Use GPUs for compute-intensive workloads on Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS)
Graphical processing units (GPUs) are often used for compute-intensive workloads such as graphics and visualization workloads. AKS supports the creation of GPU-enabled node pools to run these compute-intensive workloads in Kubernetes. For more information on available GPU-enabled VMs, see GPU optimized VM sizes in Azure. For AKS nodes, we recommend a minimum size of Standard_NC6.
Currently, using GPU-enabled node pools is only available for Linux node pools.
Before you begin
This article assumes that you have an existing AKS cluster with nodes that support GPUs. Your AKS cluster must run Kubernetes 1.10 or later. If you need an AKS cluster that meets these requirements, see the first section of this article to create an AKS cluster.
You also need the Azure CLI version 2.0.64 or later installed and configured. Run
az --version to find the version. If you need to install or upgrade, see Install Azure CLI.
Create an AKS cluster
If you need an AKS cluster that meets the minimum requirements (GPU-enabled node and Kubernetes version 1.10 or later), complete the following steps. If you already have an AKS cluster that meets these requirements, skip to the next section.
First, create a resource group for the cluster using the az group create command. The following example creates a resource group name myResourceGroup in the eastus region:
az group create --name myResourceGroup --location eastus
Now create an AKS cluster using the az aks create command. The following example creates a cluster with a single node of size
az aks create \ --resource-group myResourceGroup \ --name myAKSCluster \ --node-vm-size Standard_NC6 \ --node-count 1
Get the credentials for your AKS cluster using the az aks get-credentials command:
az aks get-credentials --resource-group myResourceGroup --name myAKSCluster
Install nVidia drivers
Before the GPUs in the nodes can be used, you must deploy a DaemonSet for the NVIDIA device plugin. This DaemonSet runs a pod on each node to provide the required drivers for the GPUs.
First, create a namespace using the kubectl create namespace command, such as gpu-resources:
kubectl create namespace gpu-resources
Create a file named nvidia-device-plugin-ds.yaml and paste the following YAML manifest. This manifest is provided as part of the NVIDIA device plugin for Kubernetes project.
apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1 kind: DaemonSet metadata: name: nvidia-device-plugin-daemonset namespace: gpu-resources spec: updateStrategy: type: RollingUpdate template: metadata: # Mark this pod as a critical add-on; when enabled, the critical add-on scheduler # reserves resources for critical add-on pods so that they can be rescheduled after # a failure. This annotation works in tandem with the toleration below. annotations: scheduler.alpha.kubernetes.io/critical-pod: "" labels: name: nvidia-device-plugin-ds spec: tolerations: # Allow this pod to be rescheduled while the node is in "critical add-ons only" mode. # This, along with the annotation above marks this pod as a critical add-on. - key: CriticalAddonsOnly operator: Exists - key: nvidia.com/gpu operator: Exists effect: NoSchedule containers: - image: nvidia/k8s-device-plugin:1.11 name: nvidia-device-plugin-ctr securityContext: allowPrivilegeEscalation: false capabilities: drop: ["ALL"] volumeMounts: - name: device-plugin mountPath: /var/lib/kubelet/device-plugins volumes: - name: device-plugin hostPath: path: /var/lib/kubelet/device-plugins
