SQL resource provider maintenance operations

The SQL resource provider runs on a locked down virtual machine (VM). To enable maintenance operations, you need to update the VM's security. To do this using the principal of Least Privilege, use PowerShell Just Enough Administration (JEA) endpoint DBAdapterMaintenance. The resource provider installation package includes a script for this action.

Patching and updating

The SQL resource provider isn't serviced as part of Azure Stack Hub because it's an add-on component. Microsoft provides updates to the SQL resource provider as necessary. When an updated SQL adapter is released, a script is provided to apply the update. This script creates a new resource provider VM, migrating the state of the old provider VM to the new VM. For more information, see Update the SQL resource provider.

Provider VM

Because the resource provider runs on a user VM, you need to apply the required patches and updates when they're released. Use the Windows update packages that are provided as part of the patch-and-update cycle to apply updates to the VM.

Updating SQL credentials

You're responsible for creating and maintaining sysadmin accounts on your SQL servers. The resource provider needs an account with these privileges to manage databases for users, but it doesn't need access to the users' data. If you need to update the sysadmin passwords on your SQL servers, you can use the resource provider's administrator interface to change a stored password. These passwords are stored in a Key Vault on your Azure Stack Hub instance.

To modify the settings, select Browse > ADMINISTRATIVE RESOURCES > SQL Hosting Servers > SQL Logins and select a user name. The change must be made on the SQL instance first (and any replicas, if necessary.) Under Settings, select Password.

Update the SQL admin password

Secrets rotation

These instructions only apply to Azure Stack Hub Integrated Systems.

When using the SQL and MySQL resource providers with Azure Stack Hub integrated systems, the Azure Stack Hub operator is responsible for rotating the following resource provider infrastructure secrets to ensure that they don't expire:

  • External SSL certificate provided during deployment.
  • The resource provider VM local admin account password provided during deployment.
  • Resource provider diagnostic user (dbadapterdiag) password.
  • (version >= Key Vault certificate generated during deployment.

PowerShell examples for rotating secrets


Successful secret rotation requires the removal of any existing versions of the Azure Stack Hub PowerShell modules, prior to running the script below.

Change all the secrets at the same time.

.\SecretRotationSQLProvider.ps1 `
    -Privilegedendpoint $Privilegedendpoint `
    -CloudAdminCredential $cloudCreds `
    -AzCredential $adminCreds `
    -DiagnosticsUserPassword $passwd `
    -DependencyFilesLocalPath $certPath `
    -DefaultSSLCertificatePassword $certPasswd  `
    -VMLocalCredential $localCreds `
    -KeyVaultPfxPassword $keyvaultCertPasswd

Change the diagnostic user password.

.\SecretRotationSQLProvider.ps1 `
    -Privilegedendpoint $Privilegedendpoint `
    -CloudAdminCredential $cloudCreds `
    -AzCredential $adminCreds `
    -DiagnosticsUserPassword  $passwd

Change the VM local admin account password.

.\SecretRotationSQLProvider.ps1 `
    -Privilegedendpoint $Privilegedendpoint `
    -CloudAdminCredential $cloudCreds `
    -AzCredential $adminCreds `
    -VMLocalCredential $localCreds

Rotate the SSL certificate

.\SecretRotationSQLProvider.ps1 `
    -Privilegedendpoint $Privilegedendpoint `
    -CloudAdminCredential $cloudCreds `
    -AzCredential $adminCreds `
    -DependencyFilesLocalPath $certPath `
    -DefaultSSLCertificatePassword $certPasswd

Rotate the Key Vault certificate

.\SecretRotationSQLProvider.ps1 `
    -Privilegedendpoint $Privilegedendpoint `
    -CloudAdminCredential $cloudCreds `
    -AzCredential $adminCreds `
    -KeyVaultPfxPassword $keyvaultCertPasswd

