Create an Oracle Database in an Azure VM

This guide details using the Azure CLI to deploy an Azure virtual machine from the Oracle marketplace gallery image in order to create an Oracle 19c database. Once the server is deployed, you will connect via SSH in order to configure the Oracle database.

If you don't have an Azure subscription, create a free account before you begin.

If you choose to install and use the CLI locally, this quickstart requires that you are running the Azure CLI version 2.0.4 or later. Run az --version to find the version. If you need to install or upgrade, see Install Azure CLI.

Create a resource group

Create a resource group with the az group create command. An Azure resource group is a logical container into which Azure resources are deployed and managed.

The following example creates a resource group named rg-oracle in the eastus location.

az group create --name rg-oracle --location eastus

Create virtual machine

To create a virtual machine (VM), use the az vm create command.

The following example creates a VM named vmoracle19c. It also creates SSH keys, if they do not already exist in a default key location. To use a specific set of keys, use the --ssh-key-value option.

az vm create ^
    --resource-group rg-oracle ^
    --name vmoracle19c ^
    --image Oracle:oracle-database-19-3:oracle-database-19-0904:latest ^
    --size Standard_DS2_v2 ^
    --admin-username azureuser ^
    --generate-ssh-keys ^
    --public-ip-address-allocation static ^
    --public-ip-address-dns-name vmoracle19c

After you create the VM, Azure CLI displays information similar to the following example. Note the value for publicIpAddress. You use this address to access the VM.

{
  "fqdns": "",
  "id": "/subscriptions/{snip}/resourceGroups/rg-oracle/providers/Microsoft.Compute/virtualMachines/vmoracle19c",
  "location": "eastus",
  "macAddress": "00-0D-3A-36-2F-56",
  "powerState": "VM running",
  "privateIpAddress": "10.0.0.4",
  "publicIpAddress": "13.64.104.241",
  "resourceGroup": "rg-oracle"
}

Create and attach a new disk for Oracle datafiles and FRA

az vm disk attach --name oradata01 --new --resource-group rg-oracle --size-gb 64 --sku StandardSSD_LRS --vm-name vmoracle19c

Open ports for connectivity

In this task you must configure some external endpoints for the database listener and EM Express to use by setting up the Azure Network Security Group that protects the VM.

  1. To open the endpoint that you use to access the Oracle database remotely, create a Network Security Group rule as follows:

    az network nsg rule create ^
        --resource-group rg-oracle ^
        --nsg-name vmoracle19cNSG ^
        --name allow-oracle ^
        --protocol tcp ^
        --priority 1001 ^
        --destination-port-range 1521
    
  2. To open the endpoint that you use to access Oracle EM Express remotely, create a Network Security Group rule with az network nsg rule create as follows:

    az network nsg rule create ^
        --resource-group rg-oracle ^
        --nsg-name vmoracle19cNSG ^
        --name allow-oracle-EM ^
        --protocol tcp ^
        --priority 1002 ^
        --destination-port-range 5502
    
  3. If needed, obtain the public IP address of your VM again with az network public-ip show as follows:

    az network public-ip show ^
        --resource-group rg-oracle ^
        --name vmoracle19cPublicIP ^
        --query [ipAddress] ^
        --output tsv
    

Prepare the VM environment

  1. Connect to the VM

    To create an SSH session with the VM, use the following command. Replace the IP address with the publicIpAddress value for your VM.

    ssh azureuser@<publicIpAddress>
    
  2. Switch to the root user

    sudo su -
    
  3. Check for last created disk device that we will format for use holding Oracle datafiles

    ls -alt /dev/sd*|head -1
    

    The output will be similar to this:

    brw-rw----. 1 root disk 8, 16 Dec  8 22:57 /dev/sdc
    
  4. Format the device. As root user run parted on the device

    First create a disk label:

    parted /dev/sdc mklabel gpt
    

    Then create a primary partition spanning the whole disk:

    parted -a optimal /dev/sdc mkpart primary 0GB 64GB	
    

    Finally check the device details by printing its metadata:

    parted /dev/sdc print
    

    The output should look similar to this:

