Back up SQL Server databases on Azure VMs

SQL Server databases are critical workloads that require a low recovery point objective (RPO) and long-term retention. You can backup SQL Server databases running on Azure VMs using Azure Backup.

This article shows you how to back up a SQL Server database running on an Azure VM to an Azure Backup Recovery Services vault. In this article, you learn how to:

  • Verify the prerequisites for backing up a SQL Server instance.
  • Create and configure a vault.
  • Discover databases, and set up backups.
  • Set up auto-protection for databases.

Note

This feature is currently in public preview.

Before you start

Before you start, verify the following:

  1. Make sure you have a SQL Server instance running in Azure. You can quickly create a SQL Server instance in the marketplace.
  2. Review the public preview limitations below.
  3. Review scenario support.
  4. Review common questions about this scenario.

Preview limitations

This public preview has a number of limitations.

  • The VM running SQL Server requires internet connectivity to access Azure public IP addresses.
  • You can back up to 2000 SQL Server databases in a vault. If you have more, create another vault.
  • Backups of distributed availability groups don't fully work.
  • SQL Server Always On Failover Cluster Instances (FCIs) aren't supported for backup.
  • SQL Server backup should be configured in the portal. You can't currently configure backup with Azure PowerShell, CLI, or the REST APIs.
  • Backup and restore operations for FCI mirror databases, database snapshots and databases aren't supported.
  • Databases with large number of files can't be protected. The maximum number of files supported isn't deterministic. It not only depends on the number of files, but also depends on the path length of the files.

Review frequently asked questions about backing up SQL Server databases.

Scenario support

Support Details
Supported deployments SQL Marketplace Azure VMs and non-Marketplace (SQL Server manually installed) VMs are supported.
Supported geos Australia South East (ASE); Brazil South (BRS); Canada Central (CNC); Canada East (CE); Central US (CUS); East Asia (EA); East Australia (AE); East US (EUS); East US 2 (EUS2); India Central (INC); India South (INS); Japan East (JPE); Japan West (JPW); Korea Central (KRC); Korea South (KRS); North Central US (NCUS); North Europe (NE); South Central US (SCUS); South East Asia (SEA); UK South (UKS); UK West (UKW); West Central US (WCUS); West Europe (WE); West US (WUS); West US 2 (WUS 2)
Supported operating systems Windows Server 2016, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Server 2012

Linux isn't currently supported.
Supported SQL Server versions SQL Server 2017; SQL Server 2016, SQL Server 2014, SQL Server 2012.

Enterprise, Standard, Web, Developer, Express.

Prerequisites

Before you back up your SQL Server database, check the following conditions:

  1. Identify or create a Recovery Services vault in the same region or locale as the VM hosting the SQL Server instance.V
  2. Check the VM permissions needed to back up the SQL databases.
  3. Verify that the VM has network connectivity.
  4. Check that the SQL Server databases are named in accordance with naming guidelines for Azure Backup.
  5. Verify that you don't have any other backup solutions enabled for the database. Disable all other SQL Server backups before you set up this scenario. You can enable Azure Backup for an Azure VM along with Azure Backup for a SQL Server database running on the VM without any conflict.

Establish network connectivity

For all operations, the SQL Server VM virtual machine needs connectivity to Azure public IP addresses. VM operations (database discovery, configure backups, schedule backups, restore recovery points etc) fail without connectivity to the public IP addresses. Establish connectivity with one of these options:

  • Allow the Azure datacenter IP ranges: Allow the IP ranges in the download. For access in an network security group (NSG), use the Set-AzureNetworkSecurityRule cmdlet.
  • Deploy an HTTP proxy server to route traffic: When you back up a SQL Server database on an Azure VM, the backup extension on the VM uses the HTTPS APIs to send management commands to Azure Backup, and data to Azure Storage. The backup extension also uses Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) for authentication. Route the backup extension traffic for these three services through the HTTP proxy. The extension's the only component that's configured for access to the public internet.