Now use the kubectl apply command to create the DaemonSet and confirm the nVidia device plugin is created successfully, as shown in the following example output:
$ kubectl apply -f nvidia-device-plugin-ds.yaml daemonset "nvidia-device-plugin" created
Confirm that GPUs are schedulable
With your AKS cluster created, confirm that GPUs are schedulable in Kubernetes. First, list the nodes in your cluster using the kubectl get nodes command:
$ kubectl get nodes NAME STATUS ROLES AGE VERSION aks-nodepool1-28993262-0 Ready agent 13m v1.12.7
Now use the kubectl describe node command to confirm that the GPUs are schedulable. Under the Capacity section, the GPU should list as
The following condensed example shows that a GPU is available on the node named aks-nodepool1-18821093-0:
$ kubectl describe node aks-nodepool1-28993262-0 Name: aks-nodepool1-28993262-0 Roles: agent Labels: accelerator=nvidia [...] Capacity: attachable-volumes-azure-disk: 24 cpu: 6 ephemeral-storage: 101584140Ki hugepages-1Gi: 0 hugepages-2Mi: 0 memory: 57713784Ki nvidia.com/gpu: 1 pods: 110 Allocatable: attachable-volumes-azure-disk: 24 cpu: 5916m ephemeral-storage: 93619943269 hugepages-1Gi: 0 hugepages-2Mi: 0 memory: 51702904Ki nvidia.com/gpu: 1 pods: 110 System Info: Machine ID: b0cd6fb49ffe4900b56ac8df2eaa0376 System UUID: 486A1C08-C459-6F43-AD6B-E9CD0F8AEC17 Boot ID: f134525f-385d-4b4e-89b8-989f3abb490b Kernel Version: 4.15.0-1040-azure OS Image: Ubuntu 16.04.6 LTS Operating System: linux Architecture: amd64 Container Runtime Version: docker://1.13.1 Kubelet Version: v1.12.7 Kube-Proxy Version: v1.12.7 PodCIDR: 10.244.0.0/24 ProviderID: azure:///subscriptions/<guid>/resourceGroups/MC_myResourceGroup_myAKSCluster_eastus/providers/Microsoft.Compute/virtualMachines/aks-nodepool1-28993262-0 Non-terminated Pods: (9 in total) Namespace Name CPU Requests CPU Limits Memory Requests Memory Limits AGE --------- ---- ------------ ---------- --------------- ------------- --- kube-system nvidia-device-plugin-daemonset-bbjlq 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 2m39s [...]
Run a GPU-enabled workload
Create a file named samples-tf-mnist-demo.yaml and paste the following YAML manifest. The following job manifest includes a resource limit of
If you receive a version mismatch error when calling into drivers, such as, CUDA driver version is insufficient for CUDA runtime version, review the nVidia driver matrix compatibility chart - https://docs.nvidia.com/deploy/cuda-compatibility/index.html
apiVersion: batch/v1 kind: Job metadata: labels: app: samples-tf-mnist-demo name: samples-tf-mnist-demo spec: template: metadata: labels: app: samples-tf-mnist-demo spec: containers: - name: samples-tf-mnist-demo image: microsoft/samples-tf-mnist-demo:gpu args: ["--max_steps", "500"] imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent resources: limits: nvidia.com/gpu: 1 restartPolicy: OnFailure
Use the kubectl apply command to run the job. This command parses the manifest file and creates the defined Kubernetes objects:
kubectl apply -f samples-tf-mnist-demo.yaml
View the status and output of the GPU-enabled workload
Monitor the progress of the job using the kubectl get jobs command with the
--watch argument. It may take a few minutes to first pull the image and process the dataset. When the COMPLETIONS column shows 1/1, the job has successfully finished. Exit the
kubetctl --watch command with Ctrl-C:
$ kubectl get jobs samples-tf-mnist-demo --watch NAME COMPLETIONS DURATION AGE samples-tf-mnist-demo 0/1 3m29s 3m29s samples-tf-mnist-demo 1/1 3m10s 3m36s
To look at the output of the GPU-enabled workload, first get the name of the pod with the kubectl get pods command:
