設計無障礙遊戲Making games accessible

協助工具可讓世界上的每個人與每個組織完成更多工作,這也適用於設計無障礙遊戲。Accessibility can empower every person and every organization on the planet to achieve more, and this applies to making games more accessible too. 本文專為遊戲開發人員、遊戲設計人員及製作人撰寫。This article is written for game developers, game designers, and producers. 它提供遊戲協助工具指導方針的概觀,這些指導方針衍生自眾多組織 (於下方的參考區段中列出),並簡介適用於建立更多無障礙遊戲的包容性遊戲設計原則。It provides an overview of game accessibility guidelines derived from various organizations (listed in the reference section below), and introduces the inclusive game design principle for creating more accessible games.

開發普及大眾的遊戲Gaming for Everyone

Microsoft 相信遊戲應該是每個人都能享樂。At Microsoft, we believe that gaming should be fun for everyone. 我們覺得不得不更加努力創造一個普及大眾的遊戲環境。We "felt compelled to do more to make gaming an inclusive environment that embraced everyone. 我們深信我們為粉絲打造以及我們展現的方式,不論 Microsoft 的裡外都實實在在反映我們的真我。We fundamentally believe that what we build for our fans and the way we show up – inside and outside the walls of Microsoft – is a reflection of who we are. 我們設計的程式反映我們做為一個組織的核心價值,也相信該程式可能會產生正面的改變,不只在我們的工作地點也在我們為玩家打造的產品中。」We designed the program to reflect the core values we have as an organization and believe that the program could result in positive change – not only in our workplace but in the products we build for the gamers we serve." (部落格文章來自 Phil Spencer)(Blog post from Phil Spencer)

我們想要打造一個有趣、多樣且每個人都可以在裡面玩樂的多元環境。We want to create a fun, diverse, and inclusive environment where everyone can play in. 「若要真正擁有持續的影響,需要進行文化轉變,而這不是一夜之間就能實現。"To truly have a lasting impact requires a culture shift, one that won’t happen overnight. 不過,我們的團隊會努力讓一天比一天更好,彼此教導在決策過程中暫停一下並思考世界各地玩家的需求多樣性、能力和興趣。」However, our team is committed to get better each day, to teach one another to pause in our decision making process and think about the amazing diversity of needs, abilities and interests amongst gamers around the world." (部落格文章來自 Phil Spencer)(Blog post from Phil Spencer)

希望您能加入這個旅程,一同實現開發普及大眾的遊戲We hope you'll join us on this journey to make Gaming for Everyone happen.

為什麼要設計無障礙遊戲?Why make games accessible?

更廣泛的玩家族群Increased gamer base

就最基本的層面來說,提供協助工具的商業理由很簡單:At its most basic level, the business justification for accessibility is straightforward:

可以進行遊戲的使用者數目 x 棒透了的遊戲內容 = 遊戲銷售Number of users who can play your game x Awesomeness of game = Game sales

如果您製作了令人驚嘆的遊戲,但是內容過於複雜難懂,以致於只有少數玩家可以進行,您就限制了您的銷售。If you made an amazing game that is so complicated or convoluted that only a handful of people can play it, you limit your sales. 同樣地,如果您製作的遊戲不適合有肢體障礙、感官障礙或認知障礙的玩家進行,您也會錯過潛在的銷售。Similarly, if you made a game that is unplayable by those with physical, sensory, or cognitive impairments, you are missing out on potential sales. 例如,考慮到在美國有 19% 的人口有某種形式的身心障礙預估美國 14% 的成人有閱讀困難,並且預估 10% 的男性有某種形式的色覺辨認障礙,這對於您作品的收益可能會有很大的影響。Considering that, for example, 19% of people in the United States have some form of disability, estimated 14% of adults in the US have difficulty reading, and estimated 10% of males have some form of color vision deficiency, this can potentially have a large impact on your title’s revenue.

如需更詳細的商業理由,請參閱如何設計無障礙遊戲For more business justifications, see Making Video Games Accessible.

更棒的遊戲Better games

建立無障礙的遊戲,將能使最終的遊戲成品變得更好。Creating a more accessible game can create a better game in the end.

其中一個範例便是遊戲中的字幕。An example is subtitles in games. 在過去,遊戲幾乎不支援遊戲對話的字幕或隱藏式輔助字幕。In the past, games rarely supported subtitles or closed captioning for game dialogues. 時至今日,玩家都預期遊戲會包含字幕和隱藏式輔助字幕。Today, it’s expected that games include subtitles and closed captioning. 這項變更並非由有障礙的玩家所促成。This change was not driven by gamers with disabilities. 相反地,這項變更是由當地語系化所推動,但在許多單純喜好搭配字幕進行遊戲的玩家間變得受歡迎,因為它能讓遊戲體驗變得更好。Instead, it was driven by localization, but became popular with a wide range of gamers who simply preferred to play with subtitles because it made the gaming experience better. 玩家在下列情況中會開啟字幕和隱藏式輔助字幕:在有太多背景雜音的環境中進行遊戲時、在語音因為和許多音效或環境聲音同時播放而聽不清楚時,或是必須降低音量以避免安擾其他人時。Gamers turn subtitles and closed captioning on when they are playing with too much background noise, are having difficulty hearing voices with various sound effects or ambient sounds playing at the same time, or when they simply need to keep the volume low to avoid disturbing others. 字幕和隱藏式輔助字幕不僅能讓玩家取得更佳的遊戲體驗,也能讓有聽力障礙的玩家得以進行遊戲。Subtitles and closed captions not only helped gamers to have a better gaming experience, but it also allows people with hearing disabilities to game as well.

