app, such as .FBX or .OBJ. 任何產生您所選圖形引擎支援之模型的工具,都可以在 HoloLens 上運作。Any tool that generates a model that your chosen graphics engine supports will work on HoloLens. 在3D 演出者之間,許多選擇使用 Autodesk 的 Maya,因為它可以使用 HoloLens 來轉換資產的建立方式。Among 3D artists, many choose to use Autodesk’s Maya because it can use HoloLens to transform the way assets are created. 如果您想要快速取得東西,也可以使用 Windows 所附的 3D Builder 來匯出。要在應用程式中使用的 OBJ。If you want to get something in quick, you can also use 3D Builder that comes with Windows to export .OBJ for use in your application.

物件捕獲Object capture
另外還有在3D 中捕捉物件的選項。There's also the option to capture objects in 3D. 使用數位內容建立軟體來捕捉3D 中的無生命物件,並使用數位內容建立軟體進行編輯,在3D 列印的增加方面越來越普遍。Capturing inanimate objects in 3D and editing them with digital content creation software is increasingly popular with the rise of 3D printing. 使用 Kinect 2 感應器和 3D Builder 您可以使用「捕捉」功能,從真實世界的物件建立資產。Using the Kinect 2 sensor and 3D Builder you can use the capture feature to create assets from real world objects. 這也是一 套工具 ,可透過處理數個影像來拼接以及網格和紋理來進行 攝影測量This is also a suite of tools to do the same with photogrammetry by processing several images to stitch together and mesh and textures.

購買資產Purchasing assets

另一個絕佳的選項是購買資產以供您體驗。Another excellent option is to purchase assets for your experience. 有許多資產可透過 Unity 資產存放區TurboSquid 等服務使用。There are a ton of assets available through services such as the Unity Asset Store or TurboSquid among others.

當您從協力廠商購買資產時,您一律要檢查下列屬性:When you purchase assets from a third party, you always want to check the following properties:

  • Poly 計數為何?What's the poly count?
    • 它是否適合您的預算?Does it fit within your budget?
  • 模型有 (LODs) 的詳細資料層級嗎?Are there levels of detail (LODs) for the model?
    • 模型層級的詳細資料可讓您針對效能調整模型的詳細資料。A models level of detail lets you scale the detail of a model for performance.
  • 來源檔案是否可供使用?Is the source file available?
    • 未隨附于 Unity 資產存放區 ,但一律包含在服務(例如 TurboSquid)中。Not included with Unity Asset Store but always included with services like TurboSquid.
    • 如果沒有來源檔案,您就無法修改資產。Without the source file, you can't modify the asset.
    • 請確定您的3D 工具可以匯入所提供的原始程式檔。Make sure the source file provided can be imported by your 3D tools.
  • 知道您要取得的內容Know what you're getting
    • 是否提供動畫?Are animations provided?
    • 請務必檢查您所購買資產的內容清單。Make sure to check the contents list of the asset you're purchasing.

移植資產Porting assets

在某些情況下,您將會取得原本為其他裝置和不同應用程式建立的現有資產。In some cases you'll be handed existing assets that were originally built for other devices and different apps. 在大部分情況下,這些資產可以轉換成與應用程式所使用之圖形引擎相容的格式。In most cases, these assets can be converted to formats compatible with the graphics engine their app is using.

在您的 HoloLens 應用程式中移植要使用的資產時,您會想要詢問下列問題:When porting assets to use in your HoloLens application, you'll want to ask the following questions:

  • 您可以直接匯入或需要轉換成另一種格式嗎?Can you import directly or does need to be converted to another format? 使用您所使用的圖形引擎來檢查您要匯入的格式。Check the format you're importing with the graphics engine you're using.
  • 如果轉換成相容的格式,是否有任何遺失?If converting to a compatible format is anything lost? 有時詳細資料可能會遺失或匯入,可能會導致需要在 3D authoring tool 中清除的成品。Sometimes details can be lost or importing can cause artifacts that need to be cleaned up in a 3D authoring tool.
  • 資產的三角形/多邊形計數為何?What is the triangle / polygon count for the asset? 根據您的應用程式預算,您可以使用 Simplygon 或類似的工具來刪減 (cti,或手動減少) 原始資產的 poly 計數,以符合您應用程式預算的範圍。Based on the budget for your application you can use Simplygon or similar tools to decimate (procedurally or manually reduce poly count) the original asset to fit within your applications budget.

外包資產Outsourcing assets

如果大型專案需要比您的小組更多的資產,則另一個選項是建立資產建立。Another option for larger projects that require more assets than your team is equipped to create is to outsource asset creation. 外包的程式牽涉到尋找專門參與外包資產的適當 studio 或機構。The process of outsourcing involves finding the right studio or agency that specializes in outsourcing assets. 這可能是最昂貴的選項,但也是最具彈性的選項。This can be the most expensive option but also be the most flexible in what you get.

  • 清楚地定義您所要求的內容Clearly define what you're requesting
    • 盡可能提供最多詳細資料Provide as much detail as possible
    • 前端、側邊和後端概念影像Front, side, and back concept images
    • 顯示內容中資產的參考圖片Reference art showing asset in context
    • 物件的小數位數 (通常以公分為單位指定) Scale of object (Usually specified in centimeters)
  • 提供預算Provide a Budget
    • Poly 計數範圍Poly count range
    • 紋理數目Number of textures
    • Unity 和 HoloLens 的著色器 (類型,一律預設為行動著色器優先) Type of shader (For Unity and HoloLens you should always default to mobile shaders first)
  • 瞭解成本Understand the costs
    • 變更要求的外包原則是什麼?What's the outsourcing policy for change requests?

外包可以根據您的專案時程表來運作,但需要更多監督,才能保證您第一次就能取得所需的正確資產。Outsourcing can work well based on your projects timeline but requires more oversight to guarantee that you get the right assets you need the first time.