Use Spark MLlib to build a machine learning application and analyze a dataset

Learn how to use Spark MLlib to create a machine learning application to do simple predictive analysis on an open dataset. From Spark's built-in machine learning libraries, this example uses classification through logistic regression.


This example is also available as a Jupyter notebook on a Spark (Linux) cluster that you create in HDInsight. The notebook experience lets you run the Python snippets from the notebook itself. To follow the tutorial from within a notebook, create a Spark cluster and launch a Jupyter notebook ( Then, run the notebook Spark Machine Learning - Predictive analysis on food inspection data using MLlib.ipynb under the Python folder.

MLlib is a core Spark library that provides many utilities useful for machine learning tasks, including utilities that are suitable for:

  • Classification
  • Regression
  • Clustering
  • Topic modeling
  • Singular value decomposition (SVD) and principal component analysis (PCA)
  • Hypothesis testing and calculating sample statistics

What are classification and logistic regression?

Classification, a popular machine learning task, is the process of sorting input data into categories. It is the job of a classification algorithm to figure out how to assign "labels" to input data that you provide. For example, you could think of a machine learning algorithm that accepts stock information as input and divides the stock into two categories: stocks that you should sell and stocks that you should keep.

Logistic regression is the algorithm that you use for classification. Spark's logistic regression API is useful for binary classification, or classifying input data into one of two groups. For more information about logistic regressions, see Wikipedia.

In summary, the process of logistic regression produces a logistic function that can be used to predict the probability that an input vector belongs in one group or the other.

Predictive analysis example on food inspection data

In this example, you use Spark to perform some predictive analysis on food inspection data (Food_Inspections1.csv) that was acquired through the City of Chicago data portal. This dataset contains information about food establishment inspections that were conducted in Chicago, including information about each establishment, the violations found (if any), and the results of the inspection. The CSV data file is already available in the storage account associated with the cluster at /HdiSamples/HdiSamples/FoodInspectionData/Food_Inspections1.csv.

In the steps below, you develop a model to see what it takes to pass or fail a food inspection.

Start building a Spark MMLib machine learning app

  1. From the Azure portal, from the startboard, click the tile for your Spark cluster (if you pinned it to the startboard). You can also navigate to your cluster under Browse All > HDInsight Clusters.
  2. From the Spark cluster blade, click Cluster Dashboard, and then click Jupyter Notebook. If prompted, enter the admin credentials for the cluster.


    You may also reach the Jupyter Notebook for your cluster by opening the following URL in your browser. Replace CLUSTERNAME with the name of your cluster:

  3. Create a notebook. Click New, and then click PySpark.

    Create a Jupyter notebook

  4. A new notebook is created and opened with the name Untitled.pynb. Click the notebook name at the top, and enter a friendly name.

    Provide a name for the notebook

  5. Because you created a notebook using the PySpark kernel, you do not need to create any contexts explicitly. The Spark and Hive contexts are automatically created for you when you run the first code cell. You can start building your machine learning application by importing the types required for this scenario. To do so, place the cursor in the cell and press SHIFT + ENTER.

     from import Pipeline
     from import LogisticRegression
     from import HashingTF, Tokenizer
     from pyspark.sql import Row
     from pyspark.sql.functions import UserDefinedFunction
     from pyspark.sql.types import *

Construct an input dataframe

We can use sqlContext to perform transformations on structured data. The first task is to load the sample data ((Food_Inspections1.csv)) into a Spark SQL dataframe.

  1. Because the raw data is in a CSV format, we need to use the Spark context to pull every line of the file into memory as unstructured text; then, you use Python's CSV library to parse each line individually.

     def csvParse(s):
         import csv
         from StringIO import StringIO
         sio = StringIO(s)
         value = csv.reader(sio).next()
         return value
     inspections = sc.textFile('wasb:///HdiSamples/HdiSamples/FoodInspectionData/Food_Inspections1.csv')\
  2. We now have the CSV file as an RDD. To understand the schema of the data, we retrieve one row from the RDD.