控制器重新對應也是另一項因為類似的原因,而逐漸成為遊戲產業標準的功能。Controller remapping is another feature that is slowly becoming a standard for the game industry for similar reasons. 它是最常提供給所有玩家的福利。It is most commonly offered as a benefit for all players. 有些玩家喜歡自訂他們自己的遊戲體驗,而有一些只是偏好與設計人員心中所想的不一樣的體驗。Some gamers enjoy customizing their gaming experiences and some simply prefer something different from what the designers had in mind. 大部分的人不知道是輸入裝置上的重新對應按鈕事實上也是一種協助工具功能,原本是要讓各種運動神經受傷的人士能夠玩遊戲,這些人實際上無法或難以操作控制器的特定部分。What most people don’t realize is that the ability to remap buttons on an input device is actually also an accessibility feature that was intended to make a game playable for people with various types of motor disabilities, who are physically unable to or find it difficult to operate certain areas of the controller.

最終,設計無障礙遊戲的思考程序,通常都會使遊戲變得更好,因為您為玩家設計出一個更為友善且可以自訂的體驗,讓他們可以盡情享受遊戲。Ultimately, the thought process used to make your game more accessible will often result in a better game because you have designed a more user-friendly, customizable experience for your players to enjoy.

社交空間和生活品質Social space and quality of life

視訊遊戲是其中一個收入最高的娛樂形式,而遊戲可以提供快樂的時光。Video games are one of the highest grossing forms of entertainment and gaming can provide hours of joy. 不過對某些人而言,遊戲並不僅僅是娛樂,而也是他們從醫院病床、長期疼痛,或是令人疲憊的社交焦慮中暫時脫離的方式。For some, gaming is not only a form of entertainment but it is an escape from a hospital bed, chronic pain, or debilitating social anxiety. 玩家將會被傳送到一個自己是主角的遊戲世界。Gamers are transported into a world where they become the main characters in the video game. 透過遊戲,他們可以為自己建立社交空間並參與其中,使自己能從因自身障礙所導致的日常掙扎中脫離,並有機會和平常可能無法與之互動的人們進行交流。Through gaming, they can create and participate in a social space for themselves that provides distraction from the day-to-day struggles brought on by their disabilities, and that provides an opportunity to communicate with people they might otherwise be unable to interact with.

遊戲也是一種文化。Gaming is also a culture. 能夠讓所有您的朋友共同參與和談論一件事是非常寶貴的生活品質。Being able to take part in the same thing that all of your friends are talking about is something that can be hugely valuable to someone’s quality of life.

您目前正在製作的是無障礙遊戲嗎?Is the game you are making today accessible?

如果您正打算製作您的第一款無障礙遊戲,以下是一些您需要思考的問題:If you are thinking about making your game accessible for the first time, here are some questions to ask yourself:

  • 玩家是否能用單手完成遊戲?Can you complete the game using a single hand?
  • 一般使用者首次進行遊戲是否便能立即上手?Can an average person be able to pick the game up and play?
  • 玩家是否能在小型監視器上,或是相距一段距離的電視上有效進行遊戲?Can you effectively play the game on a small monitor or TV sitting at a distance?
  • 您是否會支援多種可以用來完成整個遊戲的輸入裝置?Do you support more than one type of input device that can be used to play through the entire game?
  • 玩家是否能在將遊戲設為靜音的情況下進行遊戲?Can you play the game with sound muted?
  • 玩家是否能在將監視器設為黑白的情況下進行遊戲?Can you play the game with your monitor set to black and white?
  • 當您在一個月後載入您最後儲存的遊戲時,您可以輕鬆地找出您在遊戲中的位置並且知道您需要做什麼才能繼續進行嗎?When you load your last saved game after a month, can you easily figure out where you are in the game and know what you need to do in order to progress?

如果您針對上述問題的答案大部分都是否定,或是不知道答案,便應該開始思考如何將協助工具導入您的遊戲中。If your answers are mostly no, or you do not know the answers, it is time to step up and put accessibility into your game.