Each options has advantages and disadvantages

Option Advantages Disadvantages
Allow IP ranges No additional costs. Complex to manage because the IP address ranges change over time.

Provides access to the whole of Azure, not just Azure Storage.
Use an HTTP proxy Granular control in the proxy over the storage URLs is allowed.

Single point of internet access to VMs.

Not subject to Azure IP address changes.
Additional costs to run a VM with the proxy software.

Set VM permissions

Azure Backup does a number of things when you configure backup for a SQL Server database:

  • Adds the AzureBackupWindowsWorkload extension.
  • To discover databases on the virtual machine, Azure Backup creates the account NT SERVICE\AzureWLBackupPluginSvc. This account is used for backup and restore, and requires SQL sysadmin permissions.
  • Azure Backup leverages the NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM account for database discovery/inquiry, so this account need to be a public login on SQL.

If you didn't create the SQL Server VM from the Azure Marketplace, you might receive an error UserErrorSQLNoSysadminMembership. If this occurs follow these instructions.

Verify database naming guidelines for Azure Backup

Avoid the following for database names:

  • Trailing/Leading spaces
  • Trailing ‘!’
  • Close square bracket ‘]’

We do have aliasing for Azure table unsupported characters, but we recommend avoiding them. Learn more.

Create a Recovery Services vault

A Recovery Services vault is an entity that stores the backups and recovery points created over time. The Recovery Services vault also contains the backup policies that are associated with the protected virtual machines.

To create a Recovery Services vault:

  1. Sign in to your subscription in the Azure portal.

  2. On the left menu, select All services.

    Select All services

  3. In the All services dialog box, enter Recovery Services. The list of resources filters according to your input. In the list of resources, select Recovery Services vaults.

    Enter and choose Recovery Services vaults

    The list of Recovery Services vaults in the subscription appears.

  4. On the Recovery Services vaults dashboard, select Add.

    Add a Recovery Services vault

    The Recovery Services vault dialog box opens. Provide values for the Name, Subscription, Resource group, and Location.

    Configure the Recovery Services vault

    • Name: Enter a friendly name to identify the vault. The name must be unique to the Azure subscription. Specify a name that has at least two, but not more than 50 characters. The name must start with a letter and consist only of letters, numbers, and hyphens.
    • Subscription: Choose the subscription to use. If you're a member of only one subscription, you'll see that name. If you're not sure which subscription to use, use the default (suggested) subscription. There are multiple choices only if your work or school account is associated with more than one Azure subscription.
    • Resource group: Use an existing resource group or create a new one. To see the list of available resource groups in your subscription, select Use existing, and then select a resource from the drop-down list box. To create a new resource group, select Create new and enter the name. For complete information about resource groups, see Azure Resource Manager overview.
    • Location: Select the geographic region for the vault. To create a vault to protect virtual machines, the vault must be in the same region as the virtual machines.

      Important

      If you're not sure of the location of your VM, close the dialog box. Go to the list of virtual machines in the portal. If you have virtual machines in several regions, create a Recovery Services vault in each region. Create the vault in the first location, before you create the vault for another location. There's no need to specify storage accounts to store the backup data. The Recovery Services vault and the Azure Backup service handle that automatically.

  5. When you're ready to create the Recovery Services vault, select Create.

    Create the Recovery Services vault

    It can take a while to create the Recovery Services vault. Monitor the status notifications in the Notifications area at the upper-right corner of the portal. After your vault is created, it's visible in the list of Recovery Services vaults. If you don't see your vault, select Refresh.

    Refresh the list of backup vaults

Discover SQL Server databases

Discover databases running on the VM.

  1. In the Azure portal, open the Recovery Services vault you use to back up the database.

  2. On the Recovery Services vault dashboard, select Backup.

    Select Backup to open the Backup Goal menu

  3. In Backup Goal, set Where is your workload running to Azure (the default).

  4. In What do you want to backup, select SQL Server in Azure VM.

    Select SQL Server in Azure VM for the backup

  5. In Backup Goal > Discover DBs in VMs, select Start Discovery to search for unprotected VMs in the subscription. It can take a while, depending on the number of unprotected virtual machines in the subscription.