    You should see an output like the following:

     # -----------------
     # -----------------
       'LUNA PARK INC',
       "Children's Services Facility",
       'Risk 1 (High)',
       '3250 W FOSTER AVE ',
       'License-Task Force',
       '24. DISH WASHING FACILITIES: PROPERLY DESIGNED, CONSTRUCTED, MAINTAINED, INSTALLED, LOCATED AND OPERATED - Comments: All dishwashing machines must be of a type that complies with all requirements of the plumbing section of the Municipal Code of Chicago and Rules and Regulation of the Board of Health. OBSEVERD THE 3 COMPARTMENT SINK BACKING UP INTO THE 1ST AND 2ND COMPARTMENT WITH CLEAR WATER AND SLOWLY DRAINING OUT. INST NEED HAVE IT REPAIR. CITATION ISSUED, SERIOUS VIOLATION 7-38-030 H000062369-10 COURT DATE 10-28-10 TIME 1 P.M. ROOM 107 400 W. SURPERIOR. | 36. LIGHTING: REQUIRED MINIMUM FOOT-CANDLES OF LIGHT PROVIDED, FIXTURES SHIELDED - Comments: Shielding to protect against broken glass falling into food shall be provided for all artificial lighting sources in preparation, service, and display facilities. LIGHT SHIELD ARE MISSING UNDER HOOD OF  COOKING EQUIPMENT AND NEED TO REPLACE LIGHT UNDER UNIT. 4 LIGHTS ARE OUT IN THE REAR CHILDREN AREA,IN THE KINDERGARDEN CLASS ROOM. 2 LIGHT ARE OUT EAST REAR, LIGHT FRONT WEST ROOM. NEED TO REPLACE ALL LIGHT THAT ARE NOT WORKING. | 35. WALLS, CEILINGS, ATTACHED EQUIPMENT CONSTRUCTED PER CODE: GOOD REPAIR, SURFACES CLEAN AND DUST-LESS CLEANING METHODS - Comments: The walls and ceilings shall be in good repair and easily cleaned. MISSING CEILING TILES WITH STAINS IN WEST,EAST, IN FRONT AREA WEST, AND BY THE 15MOS AREA. NEED TO BE REPLACED. | 32. FOOD AND NON-FOOD CONTACT SURFACES PROPERLY DESIGNED, CONSTRUCTED AND MAINTAINED - Comments: All food and non-food contact equipment and utensils shall be smooth, easily cleanable, and durable, and shall be in good repair. SPLASH GUARDED ARE NEEDED BY THE EXPOSED HAND SINK IN THE KITCHEN AREA | 34. FLOORS: CONSTRUCTED PER CODE, CLEANED, GOOD REPAIR, COVING INSTALLED, DUST-LESS CLEANING METHODS USED - Comments: The floors shall be constructed per code, be smooth and easily cleaned, and be kept clean and in good repair. INST NEED TO ELEVATE ALL FOOD ITEMS 6INCH OFF THE FLOOR 6 INCH AWAY FORM WALL.  ',
       '(41.97583445690982, -87.7107455232781)']]
  3. The preceding output gives us an idea of the schema of the input file. It includes the name of every establishment, the type of establishment, the address, the data of the inspections, and the location, among other things. Let's select a few columns that are useful for our predictive analysis and group the results as a dataframe, which we then use to create a temporary table.

     schema = StructType([
     StructField("id", IntegerType(), False),
     StructField("name", StringType(), False),
     StructField("results", StringType(), False),
     StructField("violations", StringType(), True)])
     df = sqlContext.createDataFrame( l: (int(l[0]), l[1], l[12], l[13])) , schema)
  4. We now have a dataframe, df on which we can perform our analysis. We also have a temporary table call CountResults. We've included four columns of interest in the dataframe: id, name, results, and violations.

    Let's get a small sample of the data:

    You should see an output like the following:

     # -----------------
     # -----------------
     |    id|                name|results|          violations|
     |413707|       LUNA PARK INC|   Fail|24. DISH WASHING ...|
     |391234|       CAFE SELMARIE|   Fail|2. FACILITIES TO ...|
     |413751|          MANCHU WOK|   Pass|33. FOOD AND NON-...|
     |413708|BENCHMARK HOSPITA...|   Pass|                    |
     |413722|           JJ BURGER|   Pass|                    |

Understand the data

  1. Let's start to get a sense of what our dataset contains. For example, what are the different values in the results column?'results').distinct().show()

    You should see an output like the following:

     # -----------------
     # -----------------
     |             results|
     |                Fail|
     |Business Not Located|
     |                Pass|
     |  Pass w/ Conditions|
     |     Out of Business|
  2. A quick visualization can help us reason about the distribution of these outcomes. We already have the data in a temporary table CountResults. You can run the following SQL query against the table to get a better understanding of how the results are distributed.

     %%sql -o countResultsdf
     SELECT results, COUNT(results) AS cnt FROM CountResults GROUP BY results

    The %%sql magic followed by -o countResultsdf ensures that the output of the query is persisted locally on the Jupyter server (typically the headnode of the cluster). The output is persisted as a Pandas dataframe with the specified name countResultsdf.

    You should see an output like the following:

    SQL query output

    For more information about the %%sql magic, and other magics available with the PySpark kernel, see Kernels available on Jupyter notebooks with Spark HDInsight clusters.