定義障礙Defining disability

「障礙」的定義為「提供的服務、產品或環境不符合個人需求」。Disability is defined as "a mismatch between the needs of the individual and the service, product or environment offered." (包容性影片,Microsoft.com)。這表示任何人都可能體驗到障礙,且該障礙可能是短期或情境的狀態。(Inclusive video, Microsoft.com.) This means that anyone can experience a disability, and that it can be a short-term or situational condition. 請思考擁有這些狀態的玩家在進行您的遊戲時可能遭遇到的挑戰,並思考如何設計使遊戲的能更加適合他們。Envision what challenges gamers with these conditions might have when playing your game, and think about how your game can be better designed for them. 以下是一些需要考量的障礙:Here are some disabilities to consider:

視覺Vision

  • 醫學性的長期症狀,例如青光眼、白內障、色盲、近視及糖尿病視網膜病變Medical, long-term conditions like glaucoma, cataracts, color blindness, near-sightedness, and diabetic retinopathy
  • 短期的情境狀態,例如小型監視器或螢幕大小、低解析度螢幕,或是因明亮光源像是陽光照射在監視器或手機螢幕上而產生的螢幕反光Short-term, situational conditions like a small monitor or screen size, a low resolution screen, or screen glare due to bright light sources like the sun on a monitor or mobile screen

聽覺Hearing

  • 醫學性的長期症狀,例如因疾病或遺傳所造成的完全失聰或部分聽力損失Medical, long-term conditions like complete deafness or partial hearing loss due to diseases or genetics
  • 短期的情境狀態,例如過多的背景噪音、低品質的音質,或是為了避免干擾其他人而限制音量Short-term, situational conditions like excessive background noise, low quality audio quality, or restricted volume to avoid disturbing others

運動神經Motor

  • 醫學性的長期症狀,例如帕金森氏症、肌萎縮性脊髓側索硬化症 (ALS)、關節炎及肌肉萎縮症Medical, long-term conditions like Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), arthritis, and muscular dystrophy
  • 短期的情境狀態,例如手部受傷、拿著飲料,或是單手抱著孩子Short-term, situational conditions like an injured hand, holding a beverage, or carrying a child in one arm

認知Cognitive

  • 醫學性的長期症狀,例如讀寫障礙、癲癇、注意力不足過動症 (ADHD)、失智症及失憶症Medical, long-term conditions like dyslexia, epilepsy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), dementia, and amnesia
  • 短期的情境狀態,例如喝酒、缺乏睡眠,或是暫時性的注意力分散 (像是來自從房子旁駛過救護車的鳴笛聲)Short-term, situational conditions like alcohol consumption, lack of sleep, or temporary distractions like siren from an emergency vehicle driving by the house

語音Speech

  • 醫學性的長期症狀,例如聲帶損傷、構音障礙及失用症Medical, long-term conditions like vocal cord damage, dysarthria, and apraxia
  • 短期的情境狀態,例如牙齒手術,或是飲食Short-term, situational conditions like dental work, or eating and drinking

如何設計無障礙遊戲?How to make games more accessible?

設計轉換:包容性遊戲設計方法Design shift: Inclusive game design approach

包容性設計著重於為更廣泛的消費者 (包括身心障礙人士) 建立更易使用的產品和服務。Inclusive design focuses on creating products and services more accessible to a broader spectrum of consumers, including people with disabilities.

現今的遊戲設計人員若要成功,必須不只考慮製作他們喜愛的遊戲。To be successful, today’s game designers need to think beyond creating games that they enjoy. 遊戲設計人員需要知道自己的設計決策會如何影響遊戲的整體協助工具 (該遊戲針對整體目標對象 (包括身心障礙人士) 的可進行性)。Game designers need to be aware of how their design decisions impact the overall accessibility of the game; the playability of the game for their entire target audience, including those with disabilities.

因此,我們必須轉換傳統的遊戲設計思維,以接納包容性遊戲設計的概念。As such, traditional game design paradigms must shift to embrace the inclusive game design concept. 包容性遊戲設計代表您在針對目標對象創造樂趣體驗時,必須跳脫基本的遊戲設計思維,並建立額外或是修改過的形象,以納入更廣泛的玩家。Inclusive game design means going beyond the basic game design of creating fun for the target audience, to creating additional or modified personas to include a wider spectrum of players. 您需要敏銳地意識到遊戲中的設計障礙,並確認它們不會增加不必要的障礙使得預定的體驗失去趣味性。You need to be acutely aware about designing barriers in your game and make sure that they do not add unnecessary barriers that take the fun away from the intended experience.

藉由找出漏洞,您便可以逐一查看原始設計概念,並做出改進,讓更多的人體驗您的願景。By identifying gaps, you can optimise, iterate on the original design concept and make it better, allowing more people to experience your vision. 當您在遊戲設計程序中花時間使之更具包容性,您最後的遊戲成品便會變得更加無障礙。When you take the time to be more inclusive in your game design process, your final game becomes more accessible. 沒有任何一款遊戲能夠適合所有人,遊戲的定義需要某種程度的挑戰,但透過思考協助工具可確保不會有人不必要地被排除在外。No game can ever work for everyone, the definition of game requires that there is some degree of challenge, but through considering accessibility you can ensure that no one is unnecessarily excluded.

