Troubleshoot your IoT Edge device

Applies to: yes icon IoT Edge 1.1 Other versions: IoT Edge 1.2

Applies to: yes icon IoT Edge 1.2 Other versions: IoT Edge 1.1

If you experience issues running Azure IoT Edge in your environment, use this article as a guide for troubleshooting and diagnostics.

Run the 'check' command

Your first step when troubleshooting IoT Edge should be to use the check command, which runs a collection of configuration and connectivity tests for common issues. The check command is available in release 1.0.7 and later.

Note

The troubleshooting tool can't run connectivity checks if the IoT Edge device is behind a proxy server.

You can run the check command as follows, or include the --help flag to see a complete list of options:

On Linux:

sudo iotedge check

On Windows:

iotedge check
sudo iotedge check

The troubleshooting tool runs many checks that are sorted into these three categories:

  • Configuration checks examines details that could prevent IoT Edge devices from connecting to the cloud, including issues with the config file and the container engine.
  • Connection checks verify that the IoT Edge runtime can access ports on the host device and that all the IoT Edge components can connect to the IoT Hub. This set of checks returns errors if the IoT Edge device is behind a proxy.
  • Production readiness checks look for recommended production best practices, such as the state of device certificate authority (CA) certificates and module log file configuration.

The IoT Edge check tool uses a container to run its diagnostics. The container image, mcr.microsoft.com/azureiotedge-diagnostics:latest, is available through the Microsoft Container Registry. If you need to run a check on a device without direct access to the internet, your devices will need access to the container image.

In a scenario using nested IoT Edge devices, you can get access to the diagnostics image on child devices by routing the image pull through the parent devices.

sudo iotedge check --diagnostics-image-name <parent_device_fqdn_or_ip>:<port_for_api_proxy_module>/azureiotedge-diagnostics:1.2

For information about each of the diagnostic checks this tool runs, including what to do if you get an error or warning, see IoT Edge troubleshoot checks.

Gather debug information with 'support-bundle' command

When you need to gather logs from an IoT Edge device, the most convenient way is to use the support-bundle command. By default, this command collects module, IoT Edge security manager and container engine logs, iotedge check JSON output, and other useful debug information. It compresses them into a single file for easy sharing. The support-bundle command is available in release 1.0.9 and later.

Run the support-bundle command with the --since flag to specify how long from the past you want to get logs. For example 6h will get logs since the last six hours, 6d since the last six days, 6m since the last six minutes and so on. Include the --help flag to see a complete list of options.

On Linux:

sudo iotedge support-bundle --since 6h

On Windows:

iotedge support-bundle --since 6h
sudo iotedge support-bundle --since 6h

By default, the support-bundle command creates a zip file called support_bundle.zip in the directory where the command is called. Use the flag --output to specify a different path or file name for the output.

For more information about the command, view its help information.

iotedge support-bundle --help

You can also use the built-in direct method call UploadSupportBundle to upload the output of the support-bundle command to Azure Blob Storage.

Warning

Output from the support-bundle command can contain host, device and module names, information logged by your modules etc. Please be aware of this if sharing the output in a public forum.

Review metrics collected from the runtime

The IoT Edge runtime modules produce metrics to help you monitor and understand the health of your IoT Edge devices. Add the metrics-collector module to your deployments to handle collecting these metrics and sending them to the cloud for easier monitoring.

For more information, see Collect and transport metrics.

Check your IoT Edge version

If you're running an older version of IoT Edge, then upgrading may resolve your issue. The iotedge check tool checks that the IoT Edge security daemon is the latest version, but does not check the versions of the IoT Edge hub and agent modules. To check the version of the runtime modules on your device, use the commands iotedge logs edgeAgent and iotedge logs edgeHub. The version number is declared in the logs when the module starts up.

For instructions on how to update your device, see Update the IoT Edge security daemon and runtime.

Verify the installation of IoT Edge on your devices

You can verify the installation of IoT Edge on your devices by monitoring the edgeAgent module twin.