  3. You can also use Matplotlib, a library used to construct visualization of data, to create a plot. Because the plot must be created from the locally persisted countResultsdf dataframe, the code snippet must begin with the %%local magic. This ensures that the code is run locally on the Jupyter server.

     %matplotlib inline
     import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
     labels = countResultsdf['results']
     sizes = countResultsdf['cnt']
     colors = ['turquoise', 'seagreen', 'mediumslateblue', 'palegreen', 'coral']
     plt.pie(sizes, labels=labels, autopct='%1.1f%%', colors=colors)

    You should see an output like the following:

    Spark machine learning application output - pie chart with five distinct inspection results

  4. You can see that there are 5 distinct results that an inspection can have:

    • Business not located
    • Fail
    • Pass
    • Pss w/ conditions
    • Out of Business

      Let us develop a model that can guess the outcome of a food inspection, given the violations. Since logistic regression is a binary classification method, it makes sense to group our data into two categories: Fail and Pass. A "Pass w/ Conditions" is still a Pass, so when we train the model, we consider the two results equivalent. Data with the other results ("Business Not Located" or "Out of Business") are not useful so we remove them from our training set. This should be okay since these two categories make up a very small percentage of the results anyway.

  5. Let us go ahead and convert our existing dataframe(df) into a new dataframe where each inspection is represented as a label-violations pair. In our case, a label of 0.0 represents a failure, a label of 1.0 represents a success, and a label of -1.0 represents some results besides those two. We filter those other results out when computing the new data frame.

     def labelForResults(s):
         if s == 'Fail':
             return 0.0
         elif s == 'Pass w/ Conditions' or s == 'Pass':
             return 1.0
             return -1.0
     label = UserDefinedFunction(labelForResults, DoubleType())
     labeledData ='label'), df.violations).where('label >= 0')

    To see what the labeled data looks like, let's retrieve one row.


    You should see an output like the following:

     # -----------------
     # -----------------
     [Row(label=0.0, violations=u"41. PREMISES MAINTAINED FREE OF LITTER, UNNECESSARY ARTICLES, CLEANING  EQUIPMENT PROPERLY STORED - Comments: All parts of the food establishment and all parts of the property used in connection with the operation of the establishment shall be kept neat and clean and should not produce any offensive odors.  REMOVE MATTRESS FROM SMALL DUMPSTER. | 35. WALLS, CEILINGS, ATTACHED EQUIPMENT CONSTRUCTED PER CODE: GOOD REPAIR, SURFACES CLEAN AND DUST-LESS CLEANING METHODS - Comments: The walls and ceilings shall be in good repair and easily cleaned.  REPAIR MISALIGNED DOORS AND DOOR NEAR ELEVATOR.  DETAIL CLEAN BLACK MOLD LIKE SUBSTANCE FROM WALLS BY BOTH DISH MACHINES.  REPAIR OR REMOVE BASEBOARD UNDER DISH MACHINE (LEFT REAR KITCHEN). SEAL ALL GAPS.  REPLACE MILK CRATES USED IN WALK IN COOLERS AND STORAGE AREAS WITH PROPER SHELVING AT LEAST 6' OFF THE FLOOR.  | 38. VENTILATION: ROOMS AND EQUIPMENT VENTED AS REQUIRED: PLUMBING: INSTALLED AND MAINTAINED - Comments: The flow of air discharged from kitchen fans shall always be through a duct to a point above the roofline.  REPAIR BROKEN VENTILATION IN MEN'S AND WOMEN'S WASHROOMS NEXT TO DINING AREA. | 32. FOOD AND NON-FOOD CONTACT SURFACES PROPERLY DESIGNED, CONSTRUCTED AND MAINTAINED - Comments: All food and non-food contact equipment and utensils shall be smooth, easily cleanable, and durable, and shall be in good repair.  REPAIR DAMAGED PLUG ON LEFT SIDE OF 2 COMPARTMENT SINK.  REPAIR SELF CLOSER ON BOTTOM LEFT DOOR OF 4 DOOR PREP UNIT NEXT TO OFFICE.")]

Create a logistic regression model from the input dataframe

Our final task is to convert the labeled data into a format that can be analyzed by logistic regression. The input to a logistic regression algorithm should be a set of label-feature vector pairs, where the "feature vector" is a vector of numbers representing the input point. So, we need to convert the "violations" column, which is semi-structured and contains many comments in free-text, to an array of real numbers that a machine could easily understand.

One standard machine learning approach for processing natural language is to assign each distinct word an "index", and then pass a vector to the machine learning algorithm such that each index's value contains the relative frequency of that word in the text string.