給玩家力量:提供玩家選項Empower gamers: Give gamers options

幾乎每個協助工具解決方案都牽涉到兩個原則的其中一個。Nearly every accessibility solution comes down to one of two principles. 第一個提供給您的玩家的選項,是讓他們自訂自己的遊戲體驗。The first is giving your gamers the options to customize their gaming experience. 如果您已經有很大的粉絲族群,則很可能會有一大部分的對象不希望您對既有的體驗做出任何改變。If you already have a huge fan base, you may have a significant portion of your audience who do not want the experience to change in any way. 這沒有關係。That’s okay. 提供您的玩家開啟及關閉這些功能的能力,並讓玩家可以個別設定這些功能。Give your gamers the ability to turn these features on and off, and make features configurable individually. 您必須允許體驗人們以最適合他們自己的需求和偏好的方式體驗遊戲。You need to allow people to experience the game in the way that best suits their own needs and preferences.

強化:使用一種以上的方式進行資訊的通訊Reinforce: Communicate information in more than one way

第二個原則是通用設計的概念應運而生,不僅帶來更多玩家,也改善整體的體驗。The second principle is where the concept of universal design comes in, a single approach that not only brings in more players but also improves the experience for all. 例如,影像以及文字、符號和色彩。For example an image as well as text, a symbol as well as colour. 以不同顏色標記範圍為基礎的地圖,不僅無法讓色盲的玩家使用,也對必須記住所有專案的其他人感到挫折。A map that is based on a range of different coloured markers is not only impossible for color blind gamers to use, it is also frustrating for everyone else who must remember what everything equates to. 新增符號對每個人來說可擁有更好的使用體驗。Adding symbols makes it a better experience for everyone.

創新:發揮創意Innovate: Be creative

有許多有創意的方式可以改進遊戲的協助工具。There are many creative ways to improve the accessibility of your game. 戴上您的創意帽,從現有的其他無障礙遊戲學習。Put on your creative hat and learn from other accessible games out there. 如果您已經擁有現有的遊戲,請在維持核心遊戲機制與體驗原有設計的前提下,學習找出可以改善的現有遊戲功能。If you already have an existing game, learn to identify current game features that could be improved while keeping the core game mechanics and experience as designed. 如上所述,遊戲中的協助工具,便是提供玩家選項讓他們自訂遊戲體驗。As mentioned above, accessibility in games is all about providing gamers with options to customize their gaming experience. 這可能透過使用一種以上的方式強化或通訊資訊。It could be through reinforcement or communicating information in more than one way.

考慮協助工具可讓您從新的角度進行設計,可能會有意想不到的想法出現。Considering accessibility allows you to approach design from a new angle and possibly ideas you would have not thought of otherwise. 這種設計方式不只會產生有趣的概念,創造出的產品也可被廣泛採用或者在大量市場獲致商業上的成功。This approach to design resulted not only in interesting concepts but have created products that have wide spread adoption or mass market commercial success. 範例包含預測文字、語音辨識、邊緣坡道、擴音器、打字機與光學字元辨識 (OCR)。Examples include predictive text, voice recognition, curb cuts, the loudspeaker, the typewriter, and Optical Character Recognition (OCR). 這些產品的想法來自開始思考協助工具的方案的人。Ideas for these products came from those who started thinking about solutions for accessibility.

採用:品質表示無障礙功能Adopt: Quality means accessible features

協助工具是品質的一種度量。Accessibility is a measure of quality. 它必須是功能需求,而不是可有可無的工作項目。It has to be a feature requirement and not a good-to-have work item. 例如,如果您有額外時間,「調整色盲用的迷你地圖」不被視為低優先順序的工作項目。For example, "Adapt minimap for colourblindness" is not considered a low priority work item that you get to if you have extra time. 如果這個工作項目未完成,只表示整個迷你地圖功能不完整,並且無法出貨。If this work item is not done, it simply means that entire minimap feature is incomplete and cannot be shipped.

核心觀念:使協助工具成為遊戲製作公司的優先事項Evangelize: Make accessibility a priority in your game studio

遊戲開發的時間軸一直都相當緊迫,因此優先處理協助工具將有助於讓程序更容易。Game development is always running on a tight timeline, so prioritizing accessibility will help make it an easier process. 一種方式是從一開始便在考慮協助工具的情況下進行設計。One way is to design from the start with accessibility in mind. 您越早考慮協助工具,它就變得更容易且更便宜。The earlier you consider accessibility, the easier and cheaper it becomes.

與您的團隊分享您對協助工具的知識,分享商務正當性以及消除常見的誤解,它並不會讓許多人受惠,它會使您的運作打折並且難以實作,所費不貲。Share your knowledge about accessibility with your team, share the business justifications, and dispel the common misconceptions – that it doesn’t benefit many people, it dilutes your mechanic, and it's difficult and expensive to implement.