To get the latest edgeAgent module twin, run the following command from Azure Cloud Shell:

az iot hub module-twin show --device-id <edge_device_id> --module-id '$edgeAgent' --hub-name <iot_hub_name>

This command will output all the edgeAgent reported properties. Here are some helpful ones monitor the status of the device:

  • runtime status
  • runtime start time
  • runtime last exit time
  • runtime restart count

Check the status of the IoT Edge security manager and its logs

The IoT Edge security manager is responsible for operations like initializing the IoT Edge system at startup and provisioning devices. If IoT Edge isn't starting, the security manager logs may provide useful information.

On Linux:

  • View the status of the IoT Edge security manager:

    sudo systemctl status iotedge
    
  • View the logs of the IoT Edge security manager:

    sudo journalctl -u iotedge -f
    
  • View more detailed logs of the IoT Edge security manager:

    1. Edit the IoT Edge daemon settings:

      sudo systemctl edit iotedge.service
      
    2. Update the following lines:

      [Service]
      Environment=IOTEDGE_LOG=debug
      
    3. Restart the IoT Edge security daemon:

      sudo systemctl cat iotedge.service
      sudo systemctl daemon-reload
      sudo systemctl restart iotedge
      

On Windows:

  • View the status of the IoT Edge security manager:

    Get-Service iotedge
    
  • View the logs of the IoT Edge security manager:

    . {Invoke-WebRequest -useb aka.ms/iotedge-win} | Invoke-Expression; Get-IoTEdgeLog
    
  • View only the last 5 minutes of the IoT Edge security manager logs:

    . {Invoke-WebRequest -useb aka.ms/iotedge-win} | Invoke-Expression; Get-IoTEdgeLog -StartTime ([datetime]::Now.AddMinutes(-5))
    
  • View more detailed logs of the IoT Edge security manager:

    1. Add a system-level environment variable:

      [Environment]::SetEnvironmentVariable("IOTEDGE_LOG", "debug", [EnvironmentVariableTarget]::Machine)
      
    2. Restart the IoT Edge Security Daemon:

      Restart-Service iotedge
      
  • View the status of the IoT Edge system services:

    sudo iotedge system status
    
  • View the logs of the IoT Edge system services:

    sudo iotedge system logs -- -f
    
  • Enable debug-level logs to view more detailed logs of the IoT Edge system services:

    1. Enable debug-level logs.

      sudo iotedge system set-log-level debug
      sudo iotedge system restart
      
    2. Switch back to the default info-level logs after debugging.

      sudo iotedge system set-log-level info
      sudo iotedge system restart
      

Check container logs for issues

Once the IoT Edge security daemon is running, look at the logs of the containers to detect issues. Start with your deployed containers, then look at the containers that make up the IoT Edge runtime: edgeAgent and edgeHub. The IoT Edge agent logs typically provide info on the lifecycle of each container. The IoT Edge hub logs provide info on messaging and routing.

You can retrieve the container logs from several places:

Clean up container logs

By default the Moby container engine does not set container log size limits. Over time this can lead to the device filling up with logs and running out of disk space. If large container logs are affecting your IoT Edge device performance, use the following command to force remove the container along with its related logs.

If you're still troubleshooting, wait until after you've inspected the container logs to take this step.

Warning

If you force remove the edgeHub container while it has an undelivered message backlog and no host storage set up, the undelivered messages will be lost.

docker rm --force <container name>

For ongoing logs maintenance and production scenarios, place limits on log size.

View the messages going through the IoT Edge hub

You can view the messages going through the IoT Edge hub, and gather insights from verbose logs from the runtime containers. To turn on verbose logs on these containers, set RuntimeLogLevel in your yaml configuration file. To open the file:

On Linux:

sudo nano /etc/iotedge/config.yaml

On Windows:

notepad C:\ProgramData\iotedge\config.yaml

By default, the agent element will look like the following example:

agent:
  name: edgeAgent
  type: docker
  env: {}
  config:
    image: mcr.microsoft.com/azureiotedge-agent:1.1
    auth: {}

Replace env: {} with:

env:
  RuntimeLogLevel: debug

Warning

YAML files cannot contain tabs as indentation. Use 2 spaces instead. Top-level items cannot have leading whitespace.