SecretRotationSQLProvider.ps1 parameters

Parameter Description Comment
AzureEnvironment The Azure environment of the service admin account used for deploying Azure Stack Hub. Required only for Azure AD deployments. Supported environment names are AzureCloud, AzureUSGovernment, or if using a China Azure Active Directory, AzureChinaCloud. Optional
AzCredential Azure Stack Hub service admin account credential. The script will fail if the account you use with AzCredential requires multi-factor authentication (MFA). Mandatory
CloudAdminCredential Azure Stack Hub cloud admin domain account credential. Mandatory
PrivilegedEndpoint Privileged Endpoint to access Get-AzureStackStampInformation. Mandatory
DiagnosticsUserPassword Diagnostics user account password. Optional
VMLocalCredential Local admin account on the MySQLAdapter VM. Optional
DefaultSSLCertificatePassword Default SSL certificate (*.pfx) password. Optional
DependencyFilesLocalPath Dependency files local path. Optional
KeyVaultPfxPassword The password used for generating the Key Vault certificate for database adapter. Optional

Update the VM operating system

Use one of the following methods to update the VM operating system.

  • Install the latest resource provider package using a currently patched VM image.
  • Install a Windows Update package during the installation of, or update to, the resource provider.

Update the VM Windows Defender definitions

To update the Windows Defender definitions:

  1. Download the Windows Defender definitions update from Security intelligence updates for Windows Defender.

    On the definitions update page, scroll down to "Manually download the update". Download the "Windows Defender Antivirus for Windows 10 and Windows 8.1" 64-bit file.

    You can also use this direct link to download/run the fpam-fe.exe file.

  2. Create a PowerShell session to the SQL resource provider adapter VM's maintenance endpoint.

  3. Copy the definitions update file to the VM using the maintenance endpoint session.

  4. On the maintenance PowerShell session, run the Update-DBAdapterWindowsDefenderDefinitions command.

  5. After you install the definitions, we recommend you delete the definitions update file by using the Remove-ItemOnUserDrive command.

PowerShell script example for updating definitions

You can edit and run the following script to update the Defender definitions. Replace values in the script with values from your environment.

# Set credentials for local admin on the resource provider VM.
$vmLocalAdminPass = ConvertTo-SecureString '<local admin user password>' -AsPlainText -Force
$vmLocalAdminUser = "<local admin user name>"
$vmLocalAdminCreds = New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential `
    ($vmLocalAdminUser, $vmLocalAdminPass)

# Provide the public IP address for the adapter VM.
$databaseRPMachine  = "<RP VM IP address>"
$localPathToDefenderUpdate = "C:\DefenderUpdates\mpam-fe.exe"

# Download the Windows Defender update definitions file from https://www.microsoft.com/wdsi/definitions.
Invoke-WebRequest -Uri 'https://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=121721&arch=x64' `
    -Outfile $localPathToDefenderUpdate

# Create a session to the maintenance endpoint.
$session = New-PSSession -ComputerName $databaseRPMachine `
    -Credential $vmLocalAdminCreds -ConfigurationName DBAdapterMaintenance `
    -SessionOption (New-PSSessionOption -Culture en-US -UICulture en-US)
# Copy the defender update file to the adapter VM.
Copy-Item -ToSession $session -Path $localPathToDefenderUpdate `
     -Destination "User:\"
# Install the update definitions.
Invoke-Command -Session $session -ScriptBlock `
    {Update-AzSDBAdapterWindowsDefenderDefinition -DefinitionsUpdatePackageFile "User:\mpam-fe.exe"}
# Cleanup the definitions package file and session.
Invoke-Command -Session $session -ScriptBlock `
    {Remove-AzSItemOnUserDrive -ItemPath "User:\mpam-fe.exe"}
$session | Remove-PSSession

Collect diagnostic logs

Azure Stack Hub has multiple ways to collect, save, and send diagnostic logs to Microsoft Support. Starting from version 1.1.93, SQL Resource Provider supports the standard way of collecting logs from you Azure Stack Hub environment. For more information, see Diagnostic log collection.

Starting from version 1.1.93, SQL Resource Provider supports the standard way of collecting logs from you Azure Stack Hub environment. If you are using an older version, it is recommended to update your SQL Resource Provider to the latest version.