檢閱:持續評估遊戲Review: Constantly evaluate your game

在開發期間,您可以引入檢閱程序,以確保您在每一個步驟都有考量協助工具。During development, you can introduce a review process to make sure that at every step of the way you are thinking about accessibility. 無論您是否正在建立無障礙遊戲,請建立一份如下的檢查清單,協助您的團隊持續評估。Make a checklist like the one below to help your team constantly evaluate whether what you are creating is accessible or not.

檢查清單Checklist 協助工具功能Accessibility features
遊戲內動畫In-game cinematics 有字幕和輔助字幕、已測試光敏感性Has subtitles and captions, photosensitivity tested
整體藝術 (2D 與 3D 圖形)Overall artwork (2D and 3D graphics) 彩色的易記色彩和選項,不會完全相依于色彩以進行識別,但是也會使用圖形和模式Color blind friendly colors and options, not dependent entirely on color for identification but use shapes and patterns as well
開始畫面、設定功能表及其他功能表Start screen, settings menu and other menus 能夠大聲讀出選項的功能、能夠記住設定的功能、替代的命令控制輸入方法、可調整的 UI 字型大小Ability to read options aloud, ability to remember settings, alternate command control input method, adjustable UI font size
遊戲方式Gameplay 豐富的可調整難度等級、字幕及輔助字幕、針對玩家提供良好的視覺及音訊回饋Wide adjustable difficulty levels, subtitles and captions, good visual and audio feedback for gamer
抬頭顯示器HUD display 可調整的螢幕位置、可調字型大小、色盲易記選項Adjustable screen position, adjustable font size, color blind friendly option
控制輸入Control input 可對應到輸入裝置的控制項、自訂控制器支援、允許簡化遊戲輸入Mappable controls to input device, custom controller support, simplified input for game allowed

遊戲測試與逐一查看:取得玩家的意見反應Playtest and iterate: Get gamers' feedback

組織遊戲測試工作階段時,請邀請遊戲設計所針對的身心障礙人士擔任遊戲測試人員,讓他們進行您的遊戲。When organizing playtesting sessions, invite play testers with disabilities that your game is designed for and get them to play your game. 請記得在 Beta 版的測試問卷中包括協助工具問題。Remember to include accessibility questions in the Beta test questionaires. 當地身心障礙人士團體很好的參與者來源。Local disability groups are a great source of participants. 觀察他們進行遊戲的方式,並取得他們的意見反應。Observe how they play and get feedback from them. 找出需要進行的變更,讓遊戲變得更好。Figure out what changes need to be made to make the game better.

使用社交媒體以及您的遊戲論壇,尋求有關最重要協助工具功能以及應如何實作的意見。Use social media and your game's forum to listen for input about which accessibility features matter most and how they should be implemented.

廣為宣傳:讓世界知道您的遊戲是無障礙遊戲Shout it out: Let the world know your game is accessible

消費者會想知道您的遊戲是否可讓有障礙的玩家進行。Consumers will want to know if your game can be played by gamers with disabilities. 在遊戲網站、新聞稿和包裝上清楚描述遊戲的協助工具,以確保消費者在購買遊戲時能預期其中的內容。State the game’s accessibility clearly on the game website, press releases, and packaging to ensure that consumers know what to expect when they buy your game. 同時,請記住將遊戲的網站與所有銷售通路以無障礙的方式設計。Remember to make your website and all sales channels to the game accessible as well. 最重要的是,請連絡協助工具遊戲社群,並將您的遊戲告知他們。Most importantly, reach out to the accessibility gaming community and tell them about your game.

遊戲協助工具功能Game accessibility features

本節會概述一些可讓遊戲變得更容易存取的功能。This section outlines some features that can make your game more accessible. 這些功能衍生自 遊戲協助工具指導方針 網站所採用的指導方針。These features are derived from guidelines taken from the Game accessibility guidelines website. 該資源代表一組工作室、專家和學校的合作結果。That resource represent the findings of a collaborative group of studios, specialists, and academics.

色盲易記圖形和使用者介面Color blind friendly graphics and user interface

眼睛的視網膜有兩種感光細胞:視錐細胞感受光線位置,視杆細胞感受低光源的環境。The retina of the eye has two types of light-sensitive cells: the cones for seeing where there is light, and the rods for seeing in low light conditions.

視錐細胞有三種類型 (紅、綠和藍),讓我們可以正確地檢視色彩。There are three types of cones (red, green, and blue) to enable us to view colors correctly. 當這三種類型的一或多個淺圓錐未如預期般運作時,就會發生色盲。Color blindness occurs when one or more of these three types light cones is not functioning as expected. 色盲程度的範圍從幾乎一般的色彩感知,到 red、綠或藍燈的敏感度都完全無法完全察覺。The degree of color blindness can range from almost normal color perception with reduced sensitivity towards red, green, or blue light, to a complete inability to perceive any color at all.