    Backup is pending during search for DBs in VMs

  6. In the VM list, select the VM running the SQL Server database > Discover DBs.

  7. Track database discovery in the Notifications area. It can take a while for the job to complete, depending on how many databases are on the VM. When the selected databases are discovered, a success message appears.

    Deployment success message

    • Unprotected VMs should appear in the list after discovery, listed by name and resource group.
    • If a VM isn't listed as you expect, check whether it's already backed up in a vault.
    • Multiple VMs can have the same name but they'll belong to different resource groups.
  8. Select the VM running the SQL Server database > Discover DBs.

  9. Azure Backup discovers all SQL Server databases on the VM. During discovery the following occurs in the background:

    • Azure Backup register the VM with the vault for workload backup. All databases on the registered VM can only be backed up to this vault.
    • Azure Backup installs the AzureBackupWindowsWorkload extension on the VM. No agent is installed on the SQL database.
    • Azure Backup creates the service account NT Service\AzureWLBackupPluginSvc on the VM.
      • All backup and restore operations use the service account.
      • NT Service\AzureWLBackupPluginSvc needs SQL sysadmin permissions. All SQL Server VMs created in the Azure Marketplace come with the SqlIaaSExtension installed. The AzureBackupWindowsWorkload extension uses the SQLIaaSExtension to automatically get the required permissions.
    • If you didn't create the VM from the marketplace, then the VM doesn't have the SqlIaaSExtension installed, and the discovery operation fails with the error message UserErrorSQLNoSysAdminMembership. Follow the instructions in [#fix-sql-sysadmin-permissions] to fix this issue.

      Select the VM and database

Configure a backup policy

To optimize backup loads, Azure Backup sets a maximum number of databases in one backup job to 50.

  • To protect more than 50 databases, configure multiple backups.
  • Alternately, you can enable auto-protection. Auto-protection protects existing databases in one go, and automatically protects new databases added to the instance of availability group.

Configure backup as follows:

  1. On the vault dashboard, select Backup.

    Select Backup to open the Backup Goal menu

  2. In Backup Goal menu, set Where is your workload running to Azure.

  3. In What do you want to back up, select SQL Server in Azure VM.

    Select SQL Server in Azure VM for the backup

  4. In Backup Goal select Configure Backup.

    Select Configure Backup

    Displaying all SQL Server instances with standalone databases

  5. Select all the databases you want to protect > OK.

    Protecting the database

    • All SQL Server instances are shown (standalone and availability groups).
    • Select the down arrow on the left of the instance name/availability group to filter.
  6. On the Backup menu, select Backup policy.

    Select Backup policy

  7. In Choose backup policy, select a policy, then click OK.

    • Select the default policy: HourlyLogBackup.
    • Choose an existing backup policy previously created for SQL.
    • Define a new policy based on your RPO and retention range.
    • During Preview, you can't edit an existing Backup policy.
  8. On Backup menu, select Enable backup.

    Enable the chosen backup policy

  9. Track the configuration progress in the Notifications area of the portal.

    Notification area

Create a backup policy

A backup policy defines when backups are taken and how long they're retained.

  • A policy is created at the vault level.
  • Multiple vaults can use the same backup policy, but you must apply the backup policy to each vault.
  • When you create a backup policy, a daily full backup is the default.
  • You can add a differential backup, but only if you configure full backups to occur weekly.
  • Learn about different types of backup policies.

To create a backup policy:

  1. In the vault, click Backup policies > Add.
  2. In Add menu, click SQL Server in Azure VM. This defines the policy type.

    Choose a policy type for the new backup policy

  3. In Policy name, enter a name for the new policy.

  4. In Full Backup policy, select a Backup Frequency, choose Daily or Weekly.

    • For Daily, select the hour and time zone when the backup job begins.
    • You must run a full backup, you can't turn off the Full Backup option.
    • Click Full Backup to view the policy.
    • You can't create differential backups for daily full backups.
    • For Weekly, select the day of the week, hour, and time zone when the backup job begins.

