Introduction to provisioned throughput in Azure Cosmos DB

Azure Cosmos DB allows you to set provisioned throughput on your databases and containers. There are two types of provisioned throughput, standard (manual) or autoscale. This articles gives an overview of how provisioned throughput works.

An Azure Cosmos database is a unit of management for a set of containers. A database consists of a set of schema-agnostic containers. An Azure Cosmos container is the unit of scalability for both throughput and storage. A container is horizontally partitioned across a set of machines within an Azure region and is distributed across all Azure regions associated with your Azure Cosmos account.

With Azure Cosmos DB, you can provision throughput at two granularities:

  • Azure Cosmos containers
  • Azure Cosmos databases

Set throughput on a container

The throughput provisioned on an Azure Cosmos container is exclusively reserved for that container. The container receives the provisioned throughput all the time. The provisioned throughput on a container is financially backed by SLAs. To learn how to configure standard (manual) throughput on a container, see Provision throughput on an Azure Cosmos container. To learn how to configure autoscale throughput on a container, see Provision autoscale throughput.

Setting provisioned throughput on a container is the most frequently used option. You can elastically scale throughput for a container by provisioning any amount of throughput by using Request Units (RUs).

The throughput provisioned for a container is evenly distributed among its physical partitions, and assuming a good partition key that distributes the logical partitions evenly among the physical partitions, the throughput is also distributed evenly across all the logical partitions of the container. You cannot selectively specify the throughput for logical partitions. Because one or more logical partitions of a container are hosted by a physical partition, the physical partitions belong exclusively to the container and support the throughput provisioned on the container.

If the workload running on a logical partition consumes more than the throughput that was allocated to the underlying physical partition, it's possible that your operations will be rate-limited. What is known as a hot partition occurs when one logical partition has disproportionately more requests than other partition key values.

When rate-limiting occurs, you can either increase the provisioned throughput for the entire container or retry the operations. You also should ensure that you choose a partition key that evenly distributes storage and request volume. For more information about partitioning, see Partitioning and horizontal scaling in Azure Cosmos DB.

We recommend that you configure throughput at the container granularity when you want guaranteed performance for the container.

The following image shows how a physical partition hosts one or more logical partitions of a container:

Physical partition

Set throughput on a database

Note

Provisioning throughput on an Azure Cosmos database is currently not possible in accounts where customer-managed keys are enabled.

When you provision throughput on an Azure Cosmos database, the throughput is shared across all the containers (called shared database containers) in the database. An exception is if you specified a provisioned throughput on specific containers in the database. Sharing the database-level provisioned throughput among its containers is analogous to hosting a database on a cluster of machines. Because all containers within a database share the resources available on a machine, you naturally do not get predictable performance on any specific container. To learn how to configure provisioned throughput on a database, see Configure provisioned throughput on an Azure Cosmos database. To learn how to configure autoscale throughput on a database, see Provision autoscale throughput.

Setting throughput on an Azure Cosmos database guarantees that you receive the provisioned throughput for that database all the time. Because all containers within the database share the provisioned throughput, Azure Cosmos DB doesn't provide any predictable throughput guarantees for a particular container in that database. The portion of the throughput that a specific container can receive is dependent on:

  • The number of containers.
  • The choice of partition keys for various containers.
  • The distribution of the workload across various logical partitions of the containers.

We recommend that you configure throughput on a database when you want to share the throughput across multiple containers, but don't want to dedicate the throughput to any particular container.

The following examples demonstrate where it's preferred to provision throughput at the database level:

  • Sharing a database's provisioned throughput across a set of containers is useful for a multitenant application. Each user can be represented by a distinct Azure Cosmos container.

  • Sharing a database's provisioned throughput across a set of containers is useful when you migrate a NoSQL database, such as MongoDB or Cassandra, hosted on a cluster of VMs or from on-premises physical servers to Azure Cosmos DB. Think of the provisioned throughput configured on your Azure Cosmos database as a logical equivalent, but more cost-effective and elastic, to that of the compute capacity of your MongoDB or Cassandra cluster.

All containers created inside a database with provisioned throughput must be created with a partition key. At any given point in time, the throughput allocated to a container within a database is distributed across all the logical partitions of that container. When you have containers that share provisioned throughput configured on a database, you can't selectively apply the throughput to a specific container or a logical partition.

If the workload on a logical partition consumes more than the throughput that's allocated to a specific logical partition, your operations are rate-limited. When rate-limiting occurs, you can either increase the throughput for the entire database or retry the operations. For more information on partitioning, see Logical partitions.