MLlib provides an easy way to perform this operation. First, "tokenize" each violations string to get the individual words in each string. Then, use a HashingTF to convert each set of tokens into a feature vector that can then be passed to the logistic regression algorithm to construct a model. We conduct all of these steps in sequence using a "pipeline".

tokenizer = Tokenizer(inputCol="violations", outputCol="words")
hashingTF = HashingTF(inputCol=tokenizer.getOutputCol(), outputCol="features")
lr = LogisticRegression(maxIter=10, regParam=0.01)
pipeline = Pipeline(stages=[tokenizer, hashingTF, lr])

model =

Evaluate the model on a separate test dataset

We can use the model we created earlier to predict what the results of new inspections will be, based on the violations that were observed. We trained this model on the dataset Food_Inspections1.csv. Let us use a second dataset, Food_Inspections2.csv, to evaluate the strength of this model on new data. This second data set (Food_Inspections2.csv) should already be in the default storage container associated with the cluster.

  1. The following snippet creates a new dataframe, predictionsDf that contains the prediction generated by the model. The snippet also creates a temporary table called Predictions based on the dataframe.

     testData = sc.textFile('wasb:///HdiSamples/HdiSamples/FoodInspectionData/Food_Inspections2.csv')\
              .map(csvParse) \
              .map(lambda l: (int(l[0]), l[1], l[12], l[13]))
     testDf = sqlContext.createDataFrame(testData, schema).where("results = 'Fail' OR results = 'Pass' OR results = 'Pass w/ Conditions'")
     predictionsDf = model.transform(testDf)

    You should see an output like the following:

     # -----------------
     # -----------------
  2. Look at one of the predictions. Run this snippet:


    There is a prediction for the first entry in the test data set.

  3. The model.transform() method applies the same transformation to any new data with the same schema, and arrive at a prediction of how to classify the data. We can do some simple statistics to get a sense of how accurate our predictions were:

     numSuccesses = predictionsDf.where("""(prediction = 0 AND results = 'Fail') OR
                                           (prediction = 1 AND (results = 'Pass' OR
                                                                results = 'Pass w/ Conditions'))""").count()
     numInspections = predictionsDf.count()
     print "There were", numInspections, "inspections and there were", numSuccesses, "successful predictions"
     print "This is a", str((float(numSuccesses) / float(numInspections)) * 100) + "%", "success rate"

    The output looks like the following:

     # -----------------
     # -----------------
     There were 9315 inspections and there were 8087 successful predictions
     This is a 86.8169618894% success rate

    Using logistic regression with Spark gives us an accurate model of the relationship between violations descriptions in English and whether a given business would pass or fail a food inspection.

Create a visual representation of the prediction

We can now construct a final visualization to help us reason about the results of this test.

  1. We start by extracting the different predictions and results from the Predictions temporary table created earlier. The following queries separate the output as true_positive, false_positive, true_negative, and false_negative. In the queries below, we turn off visualization by using -q and also save the output (by using -o) as dataframes that can be then used with the %%local magic.

     %%sql -q -o true_positive
     SELECT count(*) AS cnt FROM Predictions WHERE prediction = 0 AND results = 'Fail'
     %%sql -q -o false_positive
     SELECT count(*) AS cnt FROM Predictions WHERE prediction = 0 AND (results = 'Pass' OR results = 'Pass w/ Conditions')
     %%sql -q -o true_negative
     SELECT count(*) AS cnt FROM Predictions WHERE prediction = 1 AND results = 'Fail'
     %%sql -q -o false_negative
     SELECT count(*) AS cnt FROM Predictions WHERE prediction = 1 AND (results = 'Pass' OR results = 'Pass w/ Conditions')
  2. Finally, use the following snippet to generate the plot using Matplotlib.

     %matplotlib inline
     import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
     labels = ['True positive', 'False positive', 'True negative', 'False negative']
     sizes = [true_positive['cnt'], false_positive['cnt'], false_negative['cnt'], true_negative['cnt']]
     colors = ['turquoise', 'seagreen', 'mediumslateblue', 'palegreen', 'coral']
     plt.pie(sizes, labels=labels, autopct='%1.1f%%', colors=colors)

    You should see the following output:

    Spark machine learning application output - pie chart percentages of failed food inspections.

    In this chart, a "positive" result refers to the failed food inspection, while a negative result refers to a passed inspection.

Shut down the notebook

After you have finished running the application, you should shut down the notebook to release the resources. To do so, from the File menu on the notebook, click Close and Halt. This shuts down and closes the notebook.

See also


Create and run applications

Tools and extensions

Manage resources