    # parted /dev/sdc print
    Model: Msft Virtual Disk (scsi)
    Disk /dev/sdc: 68.7GB
    Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/4096B
    Partition Table: gpt
    Disk Flags:
    Number  Start   End     Size    File system  Name     Flags
     1      1049kB  64.0GB  64.0GB  ext4         primary
    
  5. Create a filesystem on the device partition

    mkfs -t ext4 /dev/sdc1
    
  6. Create a mount point

    mkdir /u02
    
  7. Mount the disk

    mount /dev/sdc1 /u02
    
  8. Change permissions on the mount point

    chmod 777 /u02
    
  9. Add the mount to the /etc/fstab file.

    echo "/dev/sdc1               /u02                    ext4    defaults        0 0" >> /etc/fstab
    
  10. Update the /etc/hosts file with the public IP and hostname.

    Change the Public IP and VMname to reflect your actual values:

    echo "<Public IP> <VMname>.eastus.cloudapp.azure.com <VMname>" >> /etc/hosts
    
  11. Update the hostname file

    Use the following command to add the domain name of the VM to the /etc/hostname file. This assumes you have created your resource group and VM in the eastus region:

    sed -i 's/$/\.eastus\.cloudapp\.azure\.com &/' /etc/hostname
    
  12. Open firewall ports

    As SELinux is enabled by default on the Marketplace image we need to open the firewall to traffic for the database listening port 1521, and Enterprise Manager Express port 5502. Run the following commands as root user:

    firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-port=1521/tcp --permanent
    firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-port=5502/tcp --permanent
    firewall-cmd --reload
    

Create the database

The Oracle software is already installed on the Marketplace image. Create a sample database as follows.

  1. Switch to the oracle user:

    sudo su - oracle
    
  2. Start the database listener

    lsnrctl start
    

    The output is similar to the following:

    LSNRCTL for Linux: Version 19.0.0.0.0 - Production on 20-OCT-2020 01:58:18
    
    Copyright (c) 1991, 2019, Oracle.  All rights reserved.
    
    Starting /u01/app/oracle/product/19.0.0/dbhome_1/bin/tnslsnr: please wait...
    
    TNSLSNR for Linux: Version 19.0.0.0.0 - Production
    Log messages written to /u01/app/oracle/diag/tnslsnr/vmoracle19c/listener/alert/log.xml
    Listening on: (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=vmoracle19c.eastus.cloudapp.azure.com)(PORT=1521)))
    
    Connecting to (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=)(PORT=1521))
    STATUS of the LISTENER
    ------------------------
    Alias                     LISTENER
    Version                   TNSLSNR for Linux: Version 19.0.0.0.0 - Production
    Start Date                20-OCT-2020 01:58:18
    Uptime                    0 days 0 hr. 0 min. 0 sec
    Trace Level               off
    Security                  ON: Local OS Authentication
    SNMP                      OFF
    Listener Log File         /u01/app/oracle/diag/tnslsnr/vmoracle19c/listener/alert/log.xml
    Listening Endpoints Summary...
      (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=vmoracle19c.eastus.cloudapp.azure.com)(PORT=1521)))
    The listener supports no services
    The command completed successfully
    
  3. Create a data directory for the Oracle data files:

    mkdir /u02/oradata
    
  4. Run the Database Creation Assistant:

    dbca -silent \
       -createDatabase \
       -templateName General_Purpose.dbc \
       -gdbname test \
       -sid test \
       -responseFile NO_VALUE \
       -characterSet AL32UTF8 \
       -sysPassword OraPasswd1 \
       -systemPassword OraPasswd1 \
       -createAsContainerDatabase false \
       -databaseType MULTIPURPOSE \
       -automaticMemoryManagement false \
       -storageType FS \
       -datafileDestination "/u02/oradata/" \
       -ignorePreReqs
    

    It takes a few minutes to create the database.

