Application Startup

By Steve Smith and Tom Dykstra

The Startup class configures the request pipeline that handles all requests made to the application.

The Startup class

All ASP.NET applications require at least one Startup class. When an application starts, ASP.NET searches the primary assembly for a class named Startup (in any namespace). You can specify a different assembly to search using the Hosting:Application configuration key. The class doesn't have to be public. If there are multiple Startup classes, ASP.NET looks for one in the project's root namespace, otherwise it chooses one in the alphabetically first namespace.

You can define separate Startup classes for different environments, and the appropriate one will be selected at runtime. Learn more in Working with multiple environments.

The Startup class constructor can accept dependencies that are provided through dependency injection. You can use IHostingEnvironment to set up configuration sources and ILoggerFactory to set up logging providers.

The Startup class must include a Configure method and can optionally include a ConfigureServices method, both of which are called when the application starts. The class can also include environment-specific versions of these methods.

Learn about handling exceptions during application startup.

The Configure method

The Configure method is used to specify how the ASP.NET application will respond to HTTP requests. The request pipeline is configured by adding middleware components to an IApplicationBuilder instance that is provided by dependency injection.

In the following example from the default web site template, several extension methods are used to configure the pipeline with support for BrowserLink, error pages, static files, ASP.NET MVC, and Identity.

public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app, IHostingEnvironment env, ILoggerFactory loggerFactory)

    if (env.IsDevelopment())



    app.UseMvc(routes =>
            name: "default",
            template: "{controller=Home}/{action=Index}/{id?}");

Each Use extension method adds a middleware component to the request pipeline. For instance, the UseMvc extension method adds the routing middleware to the request pipeline and configures MVC as the default handler.

For more information about how to use IApplicationBuilder, see Middleware.

Additional services, like IHostingEnvironment and ILoggerFactory may also be specified in the method signature, in which case these services will be injected if they are available.

The ConfigureServices method

The Startup class can include a ConfigureServices method that takes an IServiceCollection parameter and optionally returns an IServiceProvider. The ConfigureServices method is called before Configure, as some features must be added before they can be wired up to the request pipeline.

For features that require substantial setup there are Add[Something] extension methods on IServiceCollection. This example from the default web site template configures the app to use services for Entity Framework, Identity, and MVC:

public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)
    // Add framework services.
    services.AddDbContext<ApplicationDbContext>(options =>

    services.AddIdentity<ApplicationUser, IdentityRole>()


    // Add application services.
    services.AddTransient<IEmailSender, AuthMessageSender>();
    services.AddTransient<ISmsSender, AuthMessageSender>();

Adding services to the services container makes them available within your application via dependency injection.

The ConfigureServices method is also where you should add configuration option classes. Learn more in Configuration.

Services Available in Startup

ASP.NET Core dependency injection provides application services during an application's startup. You can request these services by including the appropriate interface as a parameter on your Startup class's constructor or one of its Configure or ConfigureServices methods.

Looking at each method in the Startup class in the order in which they are called, the following services may be requested as parameters:

  • In the constructor: IHostingEnvironment, ILoggerFactory

  • In the ConfigureServices method: IServiceCollection

  • In the Configure method: IApplicationBuilder, IHostingEnvironment, ILoggerFactory

Additional Resources