Containers in a shared throughput database share the throughput (RU/s) allocated to that database. You can have up to four containers with a minimum of 400 RU/s on the database. With standard (manual) provisioned throughput, each new container after the first four will require an additional 100 RU/s minimum. For example, if you have a shared throughput database with eight containers, the minimum RU/s on the database will be 800 RU/s. With autoscale provisioned throughput, you can have up to 25 containers in a database with autoscale max 4000 RU/s (scales between 400 - 4000 RU/s).

Note

In February 2020, we introduced a change that allows you to have a maximum of 25 containers in a shared throughput database, which better enables throughput sharing across the containers. After the first 25 containers, you can add more containers to the database only if they are provisioned with dedicated throughput, which is separate from the shared throughput of the database.
If your Azure Cosmos DB account already contains a shared throughput database with >=25 containers, the account and all other accounts in the same Azure subscription are exempt from this change. Please contact product support if you have feedback or questions.

If your workloads involve deleting and recreating all the collections in a database, it is recommended that you drop the empty database and recreate a new database prior to collection creation. The following image shows how a physical partition can host one or more logical partitions that belong to different containers within a database:

Physical partition

Set throughput on a database and a container

You can combine the two models. Provisioning throughput on both the database and the container is allowed. The following example shows how to provision standard (manual) provisioned throughput on an Azure Cosmos database and a container:

  • You can create an Azure Cosmos database named Z with standard (manual) provisioned throughput of "K" RUs.

  • Next, create five containers named A, B, C, D, and E within the database. When creating container B, make sure to enable Provision dedicated throughput for this container option and explicitly configure "P" RUs of provisioned throughput on this container. Note that you can configure shared and dedicated throughput only when creating the database and container.

    Setting the throughput at the container-level

  • The "K" RUs throughput is shared across the four containers A, C, D, and E. The exact amount of throughput available to A, C, D, or E varies. There are no SLAs for each individual container's throughput.

  • The container named B is guaranteed to get the "P" RUs throughput all the time. It's backed by SLAs.

Note

A container with provisioned throughput cannot be converted to shared database container. Conversely a shared database container cannot be converted to have a dedicated throughput.

Update throughput on a database or a container

After you create an Azure Cosmos container or a database, you can update the provisioned throughput. There is no limit on the maximum provisioned throughput that you can configure on the database or the container.

To estimate the minimum provisioned throughput of a database or container, find the maximum of:

  • 400 RU/s
  • Current storage in GB * 10 RU/s
  • Highest RU/s provisioned on the database or container / 100
  • Container count * 100 RU/s (shared throughput database only)

The actual minimum RU/s may vary depending on your account configuration. You can use Azure Monitor metrics to view the history of provisioned throughput (RU/s) and storage on a resource.

You can retrieve the minimum throughput of a container or a database programmatically by using the SDKs or view the value in the Azure portal. When using the .NET SDK, the DocumentClient.ReplaceOfferAsync method allows you to scale the provisioned throughput value. When using the Java SDK, the RequestOptions.setOfferThroughput method allows you to scale the provisioned throughput value.

When using the .NET SDK, the DocumentClient.ReadOfferAsync method allows you to retrieve the minimum throughput of a container or a database.

You can scale the provisioned throughput of a container or a database at any time. When a scale operation is performed to increase the throughput, it can take longer time due to the system tasks to provision the required resources. You can check the status of the scale operation in Azure portal or programmatically using the SDKs. When using the .NET SDK, you can get the status of the scale operation by using the DocumentClient.ReadOfferAsync method.

Comparison of models

This table shows a comparison between provisioning standard (manual) throughput on a database vs. on a container.

Parameter Standard (manual) throughput on a database Standard (manual) throughput on a container Autoscale throughput on a database Autoscale throughput on a container
Entry point (minimum RU/s) 400 RU/s. After the first four containers, each additional container requires a minimum of 100 RU/s 400 Autoscale between 400 - 4000 RU/s. Can have up to 25 containers with no RU/s minimum per container Autoscale between 400 - 4000 RU/s.
Minimum RU/s per container 100 400 -- Autoscale between 400 - 4000 RU/s
Maximum RUs Unlimited, on the database. Unlimited, on the container. Unlimited, on the database. Unlimited, on the container.
RUs assigned or available to a specific container No guarantees. RUs assigned to a given container depend on the properties. Properties can be the choice of partition keys of containers that share the throughput, the distribution of the workload, and the number of containers. All the RUs configured on the container are exclusively reserved for the container. No guarantees. RUs assigned to a given container depend on the properties. Properties can be the choice of partition keys of containers that share the throughput, the distribution of the workload, and the number of containers. All the RUs configured on the container are exclusively reserved for the container.
Maximum storage for a container Unlimited. Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited
Maximum throughput per logical partition of a container 10K RU/s 10K RU/s 10K RU/s 10K RU/s
Maximum storage (data + index) per logical partition of a container 20 GB 20 GB 20 GB 20 GB

Next steps