Using multi-factor Azure Active Directory authentication
APPLIES TO: Azure SQL Database Azure SQL Managed Instance Azure Synapse Analytics
Azure SQL Database, Azure SQL Managed Instance, and Azure Synapse Analytics support connections from SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS) using Azure Active Directory - Universal with MFA authentication. This article discusses the differences between the various authentication options, and also the limitations associated with using Universal Authentication in Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) for Azure SQL.
Download the latest SSMS - On the client computer, download the latest version of SSMS, from Download SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS).
In December 2021, releases of SSMS prior to 18.6 will no longer authenticate through Azure Active Directory with MFA.
To continue utilizing Azure Active Directory authentication with MFA, you need SSMS 18.6 or later.
For all the features discussed in this article, use at least July 2017, version 17.2. The most recent connection dialog box, should look similar to the following image:
There are two non-interactive authentication models for Azure AD, which can be used in many different applications (ADO.NET, JDCB, ODC, and so on). These two methods never result in pop-up dialog boxes:
Azure Active Directory - Password
Azure Active Directory - Integrated
The interactive method that also supports Azure AD Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA) is:
Azure Active Directory - Universal with MFA
Azure AD MFA helps safeguard access to data and applications while meeting user demand for a simple sign-in process. It delivers strong authentication with a range of easy verification options (phone call, text message, smart cards with pin, or mobile app notification), allowing users to choose the method they prefer. Interactive MFA with Azure AD can result in a pop-up dialog box for validation.
For a description of Azure AD Multi-Factor Authentication, see Multi-Factor Authentication. For configuration steps, see Configure Azure SQL Database multi-factor authentication for SQL Server Management Studio.
Azure AD domain name or tenant ID parameter
Beginning with SSMS version 17, users that are imported into the current Azure AD from other Azure Active Directories as guest users, can provide the Azure AD domain name, or tenant ID when they connect. Guest users include users invited from other Azure ADs, Microsoft accounts such as outlook.com, hotmail.com, live.com, or other accounts like gmail.com. This information allows
Azure Active Directory - Universal with MFA authentication to identify the correct authenticating authority. This option is also required to support Microsoft accounts (MSA) such as outlook.com, hotmail.com, live.com, or non-MSA accounts.
All guest users who want to be authenticated using Universal Authentication must enter their Azure AD domain name or tenant ID. This parameter represents the current Azure AD domain name or tenant ID that the Azure SQL logical server is associated with. For example, if the SQL logical server is associated with the Azure AD domain
contosotest.onmicrosoft.com, where user
firstname.lastname@example.org is hosted as an imported user from the Azure AD domain
contosodev.onmicrosoft.com, the domain name required to authenticate this user is
contosotest.onmicrosoft.com. When the user is a native user of the Azure AD associated to SQL logical server, and is not an MSA account, no domain name or tenant ID is required. To enter the parameter (beginning with SSMS version 17.2):
Open a connection in SSMS. Input your server name, and select Azure Active Directory - Universal with MFA authentication. Add the User name that you want to sign in with.
Select the Options box, and go over to the Connection Properties tab. In the Connect to Database dialog box, complete the dialog box for your database. Check the AD domain name or tenant ID box, and provide authenticating authority, such as the domain name (contosotest.onmicrosoft.com) or the GUID of the tenant ID.
If you are running SSMS 18.x or later, the AD domain name or tenant ID is no longer needed for guest users because 18.x or later automatically recognizes it.
Azure AD business to business support
Azure AD users that are supported for Azure AD B2B scenarios as guest users (see What is Azure B2B collaboration) can connect to SQL Database and Azure Synapse as individual users or members of an Azure AD group created in the associated Azure AD, and mapped manually using the CREATE USER (Transact-SQL) statement in a given database.
For example, if
email@example.com is invited to Azure AD
contosotest (with the Azure AD domain
contosotest.onmicrosoft.com), a user
firstname.lastname@example.org must be created for a specific database (such as MyDatabase) by an Azure AD SQL administrator or Azure AD DBO by executing the Transact-SQL
create user [email@example.com] FROM EXTERNAL PROVIDER statement. If
firstname.lastname@example.org is part of an Azure AD group, such as
usergroup then this group must be created for a specific database (such as MyDatabase) by an Azure AD SQL administrator, or Azure AD DBO by executing the Transact-SQL statement
create user [usergroup] FROM EXTERNAL PROVIDER statement.
After the database user or user group is created, then the user
email@example.com can sign into
MyDatabase using the SSMS authentication option
Azure Active Directory – Universal with MFA. By default, the user or usergroup only has connect permission. Any further data access will need to be granted in the database by a user with enough privilege.
For SSMS 17.x, using
firstname.lastname@example.org as a guest user, you must check the AD domain name or tenant ID box and add the AD domain name
contosotest.onmicrosoft.com in the Connection Property dialog box. The AD domain name or tenant ID option is only supported for the Azure Active Directory - Universal with MFA authentication. Otherwise, the check box it is greyed out.
Universal Authentication limitations
- SSMS and SqlPackage.exe are the only tools currently enabled for MFA through Active Directory Universal Authentication.
- SSMS version 17.2 supports multi-user concurrent access using Universal Authentication with MFA. For SSMS version 17.0 and 17.1, the tool restricts a login for an instance of SSMS using Universal Authentication to a single Azure Active Directory account. To sign in as another Azure AD account, you must use another instance of SSMS. This restriction is limited to Active Directory Universal Authentication; you can sign into a different server using
Azure Active Directory - Passwordauthentication,
Azure Active Directory - Integratedauthentication, or
SQL Server Authentication.
- SSMS supports Active Directory Universal Authentication for Object Explorer, Query Editor, and Query Store visualization.
- SSMS version 17.2 provides DacFx Wizard support for Export/Extract/Deploy Data database. Once a specific user is authenticated through the initial authentication dialog using Universal Authentication, the DacFx Wizard functions the same way it does for all other authentication methods.
- The SSMS Table Designer does not support Universal Authentication.
- There are no additional software requirements for Active Directory Universal Authentication except that you must use a supported version of SSMS.
- See the following link for the latest Active Directory Authentication Library (ADAL) version for Universal authentication: Microsoft.IdentityModel.Clients.ActiveDirectory.
- For configuration steps, see Configure Azure SQL Database multi-factor authentication for SQL Server Management Studio.
- Grant others access to your database: SQL Database Authentication and Authorization: Granting Access
- Make sure others can connect through the firewall: Configure a server-level firewall rule using the Azure portal
- Configure and manage Azure Active Directory authentication with SQL Database or Azure Synapse
- Create Azure AD guest users and set as an Azure AD admin
- Microsoft SQL Server Data-Tier Application Framework (17.0.0 GA)
- Import a BACPAC file to a new database
- Export a database to a BACPAC file
- C# interface IUniversalAuthProvider Interface
- When using Azure Active Directory- Universal with MFA authentication, ADAL tracing is available beginning with SSMS 17.3. Off by default, you can turn on ADAL tracing by using the Tools, Options menu, under Azure Services, Azure Cloud, ADAL Output Window Trace Level, followed by enabling Output in the View menu. The traces are available in the output window when selecting Azure Active Directory option.