Save the file and restart the IoT Edge security manager.

You can view the messages going through the IoT Edge hub and gather insights from verbose logs from the runtime containers. To turn on verbose logs on these containers, set the RuntimeLogLevel environment variable in the deployment manifest.

To view messages going through the IoT Edge hub, set the RuntimeLogLevel environment variable to debug for the edgeHub module.

Both the edgeHub and edgeAgent modules have this runtime log environment variable, with the default value set to info. This environment variable can take the following values:

  • fatal
  • error
  • warning
  • info
  • debug
  • verbose

You can also check the messages being sent between IoT Hub and IoT devices. View these messages by using the Azure IoT Hub extension for Visual Studio Code. For more information, see Handy tool when you develop with Azure IoT.

Restart containers

After investigating the logs and messages for information, you can try restarting containers.

On the IoT Edge device, use the following commands to restart modules:

iotedge restart <container name>

Restart the IoT Edge runtime containers:

iotedge restart edgeAgent && iotedge restart edgeHub

You can also restart modules remotely from the Azure portal. For more information, see Monitor and troubleshoot IoT Edge devices from the Azure portal.

Check your firewall and port configuration rules

Azure IoT Edge allows communication from an on-premises server to Azure cloud using supported IoT Hub protocols, see choosing a communication protocol. For enhanced security, communication channels between Azure IoT Edge and Azure IoT Hub are always configured to be Outbound. This configuration is based on the Services Assisted Communication pattern, which minimizes the attack surface for a malicious entity to explore. Inbound communication is only required for specific scenarios where Azure IoT Hub needs to push messages to the Azure IoT Edge device. Cloud-to-device messages are protected using secure TLS channels and can be further secured using X.509 certificates and TPM device modules. The Azure IoT Edge Security Manager governs how this communication can be established, see IoT Edge Security Manager.

While IoT Edge provides enhanced configuration for securing Azure IoT Edge runtime and deployed modules, it is still dependent on the underlying machine and network configuration. Hence, it is imperative to ensure proper network and firewall rules are set up for secure edge to cloud communication. The following table can be used as a guideline when configuration firewall rules for the underlying servers where Azure IoT Edge runtime is hosted:

Protocol Port Incoming Outgoing Guidance
MQTT 8883 BLOCKED (Default) BLOCKED (Default)
  • Configure Outgoing (Outbound) to be Open when using MQTT as the communication protocol.
  • 1883 for MQTT is not supported by IoT Edge.
  • Incoming (Inbound) connections should be blocked.
AMQP 5671 BLOCKED (Default) OPEN (Default)
  • Default communication protocol for IoT Edge.
  • Must be configured to be Open if Azure IoT Edge is not configured for other supported protocols or AMQP is the desired communication protocol.
  • 5672 for AMQP is not supported by IoT Edge.
  • Block this port when Azure IoT Edge uses a different IoT Hub supported protocol.
  • Incoming (Inbound) connections should be blocked.
HTTPS 443 BLOCKED (Default) OPEN (Default)
  • Configure Outgoing (Outbound) to be Open on 443 for IoT Edge provisioning. This configuration is required when using manual scripts or Azure IoT Device Provisioning Service (DPS).
  • Incoming (Inbound) connection should be Open only for specific scenarios:
    • If you have a transparent gateway with leaf devices that may send method requests. In this case, Port 443 does not need to be open to external networks to connect to IoTHub or provide IoTHub services through Azure IoT Edge. Thus the incoming rule could be restricted to only open Incoming (Inbound) from the internal network.
    • For Client to Device (C2D) scenarios.
  • 80 for HTTP is not supported by IoT Edge.
  • If non-HTTP protocols (for example, AMQP or MQTT) cannot be configured in the enterprise; the messages can be sent over WebSockets. Port 443 will be used for WebSocket communication in that case.

Next steps

Do you think that you found a bug in the IoT Edge platform? Submit an issue so that we can continue to improve.

If you have more questions, create a Support request for help.