To collect logs from the locked down VM, use the PowerShell Just Enough Administration (JEA) endpoint DBAdapterDiagnostics. This endpoint provides the following commands:

  • Get-AzsDBAdapterLog. This command creates a zip package of the resource provider diagnostics logs and saves the file on the session's user drive. You can run this command without any parameters and the last four hours of logs are collected.
  • Remove-AzsDBAdapterLog. This command removes existing log packages on the resource provider VM.

Endpoint requirements and process

When a resource provider is installed or updated, the dbadapterdiag user account is created. You'll use this account to collect diagnostic logs.


The dbadapterdiag account password is the same as the password used for the local admin on the VM that's created during a provider deployment or update.

To use the DBAdapterDiagnostics commands, create a remote PowerShell session to the resource provider VM and run the Get-AzsDBAdapterLog command.

You set the time span for log collection by using the FromDate and ToDate parameters. If you don't specify one or both of these parameters, the following defaults are used:

  • FromDate is four hours before the current time.
  • ToDate is the current time.

PowerShell script example for collecting logs

The following script shows how to collect diagnostic logs from the resource provider VM.

# Create a new diagnostics endpoint session.
$databaseRPMachineIP = '<RP VM IP address>'
$diagnosticsUserName = 'dbadapterdiag'
$diagnosticsUserPassword = '<Enter Diagnostic password>'

$diagCreds = New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential `
        ($diagnosticsUserName, (ConvertTo-SecureString -String $diagnosticsUserPassword -AsPlainText -Force))
$session = New-PSSession -ComputerName $databaseRPMachineIP -Credential $diagCreds `
        -ConfigurationName DBAdapterDiagnostics `
        -SessionOption (New-PSSessionOption -Culture en-US -UICulture en-US)

# Sample that captures logs from the previous hour.
$fromDate = (Get-Date).AddHours(-1)
$dateNow = Get-Date
$sb = {param($d1,$d2) Get-AzSDBAdapterLog -FromDate $d1 -ToDate $d2}
$logs = Invoke-Command -Session $session -ScriptBlock $sb -ArgumentList $fromDate,$dateNow

# Copy the logs to the user drive.
$sourcePath = "User:\{0}" -f $logs
$destinationPackage = Join-Path -Path (Convert-Path '.') -ChildPath $logs
Copy-Item -FromSession $session -Path $sourcePath -Destination $destinationPackage

# Clean up the logs.
$cleanup = Invoke-Command -Session $session -ScriptBlock {Remove-AzsDBAdapterLog}
# Close the session.
$session | Remove-PSSession

Known limitations

When the deployment, upgrade, or secret rotation script failed, some logs cannot be collected by the standard log collection mechanism.

Besides using the standard log collection mechanism, go to the Logs folder in the extracted folder where the script locates, to find more logs.

Configure Azure Diagnostics extension for SQL resource provider

Azure Diagnostics extension is installed on the SQL resource provider adapter VM by default. The following steps show how to customize the extension for gathering the SQL resource provider operational event logs and IIS logs for troubleshooting and auditing purpose.

  1. Sign in to the Azure Stack Hub administrator portal.

  2. Select Virtual machines from the pane on the left, search for the SQL resource provider adapter VM and select the VM.

  3. In Diagnostics settings of the VM, go to the Logs tab and choose Custom to customize event logs being collected. Go to diagnostics settings

  4. Add Microsoft-AzureStack-DatabaseAdapter/Operational!* to collect SQL resource provider operational event logs. Add event logs

  5. To enable the collection of IIS logs, check IIS logs and Failed request logs. Add IIS logs

  6. Finally select Save to save all the Diagnostics settings.

Once the event logs and IIS logs collection are configured for SQL resource provider, the logs can be found in a system storage account named sqladapterdiagaccount.

To learn more about Azure Diagnostics extension, please see What is Azure Diagnostics extension.

Next steps

Add SQL Server hosting servers