What is Azure Firewall?

Azure Firewall is a managed, cloud-based network security service that protects your Azure Virtual Network resources. It's a fully stateful firewall as a service with built-in high availability and unrestricted cloud scalability.

Firewall overview

You can centrally create, enforce, and log application and network connectivity policies across subscriptions and virtual networks. Azure Firewall uses a static public IP address for your virtual network resources allowing outside firewalls to identify traffic originating from your virtual network. The service is fully integrated with Azure Monitor for logging and analytics.

To learn about Azure Firewall features, see Azure Firewall features.

Azure Firewall Premium

Azure Firewall Premium is a next generation firewall with capabilities that are required for highly sensitive and regulated environments. These capabilities include TLS inspection, IDPS, URL filtering, and Web categories.

To learn about Azure Firewall Premium features, see Azure Firewall Premium features.

To see how the Firewall Premium is configured in the Azure portal, see Azure Firewall Premium in the Azure portal.

Pricing and SLA

For Azure Firewall pricing information, see Azure Firewall pricing.

For Azure Firewall SLA information, see Azure Firewall SLA.

What's new

To learn what's new with Azure Firewall, see Azure updates.

Known issues

Azure Firewall has the following known issues:

Issue Description Mitigation
Network filtering rules for non-TCP/UDP protocols (for example ICMP) don't work for Internet bound traffic Network filtering rules for non-TCP/UDP protocols don't work with SNAT to your public IP address. Non-TCP/UDP protocols are supported between spoke subnets and VNets. Azure Firewall uses the Standard Load Balancer, which doesn't support SNAT for IP protocols today. We're exploring options to support this scenario in a future release.
Missing PowerShell and CLI support for ICMP Azure PowerShell and CLI don't support ICMP as a valid protocol in network rules. It's still possible to use ICMP as a protocol via the portal and the REST API. We're working to add ICMP in PowerShell and CLI soon.
FQDN tags require a protocol: port to be set Application rules with FQDN tags require port: protocol definition. You can use https as the port: protocol value. We're working to make this field optional when FQDN tags are used.
Moving a firewall to a different resource group or subscription isn't supported Moving a firewall to a different resource group or subscription isn't supported. Supporting this functionality is on our road map. To move a firewall to a different resource group or subscription, you must delete the current instance and recreate it in the new resource group or subscription.
Threat intelligence alerts may get masked Network rules with destination 80/443 for outbound filtering masks threat intelligence alerts when configured to alert only mode. Create outbound filtering for 80/443 using application rules. Or, change the threat intelligence mode to Alert and Deny.
Azure Firewall DNAT doesn't work for private IP destinations Azure Firewall DNAT support is limited to Internet egress/ingress. DNAT doesn't currently work for private IP destinations. For example, spoke to spoke. This is a current limitation.
Can't remove first public IP configuration Each Azure Firewall public IP address is assigned to an IP configuration. The first IP configuration is assigned during the firewall deployment, and typically also contains a reference to the firewall subnet (unless configured explicitly differently via a template deployment). You can't delete this IP configuration because it would de-allocate the firewall. You can still change or remove the public IP address associated with this IP configuration if the firewall has at least one other public IP address available to use. This is by design.
Availability zones can only be configured during deployment. Availability zones can only be configured during deployment. You can't configure Availability Zones after a firewall has been deployed. This is by design.
SNAT on inbound connections In addition to DNAT, connections via the firewall public IP address (inbound) are SNATed to one of the firewall private IPs. This requirement today (also for Active/Active NVAs) to ensure symmetric routing. To preserve the original source for HTTP/S, consider using XFF headers. For example, use a service such as Azure Front Door or Azure Application Gateway in front of the firewall. You can also add WAF as part of Azure Front Door and chain to the firewall.
SQL FQDN filtering support only in proxy mode (port 1433) For Azure SQL Database, Azure Synapse Analytics, and Azure SQL Managed Instance:

SQL FQDN filtering is supported in proxy-mode only (port 1433).

For Azure SQL IaaS:

