Management (control commands) overview

This section describes the control commands used to manage Kusto. Control commands are requests to the service to retrieve information that is not necessarily data in the database tables, or to modify the service state, etc.

Differentiating control commands from queries

Kusto uses three mechanisms to differentiate queries and control commands: at the language level, at the protocol level, and at the API level. This is done for security purposes.

At the language level, the first character of the text of a request determines if the request is a control command or a query. Control commands must start with the dot (.) character, and no query may start by that character.

At the protocol level, different HTTP/HTTPS endpoints are used for control commands as opposed to queries.

At the API level, different functions are used to send control commands as opposed to queries.

Combining queries and control commands

Control commands can reference queries (but no vice-versa) or other control commands. There are several supported scenarios:

  1. AdminThenQuery: A control command is executed, and its result (represented as a temporary data table) serves as the input to a query.
  2. AdminFromQuery: Either a query or a .show admin command is executed, and its result (represented as a temporary data table) serves as the input to a control command.

Note that in all cases, the entire combination is technically a control command, not a query, so the text of the request must start with a dot (.) character, and the request must be sent to the management endpoint of the service.

Also note that query statements appear within the query part of the text (they can't precede the command itself).

Note

Don't run [command-then-query] operations too frequently. command-then-query pipes the result set of the control command and applies filters/aggregations on it.

  • For example: .show ... | where ... | summarize ...
  • When running something like: .show cluster extents | count (emphasis on the | count), Kusto first prepares a data table that holds all details of all extents in the cluster. The system then sends that in-memory-only table to the Kusto engine to do the count. The system actually works hard in an unoptimized path to give you such a trivial answer.

AdminThenQuery is indicated in one of two ways:

  1. By using a pipe (|) character, the query therefore treats the results of the control command as if it were any other data-producing query operator.
  2. By using a semicolon (;) character, which then introduces the results of the control command into a special symbol called $command_results, that one may then use in the query any number of times.

For example:

// 1. Using pipe: Count how many tables are in the database-in-scope:
.show tables
| count

// 2. Using semicolon: Count how many tables are in the database-in-scope:
.show tables;
$command_results
| count

// 3. Using semicolon, and including a let statement:
.show tables;
let useless=(n:string){strcat(n,'-','useless')};
$command_results | extend LastColumn=useless(TableName)

AdminFromQuery is indicated by the <| character combination. For example, in the following we first execute a query that produces a table with a single column (named str of type string) and a single row, and write it as the table name MyTable in the database in context:

.set MyTable <|
let text="Hello, World!";
print str=Text