因為在設計色盲時較不常降低對藍色的敏感度,所以色彩的選取範圍適用于紅色或綠色色盲的人員:Since it’s less common to have reduced sensitivity to blue light, when designing for the color blind, the selection of colors are geared towards people who are red or green color blind:

  • 使用色彩組合,可由視力為紅色/綠色色盲的人員區分:Use color combinations that can be differentiated by people with red/green color blindness:

    • 看起來類似的色彩:所有色度的紅色和綠色,包含棕色和橘色Colors that appear similar: All shades of red and green including brown and orange
    • 突出的色彩:藍色和黃色Colors that stand out: Blue and yellow
  • 不要僅仰賴要傳達或區分遊戲物件的色彩。Do not rely solely on color to communicate or distinguish game objects. 也使用形狀和圖案。Use shapes and patterns as well.

  • 如果您必須只單獨依賴色彩,可組合預設和自由選擇的色彩,以便可由需要的玩家充分進行自訂,而不用針對不需要它們的玩家建立額外的工作。If you have to rely on colors alone, combine presets with a free selection of colors, so that it can be fully customizable by the players who need them and not creating extra work for players who do not need them.

  • 使用色盲模擬器來測試您的設計,讓您可以透過色盲眼來觀賞您的設計。Use a color blind simulator to test your designs so that you can view your designs through color blind eyes. 這可協助您避免發生常見的對比問題。This can help you avoid common contrast issues. Color Oracle 是一個免費的色盲模擬器,可模擬三種最常見的色彩視覺缺陷類型: deuteranopia、protanopia 和 tritanopia。Color Oracle is a free color blind simulator that can simulate the three most common types of color vision deficiency – deuteranopia, protanopia, and tritanopia.

隱藏式輔助字幕與字幕Closed captioning and subtitles

為遊戲設計隱藏式輔助字幕和字幕時,目的是提供可閱讀輔助字幕的選項,使玩家無需音訊也可以享受您的遊戲。When designing the closed captions and subtitles for your game, the objective is provide readable captions as an option so that your game can also be enjoyed without audio. 應該要可以將遊戲對話、遊戲音訊及音效等遊戲元件,以文字的方式顯示在畫面上。It should be possible to have game components like game dialogues, game audio, and sound effects displayed as text on screen.

以下是設計隱藏式輔助字幕和字幕時,一些需要考量的基本指導方針:Here are some basic guidelines to consider when designing closed captions and subtitles:

  • 選取簡單易於閱讀的字型。Select simple readable font.
  • 選取夠大的字型大小,或考慮使用可調整字型大小選項以提供更多彈性。Select sufficiently large font size, or consider having adjustable font size option for more flexibility. (理想的字型大小取決於螢幕大小、和螢幕之間的檢視距離等等)。(Ideal font size depends on screen size, viewing distance from screen, and so on.)
  • 在背景與字型色彩之間建立高對比。Create high contrast between background and font color. 文字使用強調外框和陰影。Use strong outline and shadows for the text. 標題使用深色背景重疊字並請記得提供可將其開啟或關閉的選項。Use a dark background overlay for the captions and remember to provide options for it to be turned on or off. (如需詳細資訊,請參閱對比率資訊)。(For more information, see Information on contrast ratio.)
  • 在畫面上顯示簡短句子,一次每行最長 38 個字元且最多 2-3 行。Display short sentences on screen, maximum 38 characters per line and maximum 2-3 lines at any one time. (請記住不要在事件發生前顯示文字,以避免洩漏遊戲劇情)。(Remember not to give the game away by displaying the text before event occurs.)
  • 區別發出聲音或說話的對象。Differentiate what is making the sound or who is talking. (範例:「丹尼爾:嗨!」)(Example: "Daniel: Hi!")
  • 提供開啟和關閉隱藏式輔助字幕和字幕的選項。Provide the option to turn closed captions and subtitles on and off. (其他功能:根據重要性選擇顯示多少聲音資訊的功能)。(Additional feature: Ability to select how much sound information is displayed based on importance.)

遊戲聊天轉譯Game chat transcription

如果您的標題允許玩家使用語音通訊和傳送簡訊給另一個人,文字轉換語音和語音轉換文字功能應以選項方式提供。If your title allows gamers to communicate using voice and send text messages to one another, Text-to-Speech and Speech-to-Text functionalities should be available as an option.

沒有麥克風連接到其遊戲裝置的人,仍然可與正在說話的某人用語音交談。People who do not have microphones attached to their gaming device can still have a voice conversation with someone who is speaking. 他們可以在聊天視窗中輸入文字,而這些訊息會轉換為語音。They are able to type text into the chat window and have those messages converted into voice. 也可以讓聽力不太好的人,閱讀其正用語音交談之對象的對話轉譯後的文字訊息。It also allows someone who can't hear very well to read the transcribed text messages from the person they're having a voice chat with.