    You will see output that looks similar to the following:

        Prepare for db operation
       10% complete
       Copying database files
       40% complete
       Creating and starting Oracle instance
       42% complete
       46% complete
       50% complete
       54% complete
       60% complete
       Completing Database Creation
       66% complete
       69% complete
       70% complete
       Executing Post Configuration Actions
       100% complete
       Database creation complete. For details check the logfiles at: /u01/app/oracle/cfgtoollogs/dbca/test.
       Database Information:
       Global Database Name:test
       System Identifier(SID):test
       Look at the log file "/u01/app/oracle/cfgtoollogs/dbca/test/test.log" for further details.
    
  5. Set Oracle variables

    Before you connect, you need to set the environment variable ORACLE_SID:

        export ORACLE_SID=test
    

    You should also add the ORACLE_SID variable to the oracle users .bashrc file for future sign-ins using the following command:

    echo "export ORACLE_SID=test" >> ~oracle/.bashrc
    

Oracle EM Express connectivity

For a GUI management tool that you can use to explore the database, set up Oracle EM Express. To connect to Oracle EM Express, you must first set up the port in Oracle.

  1. Connect to your database using sqlplus:

    sqlplus sys as sysdba
    
  2. Once connected, set the port 5502 for EM Express

    exec DBMS_XDB_CONFIG.SETHTTPSPORT(5502);
    
  3. Connect EM Express from your browser. Make sure your browser is compatible with EM Express (Flash install is required):

    https://<VM ip address or hostname>:5502/em
    

    You can log in by using the SYS account, and check the as sysdba checkbox. Use the password OraPasswd1 that you set during installation.

    Screenshot of the Oracle OEM Express login page

Automate database startup and shutdown

The Oracle database by default doesn't automatically start when you restart the VM. To set up the Oracle database to start automatically, first sign in as root. Then, create and update some system files.

  1. Sign on as root

    sudo su -
    
  2. Run the following command to change the automated startup flag from N to Y in the /etc/oratab file:

    sed -i 's/:N/:Y/' /etc/oratab
    
  3. Create a file named /etc/init.d/dbora and paste the following contents:

    #!/bin/sh
    # chkconfig: 345 99 10
    # Description: Oracle auto start-stop script.
    #
    # Set ORA_HOME to be equivalent to $ORACLE_HOME.
    ORA_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/19.0.0/dbhome_1
    ORA_OWNER=oracle
    
    case "$1" in
    'start')
        # Start the Oracle databases:
        # The following command assumes that the Oracle sign-in
        # will not prompt the user for any values.
        # Remove "&" if you don't want startup as a background process.
        su - $ORA_OWNER -c "$ORA_HOME/bin/dbstart $ORA_HOME" &
        touch /var/lock/subsys/dbora
        ;;
    
    'stop')
        # Stop the Oracle databases:
        # The following command assumes that the Oracle sign-in
        # will not prompt the user for any values.
        su - $ORA_OWNER -c "$ORA_HOME/bin/dbshut $ORA_HOME" &
        rm -f /var/lock/subsys/dbora
        ;;
    esac
    
  4. Change permissions on files with chmod as follows:

    chgrp dba /etc/init.d/dbora
    chmod 750 /etc/init.d/dbora
    
  5. Create symbolic links for startup and shutdown as follows:

    ln -s /etc/init.d/dbora /etc/rc.d/rc0.d/K01dbora
    ln -s /etc/init.d/dbora /etc/rc.d/rc3.d/S99dbora
    ln -s /etc/init.d/dbora /etc/rc.d/rc5.d/S99dbora
    
  6. To test your changes, restart the VM:

    reboot
    

Clean up resources

Once you have finished exploring your first Oracle database on Azure and the VM is no longer needed, you can use the az group delete command to remove the resource group, VM, and all related resources.

az group delete --name myResourceGroup

Next steps

Understand how to protect your database in Azure with Oracle Backup Strategies

Learn about other Oracle solutions on Azure.

Try the Installing and Configuring Oracle Automated Storage Management tutorial.