In platform as a service (PaaS) cloud computing, a service provider delivers a platform for clients to develop, run, and manage applications without having to build and maintain infrastructure. Solution development based on Azure Platform resources and services removes the overhead of managing virtual machines, virtual networks, disks, and related configurations.
Development testing (DevTest) is a software development approach that integrates testing early in the development phase. DevOps is a set of practices that combine software development and IT operations, to shorten the development cycle and provide continuous delivery with high quality.
This solution architecture combines reduced overhead and a DevOps toolchain to support rapid DevTest iteration cycles and a fast development environment with PaaS resources.
Developers use GitHub Codespaces pre-configured development environments to avoid manually configuring development environments. Developers can use Codespaces in-browser or through Visual Studio Code.
Similar to Azure DevOps, GitHub Actions sets automated builds to trigger on GitHub commits or pull requests. In the current solution, the build action publishes artifacts to a GitHub Package source package for deployment.
Azure Boards connects back to GitHub Repos to generate work items from automated and manual testing, and tracks all work in the development cycle.
Developers create feature or fix branches that associate work items with development sprints or cycles, tracking all code with tasks and requirements. With this approach, developers maintain an active development loop velocity that is critical to agile software development.
Azure Pipelines is the solution for Azure PaaS deployments. Azure Pipelines handles continuous deployment (CD) and release tasks, which consume the package versions exposed by GitHub Actions builds. Azure Pipelines uses Azure Key Vault to securely consume secrets like credentials and connection strings required for release and deployment configurations.
Azure Pipelines deployment tasks specifically support Azure PaaS resources, including web application deployments:
- In conjunction with the continuous builds from GitHub Actions, a continuous release deploys the latest application build to a Development environment.
- The pipeline promotes the build selected for testing up to the next deployment ring, the Test environment.
- After the build passes all tests, it's promoted and staged in the next outer ring for User Acceptance Testing (UAT).
All three DevTest environments exist under a discounted-cost Azure DevTest Subscription. Azure Policy can add additional rules for the size and number of App Services or PaaS databases to limit costs.
When solution quality reaches a Production state, Azure Pipelines triggers a Production release. The pipeline limits Production deployments to the minimum number necessary.
For an App Service, a Pipelines release can deploy the targeted build version to the Production resource in the Pre-Production app slot, and then swap slots to Production in place. If something goes wrong during the swap of Pre-Production to Production, App Service can roll back the swap for extra deployment safety.
In this solution, a single Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) manages identity for both the DevTest and Production subscriptions. Azure role-based access control (Azure RBAC) restricts access to protected resources, preventing unauthorized or inadvertent modification of Production resources. Developers don't have the same access control levels in Production as in their DevTest sandboxes.
Terraform provisions and modifies resources for each environment, tailoring size, instance count, and other properties. The current solution models an environment stack of Azure App Service, Azure Cache for Redis, and Azure SQL Database.
Azure Monitor works across subscriptions to monitor all environments and collect logs, crash dump reports, and application data.
GitHub is a code hosting platform for version control and collaboration, with other integrated features:
- A GitHub source-control repository contains all project files and their revision history. Developers can work together to contribute, discuss, and manage code in the repository.
- GitHub Codespaces provide developers with pre-configured development environments that cover library dependencies, user configuration, and extensions. Developers can provision codespaces in GitHub, and use them either in-browser or through Visual Studio Code.
- GitHub Actions provide a suite of build and release workflows, covering continuous integration (CI), automated testing, and Azure Resource Manager (ARM) template or container deployments.
- GitHub Packages package hosting service allows hosting software packages and using them as dependencies in projects.
Azure Boards is a service for managing work for software projects. Azure Boards brings a rich set of capabilities including native support for Scrum and Kanban methodologies, customizable dashboards, and integrated reporting.
Azure Pipelines deploys the VM application images. Pipelines can also deploy the VM resources themselves, through Azure Resource Manager (ARM) templates. This infrastructure-as-code can be source controlled and configured for CI/CD, ensuring that the infrastructure remains up to date.
Azure Key Vault securely stores and tightly controls access to secrets like API keys, passwords, and certificates. For more information about Key Vault in DevOps scenarios, see DevSecOps in Azure and DevSecOps in GitHub.
Azure AD enterprise identity platform provides single sign-on and multifactor authentication to govern user access to resources. In the current scenario, Azure AD works with Azure RBAC to restrict access per environment.
Terraform is a third-party tool that provisions and modifies resources per environment. The current solution provisions an environment stack of Azure App Service, Azure Cache for Redis, and Azure SQL Database.
Terraform also supports cross-platform infrastructure-as-code configuration and deployment across Azure and other cloud providers. Infrastructure-as-code lets developers validate infrastructure changes the same way they validate code changes.
Azure App Service is a fully managed web hosting service for building web apps. App Service supports DevOps capabilities like CD, package management, staging environments, custom domains, and TLS/SSL certificates.
Azure Cache for Redis provides an in-memory data store based on the open-source software Redis, which improves performance and scalability of applications that rely heavily on backend data stores.
Azure SQL Database is a fully managed PaaS database engine that handles most database management functions like upgrading, patching, backups, and monitoring, without user involvement.
Azure Policy governs resources to meet organizational standards and compliance. In a DevTest role, Azure Policy can regulate and limit the number and costs of VMs. Auditing can provide insights and track the usage of the DevTest VMs.
Azure Monitor can monitor both Production and DevTest environments. Azure Monitor can collect log data from VM operating systems and crash dump files, and aggregate them for viewing in Azure Security Center. Application Insights is a feature of Azure Monitor that works with App Service to monitor application performance and issues.
Developing an Azure SQL Database design that adequately supports the web app is an important consideration. Source control and versioning are as important for data schemas as for code and builds.
Tools like Entity Framework can provide source control for database schema changes via migrations. Migrations codify changes to the database structure and provide methods to both advance forward and roll back changes if issues occur.
While this architecture uses Azure Pipelines for deployments, GitHub Actions can also perform PaaS deployments.
Some integrations available in Azure Pipelines, such as service connection or authentication directly into the Azure backbone, don't currently exist in GitHub Actions. For these needs, consider using Azure Pipelines instead of GitHub Actions for CI and build activities.
While Terraform is a powerful environment management tool, one of its main features is its cross-platform capabilities. For applications that exist solely in Azure, consider using ARM templates instead of Terraform for resource deployments. ARM templates have direct Microsoft support, have their own tasks in Azure Pipelines, and may be able to deploy features or properties that aren't immediately available in Terraform.