      New backup policy fields

  5. For Retention Range, by default all options are selected. Clear any undesired retention range limits you don't want to use, and set the intervals to use.

    • Recovery points are tagged for retention based on their retention range. For example, if you select a daily full backup, only one full backup is triggered each day.
    • The backup for a specific day is tagged and retained based on the weekly retention range and your weekly retention setting.
    • The monthly and yearly retention ranges behave in a similar way.

    Retention range interval settings

  6. In the Full Backup policy menu, select OK to accept the settings.

  7. To add a differential backup policy, select Differential Backup.

    Retention range interval settings Open the differential backup policy menu

  8. In Differential Backup policy, select Enable to open the frequency and retention controls.

    • At most, you can trigger one differential backup per day.
    • Differential backups can be retained for a maximum of 180 days. If you need longer retention, you must use full backups.
  9. Select OK to save the policy and return to the main Backup policy menu.

  10. To add a transactional log backup policy, select Log Backup.

  11. In Log Backup, select Enable, and then set the frequency and retention controls. Log backups can occur as often as every 15 minutes, and can be retained for up to 35 days.
  12. Select OK to save the policy and return to the main Backup policy menu.

    Edit the log backup policy

  13. On the Backup policy menu, choose whether to enable SQL Backup Compression.

    • Compression is disabled by default.
    • On the back end, Azure Backup uses SQL native backup compression.
  14. After you complete the edits to the backup policy, select OK.

Enable auto-protection

Enable auto-protection to automatically back up all existing databases, and databases that are added in the future to a standalone SQL Server instance or a SQL Server Always On Availability group.

  • When you turn on auto-protection and select a policy, the existing protected databases will continue to use previous policy.
  • There's no limit on the number of databases you can select for auto-protection in one go.

Enable auto-protection as follows:

  1. In Items to backup, select the instance for which you want to enable auto-protection.
  2. Select the dropdown under Autoprotect, and set to On. Then click OK.

    Enable auto-protection on the Always On availability group

  3. Backup is configured for all the databases together and can be tracked in Backup Jobs.

If you need to disable auto-protection, click the instance name under Configure Backup, and select Disable Autoprotect for the instance. All databases will continue to back up. But future databases won't be automatically protected.

Disable auto protection on that instance

Fix SQL sysadmin permissions

If you need to fix permissions because of an UserErrorSQLNoSysadminMembership error, do the following:

  1. Use an account with SQL Server sysadmin permissions to sign in to SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS). Unless you need special permissions, Windows authentication should work.
  2. On the SQL Server, open the Security/Logins folder.

    Open the Security/Logins folder to see accounts

  3. Right-click the Logins folder and select New Login. In Login - New, select Search.

    In the Login - New dialog box, select Search

  4. The Windows virtual service account NT SERVICE\AzureWLBackupPluginSvc was created during the virtual machine registration and SQL discovery phase. Enter the account name as shown in Enter the object name to select. Select Check Names to resolve the name. Click OK.

    Select Check Names to resolve the unknown service name

  5. In Server Roles, make sure the sysadmin role is selected. Click OK. The required permissions should now exist.

    Make sure the sysadmin server role is selected

  6. Now associate the database with the Recovery Services vault. In the Azure portal, in the Protected Servers list, right-click the server that's in an error state > Rediscover DBs.

    Verify the server has appropriate permissions

  7. Check progress in the Notifications area. When the selected databases are found, a success message appears.

    Deployment success message

Alternatively, you can enable auto-protection on the entire instance or Always On Availability group by selecting the ON option in the corresponding dropdown in the AUTOPROTECT column. The auto-protection feature not only enables protection on all the existing databases in one go but also automatically protects any new databases that will be added to that instance or the availability group in future.

Enable auto-protection on the Always On availability group

Next steps