Get started with log queries in Azure Monitor
You can work through this exercise in your own environment if you are collecting data from at least one virtual machine. If not then use our Demo environment, which includes plenty of sample data. If you already know how to query in KQL, but just need to quickly create useful queries based on resource type(s), see the saved example queries pane.
In this tutorial you will learn to write log queries in Azure Monitor. It will teach you how to:
- Understand query structure
- Sort query results
- Filter query results
- Specify a time range
- Select which fields to include in the results
- Define and use custom fields
- Aggregate and group results
For a tutorial on using Log Analytics in the Azure portal, see Get started with Azure Monitor Log Analytics.
For more details on log queries in Azure Monitor, see Overview of log queries in Azure Monitor.
Follow along with a video version of this tutorial below:
Writing a new query
Queries can start with either a table name or the search command. You should start with a table name, since it defines a clear scope for the query and improves both query performance and relevance of the results.
The Kusto query language used by Azure Monitor is case-sensitive. Language keywords are typically written in lower-case. When using names of tables or columns in a query, make sure to use the correct case, as shown on the schema pane.
Azure Monitor organizes log data in tables, each composed of multiple columns. All tables and columns are shown on the schema pane in Log Analytics in the Analytics portal. Identify a table that you're interested in and then take a look at a bit of data:
SecurityEvent | take 10
The query shown above returns 10 results from the SecurityEvent table, in no specific order. This is a very common way to take a glance at a table and understand its structure and content. Let's examine how it's built:
- The query starts with the table name SecurityEvent - this part defines the scope of the query.
- The pipe (|) character separates commands, so the output of the first one in the input of the following command. You can add any number of piped elements.
- Following the pipe is the take command, which returns a specific number of arbitrary records from the table.
We could actually run the query even without adding
| take 10 - that would still be valid, but it could return up to 10,000 results.
Search queries are less structured, and generally more suited for finding records that include a specific value in any of their columns:
search in (SecurityEvent) "Cryptographic" | take 10
This query searches the SecurityEvent table for records that contain the phrase "Cryptographic". Of those records, 10 records will be returned and displayed. If we omit the
in (SecurityEvent) part and just run
search "Cryptographic", the search will go over all tables, which would take longer and be less efficient.
Search queries are typically slower than table-based queries because they have to process more data.
Sort and top
While take is useful to get a few records, the results are selected and displayed in no particular order. To get an ordered view, you could sort by the preferred column:
SecurityEvent | sort by TimeGenerated desc
That could return too many results though and might also take some time. The above query sorts the entire SecurityEvent table by the TimeGenerated column. The Analytics portal then limits the display to show only 10,000 records. This approach is of course not optimal.
The best way to get only the latest 10 records is to use top, which sorts the entire table on the server side and then returns the top records:
SecurityEvent | top 10 by TimeGenerated
Descending is the default sorting order, so we typically omit the desc argument.The output will look like this:
Where: filtering on a condition
Filters, as indicated by their name, filter the data by a specific condition. This is the most common way to limit query results to relevant information.
To add a filter to a query, use the where operator followed by one or more conditions. For example, the following query returns only SecurityEvent records where Level equals 8:
SecurityEvent | where Level == 8
When writing filter conditions, you can use the following expressions:
|!=, <>||Check inequality
(both expressions are identical)
|and, or||Required between conditions||
To filter by multiple conditions, you can either use and:
SecurityEvent | where Level == 8 and EventID == 4672
or pipe multiple where elements one after the other:
SecurityEvent | where Level == 8 | where EventID == 4672
Values can have different types, so you might need to cast them to perform comparison on the correct type. For example, SecurityEvent Level column is of type String, so you must cast it to a numerical type such as int or long, before you can use numerical operators on it:
SecurityEvent | where toint(Level) >= 10
Specify a time range
The time picker is next to the Run button and indicates we’re querying only records from the last 24 hours. This is the default time range applied to all queries. To get only records from the last hour, select Last hour and run the query again.
Time filter in query
You can also define your own time range by adding a time filter to the query. It’s best to place the time filter immediately after the table name:
SecurityEvent | where TimeGenerated > ago(30m) | where toint(Level) >= 10
In the above time filter
ago(30m) means "30 minutes ago" so this query only returns records from the last 30 minutes. Other units of time include days (2d), minutes (25m), and seconds (10s).
Project and Extend: select and compute columns
Use project to select specific columns to include in the results:
SecurityEvent | top 10 by TimeGenerated | project TimeGenerated, Computer, Activity
The preceding example generates this output:
You can also use project to rename columns and define new ones. The following example uses project to do the following:
- Select only the Computer and TimeGenerated original columns.
- Displays the Activity column as EventDetails.
- Create a new column named EventCode. The substring() function is used to get only the first four characters from the Activity field.
SecurityEvent | top 10 by TimeGenerated | project Computer, TimeGenerated, EventDetails=Activity, EventCode=substring(Activity, 0, 4)
extend keeps all original columns in the result set and defines additional ones. The following query uses extend to add the EventCode column. Note that this column may not display at the end of the table results in which case you would need to expand the details of a record to view it.
SecurityEvent | top 10 by TimeGenerated | extend EventCode=substring(Activity, 0, 4)
Summarize: aggregate groups of rows
Use summarize to identify groups of records, according to one or more columns, and apply aggregations to them. The most common use of summarize is count, which returns the number of results in each group.
The following query reviews all Perf records from the last hour, groups them by ObjectName, and counts the records in each group:
Perf | where TimeGenerated > ago(1h) | summarize count() by ObjectName
Sometimes it makes sense to define groups by multiple dimensions. Each unique combination of these values defines a separate group:
Perf | where TimeGenerated > ago(1h) | summarize count() by ObjectName, CounterName
Another common use is to perform mathematical or statistical calculations on each group. For example, the following calculates the average CounterValue for each computer:
Perf | where TimeGenerated > ago(1h) | summarize avg(CounterValue) by Computer
Unfortunately, the results of this query are meaningless since we mixed together different performance counters. To make this more meaningful, we should calculate the average separately for each combination of CounterName and Computer:
Perf | where TimeGenerated > ago(1h) | summarize avg(CounterValue) by Computer, CounterName
Summarize by a time column
Grouping results can also be based on a time column, or another continuous value. Simply summarizing
by TimeGenerated though would create groups for every single millisecond over the time range, since these are unique values.
To create groups based on continuous values, it is best to break the range into manageable units using bin. The following query analyzes Perf records that measure free memory (Available MBytes) on a specific computer. It calculates the average value of each 1 hour period over the last 7 days:
Perf | where TimeGenerated > ago(7d) | where Computer == "ContosoAzADDS2" | where CounterName == "Available MBytes" | summarize avg(CounterValue) by bin(TimeGenerated, 1h)
To make the output clearer, you select to display it as a time-chart, showing the available memory over time:
- Learn more about using string data in a log query with Work with strings in Azure Monitor log queries.
- Learn more about aggregating data in a log query with Advanced aggregations in Azure Monitor log queries.
- Learn how to join data from multiple tables with Joins in Azure Monitor log queries.
- Get documentation on the entire Kusto query language in the KQL language reference.