If you're using non-standard ports, you can specify those ports in the application rules.
For SQL in redirect mode (the default if connecting from within Azure), you can instead filter access using the SQL service tag as part of Azure Firewall network rules.
Outbound SMTP traffic on TCP port 25 is blocked Outbound email messages that are sent directly to external domains (like outlook.com and gmail.com) on TCP port 25 are blocked by Azure Firewall. This is the default platform behavior in Azure. Use authenticated SMTP relay services, which typically connect through TCP port 587, but also supports other ports. For more information, see Troubleshoot outbound SMTP connectivity problems in Azure. Currently, Azure Firewall may be able to communicate to public IPs by using outbound TCP 25, but it's not guaranteed to work, and it's not supported for all subscription types. For private IPs like virtual networks, VPNs, and Azure ExpressRoute, Azure Firewall supports an outbound connection of TCP port 25.
SNAT port exhaustion Azure Firewall currently supports 1024 ports per Public IP address per backend virtual machine scale set instance. By default, there are two virtual machine scale set instances. This is an SLB limitation and we are constantly looking for opportunities to increase the limits. In the meantime, it is recommended to configure Azure Firewall deployments with a minimum of five public IP addresses for deployments susceptible to SNAT exhaustion. This increases the SNAT ports available by five times. Allocate from an IP address prefix to simplify downstream permissions.
DNAT isn't supported with Forced Tunneling enabled Firewalls deployed with Forced Tunneling enabled can't support inbound access from the Internet because of asymmetric routing. This is by design because of asymmetric routing. The return path for inbound connections goes via the on-premises firewall, which hasn't seen the connection established.
Outbound Passive FTP may not work for Firewalls with multiple public IP addresses, depending on your FTP server configuration. Passive FTP establishes different connections for control and data channels. When a Firewall with multiple public IP addresses sends data outbound, it randomly selects one of its public IP addresses for the source IP address. FTP may fail when data and control channels use different source IP addresses, depending on your FTP server configuration. An explicit SNAT configuration is planned. In the meantime, you can configure your FTP server to accept data and control channels from different source IP addresses (see an example for IIS). Alternatively, consider using a single IP address in this situation.
Inbound Passive FTP may not work depending on your FTP server configuration Passive FTP establishes different connections for control and data channels. Inbound connections on Azure Firewall are SNATed to one of the firewall private IP addresses to ensure symmetric routing. FTP may fail when data and control channels use different source IP addresses, depending on your FTP server configuration. Preserving the original source IP address is being investigated. In the meantime, you can configure your FTP server to accept data and control channels from different source IP addresses.
NetworkRuleHit metric is missing a protocol dimension The ApplicationRuleHit metric allows filtering based protocol, but this capability is missing in the corresponding NetworkRuleHit metric. A fix is being investigated.
NAT rules with ports between 64000 and 65535 are unsupported Azure Firewall allows any port in the 1-65535 range in network and application rules, however NAT rules only support ports in the 1-63999 range. This is a current limitation.
Configuration updates may take five minutes on average An Azure Firewall configuration update can take three to five minutes on average, and parallel updates aren't supported. A fix is being investigated.
Azure Firewall uses SNI TLS headers to filter HTTPS and MSSQL traffic If browser or server software doesn't support the Server Name Indicator (SNI) extension, you can't connect through Azure Firewall. If browser or server software doesn't support SNI, then you may be able to control the connection using a network rule instead of an application rule. See Server Name Indication for software that supports SNI.
Custom DNS doesn't work with forced tunneling If force tunneling is enabled, custom DNS doesn't work. A fix is being investigated.
Start/Stop doesn’t work with a firewall configured in forced-tunnel mode Start/stop doesn’t work with Azure firewall configured in forced-tunnel mode. Attempting to start Azure Firewall with forced tunneling configured results in the following error:

Set-AzFirewall: AzureFirewall FW-xx management IP configuration cannot be added to an existing firewall. Redeploy with a management IP configuration if you want to use forced tunneling support.
StatusCode: 400
ReasonPhrase: Bad Request
Under investigation.

As a workaround, you can delete the existing firewall and create a new one with the same parameters.
Can't add firewall policy tags using the portal or Azure Resource Manager (ARM) templates Azure Firewall Policy has a patch support limitation that prevents you from adding a tag using the Azure portal or ARM templates. The following error is generated: Could not save the tags for the resource. A fix is being investigated. Or, you can use the Azure PowerShell cmdlet Set-AzFirewallPolicy to update tags.
IPv6 not currently supported If you add an IPv6 address to a rule, the firewall fails. Use only IPv4 addresses. IPv6 support is under investigation.
Updating multiple IP Groups fails with conflict error. When you update two or more IP Groups attached to the same firewall, one of the resources goes into a failed state. This is a known issue/limitation.

When you update an IP Group, it triggers an update on all firewalls that the IPGroup is attached to. If an update to a second IP Group is started while the firewall is still in the Updating state, then the IPGroup update fails.

To avoid the failure, IP Groups attached to the same firewall must be updated one at a time. Allow enough time between updates to allow the firewall to get out of the Updating state.
Removing RuleCollectionGroups using ARM templates not supported. Removing a RuleCollectionGroup using ARM templates is not supported and results in failure. This is not a supported operation.
DNAT rule for allow any (*) will SNAT traffic. If a DNAT rule allows any (*) as the Source IP address, then an implicit Network rule will match VNet-VNet traffic and will always SNAT the traffic. This is a current limitation.
Adding a DNAT rule to a secured virtual hub with a security provider is not supported. This results in an asynchronous route for the returning DNAT traffic, which goes to the security provider. Not supported.
Error encountered when creating more than 2000 rule collections. The maximal number of NAT/Application or Network rule collections is 2000 (Resource manager limit). This is a current limitation.

Next steps