Use approvals and gates to control your deployment
Azure Pipelines | Azure DevOps Server 2019 | TFS 2018
In Microsoft Team Foundation Server (TFS) 2018 and previous versions, build and release pipelines are called definitions, service connections are called service endpoints, stages are called environments, and jobs are called phases.
By using a combination of manual deployment approvals, gates, and manual intervention within a release pipeline in Azure Pipelines and Team Foundation Server (TFS), you can quickly and easily configure a release pipeline with all the control and auditing capabilities you require for your DevOps CI/CD processes.
In this tutorial, you learn about:
- Extending the approval process with gates
- Extending the approval process with manual intervention
- Viewing and monitoring approvals and gates
This tutorial extends the tutorial Define your multi-stage continuous deployment (CD) pipeline. You must have completed that tutorial first.
You'll also need a work item query that returns some work items from Azure Pipelines or TFS. This query is used in the gate you will configure. You can use one of the built-in queries, or create a new one just for this gate to use. For more information, see Create managed queries with the query editor.
In the previous tutorial, you saw a simple use of manual approvals to allow an administrator to confirm that a release is ready to deploy to the production stage. In this tutorial, you'll see some additional and more powerful ways to configure approvals for releases and deployments by using manual intervention and gates. For more information about the ways you can configure approvals for a release, see Approvals and gates overview.
Configure a gate
First, you will extend the approval process for the release by adding a gate. Gates allow you to configure automated calls to external services, where the results are used to approve or reject a deployment. You can use gates to ensure that the release meets a wide range or criteria, without requiring user intervention.
In the Releases tab of Azure Pipelines, select your release pipeline and choose Edit to open the pipeline editor.
Choose the pre-deployment conditions icon for the Production stage to open the conditions panel. Enable gates by using the switch control in the Gates section.
To allow gate functions to initialize and stabilize (it may take some time for them to begin returning accurate results), you configure a delay before the results are evaluated and used to determine if the deployment should be approved or rejected. For this example, so that you can see a result reasonably quickly, set the delay to a short period such as one minute.
Choose + Add and select the Query Work Items gate.
Configure the gate by selecting an existing work item query. You can use one of the built-in Azure Pipelines and TFS queries, or create your own query. Depending on how many work items you expect it to return, set the maximum and minimum thresholds (run the query in the Work hub if you're not sure what to expect).
You'll need to open the Advanced section to see the Lower Threshold setting. You can also set an Output Variable to be returned from the gate task. For more details about the gate arguments, see Work Item Query task.
Open the Evaluation options section and specify the timeout and the sampling interval. For this example, choose short periods so that you can see the results reasonably quickly. The minimum values you can specify are 6 minutes timeout and 5 minutes sampling interval.
The sampling interval and timeout work together so that the gates will call their functions at suitable intervals, and reject the deployment if they don't all succeed during the same sampling interval and within the timeout period. For more details, see Gates.
Save you release pipeline.
For more information about using other types of approval gates, see Approvals and gates.
Configure a manual intervention
Sometimes, you may need to introduce manual intervention into a release pipeline. For example, there may be tasks that cannot be accomplished automatically such as confirming network conditions are appropriate, or that specific hardware or software is in place, before you approve a deployment. You can do this by using the Manual Intervention task in your pipeline.
In the release pipeline editor, open the Tasks editor for the QA stage.
Choose the ellipses (...) in the QA deployment pipeline bar and then choose Add agentless job.
Several tasks, including the Manual Intervention task, can be used only in an agentless job.
Drag and drop the new agentless job to the start of the QA process, before the existing agent job. Then choose + in the Agentless job bar and add a Manual Intervention task to the job.
Configure the task by entering a message (the Instructions) to display when it executes and pauses the release pipeline.
Notice that you can specify a list of users who will receive a notification that the deployment is waiting for manual approval. You can also specify a timeout and the action (approve or reject) that will occur if there is no user response within the timeout period. For more details, see Manual Intervention task.
Save the release pipeline and then start a new release.
View the logs for approvals
You typically need to validate and audit a release and the associated deployments after it has completed, or even during the deployment pipeline. This is useful when debugging a problematic deployment, or when checking when and by whom approvals were granted. The comprehensive logging capabilities provide this information.
Open the release summary for the release you just created. You can do this by choosing the link in the information bar in the release editor after you create the release, or directly from the Releases tab of Azure Pipelines.
You'll see the live status for each step in the release pipeline. It indicates that a manual intervention is pending (this pre-deployment approval was configured in the previous tutorial Define your multi-stage continuous deployment pipeline). Choose the Resume link.
You see the intervention message, and can choose to resume or reject the deployment. Enter some text response to the intervention and choose Resume.
Go back to the pipeline view of the release. After deployment to the QA stage succeeds, you see the pre-deployment approval pending message for the Production environment.
Enter your approval message and choose Approve to continue the deployment.
Go back to the pipeline view of the release. Now you see that the gates are being processed before the release continues.
After the gate evaluation has successfully completed, the deployment occurs for the Production stage. Choose the Production stage icon in the release summary to see more details of the approvals and gate evaluations.
Altogether, by using a combination of manual approvals, approval gates, and the manual intervention task, you've seen how can configure a release pipeline with all the control and auditing capabilities you may require.