對於 ID@Xbox 的開發人員和受管理的合作夥伴計畫,在 Xbox Live 服務中,文字轉換語音和語音轉換文字功能可做為遊戲聊天 2 協助工具功能的一部分。For developers in the ID@Xbox and managed partners program, Text-to-Speech and Speech-to-Text features are available as part of the Game Chat 2 accessibility features in the Xbox Live service. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱遊戲交談 2 概觀For more information, see Game Chat 2 Overview.

音訊回饋Sound feedback

除了視覺回饋之外,音訊也能提供回饋給玩家。Sound provides feedback to the player, in addition to visual feedback. 出色的遊戲音訊設計可以改進針對視覺障礙玩家的可存取性。Good game audio design can improve accessibility for players with visual impairment. 以下是一些需要納入考慮的事項:Here are some guidelines to consider:

  • 使用 3D 音訊提示來提供額外的空間資訊。Use 3D audio cues to provide additional spatial information.
  • 將音樂、語音和音效的音量控制分開。Separate music, speech and sound effects volume controls.
  • 設計對玩家能提供有意義資訊的語音。Design speech that provides meaningful information for gamers. (範例:使用「敵人正在從後門進入」,而非「敵人正在接近」)。(Example: "Enemies are approaching" vs. "Enemies are entering from the back door.")
  • 確保語音以合理的速率說出,並提供速率控制來提供更好的協助工具。Ensure speech is spoken at a reasonable rate, and provide rate control for better accessibility.

完全可對應的控制項Fully mappable controls

有些公司和組織 (例如 Special Effect) 設計了可以用於不同遊戲系統 (例如 Windows 和 Xbox One) 的自訂遊戲控制器。There are companies and organizations, such as Special Effect, that design custom game controllers that can be used with various gaming systems like Windows and Xbox One. 這個自訂項目可讓不同類型的身心障礙人士接觸本來可能無法進行遊戲。This customization allows people with different forms of disabilities to play games they might not be able to play otherwise. 如需透過自訂控制器而能夠獨立進行遊戲的身心障礙人士詳細資訊,請參閱他們協助的對象For more information on people who are now able to play games independently because of customized controllers, see who they helped.

身為遊戲開發人員,您可以藉由允許完全可對應的控制項,讓玩家可選擇插入他們的自訂控制器,並根據需求重新對應按鍵,使遊戲更易於進行。As a game developer, you can make your game more accessible by allowing fully mappable controls so that gamers have the option to plug in their custom controllers and remap the keys according to their needs.

使用標準控制器的人也受益於擁有可完全對應的控制項。Having fully mappable controls also benefits people who use standard controllers. 您的玩家可以設計適合他們個人的獨特需求的版面配置。Your gamers can design a layout that suits their unique individual needs.

標準的 Xbox One 和 Xbox Elite 控制器皆提供控制器自訂項目,以進行精確的遊戲。Both standard Xbox One and Xbox Elite controllers offer customization of the controllers for precision gaming. 若要完全運用其重新對應的功能,建議開發人員直接在遊戲中包重新對應To fully utliize their remapping capabilities, it is recommended that developers include remapping directly in the game. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱 Xbox OneXbox EliteFor more information, see Xbox One and Xbox Elite.

更多的難度等級選項Wider selection of difficulty levels

電玩遊戲是用來提供娛樂的。Video games provide entertainment. 藉由調整難度等級來讓玩家體驗適當程度的挑戰,對遊戲開發人員是一項挑戰。The challenge for game developers is to tune the difficulty level such that the gamer experiences the right amount challenge. 首先,並非所有玩家都有相同的技巧程度和能力,因此增加更多的難度選項選擇,可以提升使玩家獲得適當程度挑戰的機會。Firstly, not all gamers have the same skill level and capability, so designing a wider selection of difficulty options increases the chance of providing gamers with the right amount of challenge. 同時,更多的選擇也能讓您的電玩遊戲更容易存取,因為這可能會使更多身心障礙人士得以進行您的遊戲。At the same time, this wider selection also makes your video game more accessible because it could potentially allow more people with disabilities to play your game. 請記住,玩家想要克服遊戲中的挑戰並獲得獎勵。Remember, gamers want to overcome challenges in a game and be rewarded for it. 他們不想要進行一個自己無法獲勝的遊戲。They do not want a game that they cannot win.

調整遊戲的難度等級是一項纖細的工作。Tweaking the difficulty level of your game is a delicate process. 如果太簡單,玩家可能會覺得無聊。If it is too easy, gamers might get bored. 如果太困難,玩家可能會放棄,並再也不會繼續進行該遊戲。If it is too difficult, gamers may give up and not play any further from that point on. 這個拿捏平衡的程序既是門藝術,也是門科學。The balancing process is both art and science. 有許多方式可讓遊戲等級具有適當程度的挑戰。There are many ways to make a game level that has the right amount of challenge. 有些遊戲提供簡化的輸入,例如使遊戲具有單一按鍵的遊戲選項、透過倒轉和重玩選項使遊戲變得更容易,或是在玩家嘗試數次並失敗後減少敵人數量或削弱敵人,使遊戲更容易進行。Some games offer simplified inputs, like a single button press game option for their game, a rewind and replay option to make gameplay more forgiving, or less and weaker enemies to make it easier to proceed forward after several tries.