$ kubectl get pods --selector app=samples-tf-mnist-demo NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE samples-tf-mnist-demo-mtd44 0/1 Completed 0 4m39s
Now use the kubectl logs command to view the pod logs. The following example pod logs confirm that the appropriate GPU device has been discovered,
Tesla K80. Provide the name for your own pod:
$ kubectl logs samples-tf-mnist-demo-smnr6 2019-05-16 16:08:31.258328: I tensorflow/core/platform/cpu_feature_guard.cc:137] Your CPU supports instructions that this TensorFlow binary was not compiled to use: SSE4.1 SSE4.2 AVX AVX2 FMA 2019-05-16 16:08:31.396846: I tensorflow/core/common_runtime/gpu/gpu_device.cc:1030] Found device 0 with properties: name: Tesla K80 major: 3 minor: 7 memoryClockRate(GHz): 0.8235 pciBusID: 2fd7:00:00.0 totalMemory: 11.17GiB freeMemory: 11.10GiB 2019-05-16 16:08:31.396886: I tensorflow/core/common_runtime/gpu/gpu_device.cc:1120] Creating TensorFlow device (/device:GPU:0) -> (device: 0, name: Tesla K80, pci bus id: 2fd7:00:00.0, compute capability: 3.7) 2019-05-16 16:08:36.076962: I tensorflow/stream_executor/dso_loader.cc:139] successfully opened CUDA library libcupti.so.8.0 locally Successfully downloaded train-images-idx3-ubyte.gz 9912422 bytes. Extracting /tmp/tensorflow/input_data/train-images-idx3-ubyte.gz Successfully downloaded train-labels-idx1-ubyte.gz 28881 bytes. Extracting /tmp/tensorflow/input_data/train-labels-idx1-ubyte.gz Successfully downloaded t10k-images-idx3-ubyte.gz 1648877 bytes. Extracting /tmp/tensorflow/input_data/t10k-images-idx3-ubyte.gz Successfully downloaded t10k-labels-idx1-ubyte.gz 4542 bytes. Extracting /tmp/tensorflow/input_data/t10k-labels-idx1-ubyte.gz Accuracy at step 0: 0.1081 Accuracy at step 10: 0.7457 Accuracy at step 20: 0.8233 Accuracy at step 30: 0.8644 Accuracy at step 40: 0.8848 Accuracy at step 50: 0.8889 Accuracy at step 60: 0.8898 Accuracy at step 70: 0.8979 Accuracy at step 80: 0.9087 Accuracy at step 90: 0.9099 Adding run metadata for 99 Accuracy at step 100: 0.9125 Accuracy at step 110: 0.9184 Accuracy at step 120: 0.922 Accuracy at step 130: 0.9161 Accuracy at step 140: 0.9219 Accuracy at step 150: 0.9151 Accuracy at step 160: 0.9199 Accuracy at step 170: 0.9305 Accuracy at step 180: 0.9251 Accuracy at step 190: 0.9258 Adding run metadata for 199 Accuracy at step 200: 0.9315 Accuracy at step 210: 0.9361 Accuracy at step 220: 0.9357 Accuracy at step 230: 0.9392 Accuracy at step 240: 0.9387 Accuracy at step 250: 0.9401 Accuracy at step 260: 0.9398 Accuracy at step 270: 0.9407 Accuracy at step 280: 0.9434 Accuracy at step 290: 0.9447 Adding run metadata for 299 Accuracy at step 300: 0.9463 Accuracy at step 310: 0.943 Accuracy at step 320: 0.9439 Accuracy at step 330: 0.943 Accuracy at step 340: 0.9457 Accuracy at step 350: 0.9497 Accuracy at step 360: 0.9481 Accuracy at step 370: 0.9466 Accuracy at step 380: 0.9514 Accuracy at step 390: 0.948 Adding run metadata for 399 Accuracy at step 400: 0.9469 Accuracy at step 410: 0.9489 Accuracy at step 420: 0.9529 Accuracy at step 430: 0.9507 Accuracy at step 440: 0.9504 Accuracy at step 450: 0.951 Accuracy at step 460: 0.9512 Accuracy at step 470: 0.9539 Accuracy at step 480: 0.9533 Accuracy at step 490: 0.9494 Adding run metadata for 499
Clean up resources
To remove the associated Kubernetes objects created in this article, use the kubectl delete job command as follows:
kubectl delete jobs samples-tf-mnist-demo
To run Apache Spark jobs, see Run Apache Spark jobs on AKS.
For more information about running machine learning (ML) workloads on Kubernetes, see Kubeflow Labs.