光敏性癲癇症測試Photosensitivity epilepsy testing

光敏性癲癇症 (PSE) 是由視覺刺激 (包括閃爍的光線,或特定的活動式視覺形式與模式) 觸發而導致的症狀。Photosensitive epilepsy (PSE) is a condition where seizures are triggered by visual stimuli, including exposures to flashing lights or certain moving visual forms and patterns. 大約有三個百分比的人會發生這種症狀,並在兒童和青少年族群中較為常見。This occurs in about three percent of people and is more common in children and adolescents. 就數字來說的話,大約是 4000 位年齡在 5 到 24 歲的人當中有 1 位In terms of numbers, we are looking at approximately 1 in 4000 people aged 5-24.

進行電玩遊戲時,有許多的因素可能造成光敏性反應,包括遊戲的持續期間、閃光的頻率、光線強度、背景與光線的對比、螢幕與玩家之間的距離,以及光線的波長。There are many factors that can cause a photosensitive reaction when playing video games, including the duration of gameplay, the frequency of the flash, the intensity of the light, the contrast of the background and the light, the distance between the screen and the gamer, and the wavelength of the light.

很多人是在發作後才發現他們有癲癇症。Many people discover that they have epilepsy through having a seizure. 玩家可能並且也透過視訊遊戲第一次發作,而這可能會導致身體受傷。Gamers can and do have their first seizures through videogames, and this can result in physical injury. 身為開發人員,以下是設計遊戲的一些提示以降低發作光敏性癲癇症的風險:As a developer, here are some tips for designing a game to reduce the risk of seizures caused by photosensitive epilepsy.

避免下列事項:Avoid the following:

  • 以每秒 5 到 30 次 (赫茲) 的頻率閃爍光線,因為該範圍內的閃爍光線最可能觸發症狀發作。Having flashing lights with a frequency of 5 to 30 flashes per second (Hertz) because flashing lights in that range are most likely to trigger seizures.
  • 任何持續超過 5 秒的一連串閃爍影像Any sequence of flashing images that lasts for more than 5 seconds
  • 一秒內閃爍三次以上,涵蓋畫面 25% 以上More than three flashes in a single second, covering 25%+ of the screen
  • 反複活動的圖樣或統一文字,涵蓋畫面 25% 以上Moving repeated patterns or uniform text, covering 25%+ of the screen
  • 反複靜態的圖樣或統一文字,涵蓋畫面 40% 以上Static repeated patterns or uniform text, covering 40%+ of the screen
  • 瞬間亮度/對比 (包括快速剪下) 高度變更,或從紅色或變為紅色An instantaneous high change in brightness/contrast (including fast cuts), or to/from the colour red
  • 五個以上平均間隔的高對比重複條狀、列或行,例如方格和棋盤式方格,可構成較小的規則元素,例如原點花紋More than five evenly spaced high contrast repeated stripes – rows or columns such as grids and checkerboards, that may be composed of smaller regular elements such as polkadots
  • 5 行以上的僅大寫字母的文字格式,字母間的間距不大,行距則為行本身的高度,有效率地將其轉換成高對比且平均替換列More than five lines of text formatted as capital letters only, with not much spacing between letters, and line spacing the same height as the lines themselves, effectively turning it into high contrast evenly alternating rows

使用自動化系統檢查遊戲可能會觸發光敏性癲癇的刺激。Use an automated system to check gameplay for stimuli that could trigger photosensitive epilepsy. (範例:由 Cambridge Research System Ltd 與 Graham Harding 教授開發的 The Harding TestHarding Flash and Pattern Analyzer (FPA) G2。)(Example: The Harding Test and Harding Flash and Pattern Analyzer (FPA) G2 developed by Cambridge Research System Ltd and Professor Graham Harding.)

包含做為設定選項的 [閃爍開啟/關閉],預設是將 [閃爍] 設為 [關閉]Include Flashing On/Off as a setting option and set Flashing as Off by default. 如此一來,您即保護還不知道他們很容易癲癇發作的玩家。In doing so, you protect players who do not yet know they are susceptible to seizures.

在遊戲關卡間設計中斷點,鼓勵玩家休息以避免不停地進行遊戲。Design for breaks between game levels, encouraging players to take a break from playing non-stop.

其他協助工具資源Other accessibility resources

以下是一些提供遊戲協助工具其他資訊的外部網站。Here are some external sites that provide additional information about game accessibility.

遊戲協助工具指導方針Game accessibility guidelines

自訂輸入控制器Custom input controllers

使用的其他參考Other references used