Create & use software environments in Azure Machine Learning

In this article, learn how to create and manage Azure Machine Learning environments. Use the environments to track and reproduce your projects' software dependencies as they evolve.

Software dependency management is a common task for developers. You want to ensure that builds are reproducible without extensive manual software configuration. The Azure Machine Learning Environment class accounts for local development solutions such as pip and Conda and distributed cloud development through Docker capabilities.

The examples in this article show how to:

  • Create an environment and specify package dependencies.
  • Retrieve and update environments.
  • Use an environment for training.
  • Use an environment for web service deployment.

For a high-level overview of how environments work in Azure Machine Learning, see What are ML environments? For information about configuring development environments, see here.


Create an environment

The following sections explore the multiple ways that you can create an environment for your experiments.

Instantiate an environment object

To manually create an environment, import the Environment class from the SDK. Then use the following code to instantiate an environment object.

from azureml.core.environment import Environment

Use a curated environment

Curated environments contain collections of Python packages and are available in your workspace by default. These environments are backed by cached Docker images which reduces the run preparation cost. You can select one of these popular curated environments to start with:

  • The AzureML-Minimal environment contains a minimal set of packages to enable run tracking and asset uploading. You can use it as a starting point for your own environment.

  • The AzureML-Tutorial environment contains common data science packages. These packages include Scikit-Learn, Pandas, Matplotlib, and a larger set of azureml-sdk packages.

For a list of curated environments, see the curated environments article.

Use the Environment.get method to select one of the curated environments:

from azureml.core import Workspace, Environment

ws = Workspace.from_config()
env = Environment.get(workspace=ws, name="AzureML-Minimal")

You can list the curated environments and their packages by using the following code:

envs = Environment.list(workspace=ws)

for env in envs:
    if env.startswith("AzureML"):
        print("packages", envs[env].python.conda_dependencies.serialize_to_string())


Don't start your own environment name with the AzureML prefix. This prefix is reserved for curated environments.

Use Conda dependencies or pip requirements files

You can create an environment from a Conda specification or a pip requirements file. Use the from_conda_specification() method or the from_pip_requirements() method. In the method argument, include your environment name and the file path of the file that you want.

# From a Conda specification file
myenv = Environment.from_conda_specification(name = "myenv",
                                             file_path = "path-to-conda-specification-file")

# From a pip requirements file
myenv = Environment.from_pip_requirements(name = "myenv",
                                          file_path = "path-to-pip-requirements-file")                                          

Enable Docker

When you enable Docker, Azure Machine Learning builds a Docker image and creates a Python environment within that container, given your specifications. The Docker images are cached and reused: the first run in a new environment typically takes longer as the image is build.

The DockerSection of the Azure Machine Learning Environment class allows you to finely customize and control the guest operating system on which you run your training. The arguments variable can be used to specify extra arguments to pass to the Docker run command.

# Creates the environment inside a Docker container.
myenv.docker.enabled = True

By default, the newly built Docker image appears in the container registry that's associated with the workspace. The repository name has the form azureml/azureml_<uuid>. The unique identifier (uuid) part of the name corresponds to a hash that's computed from the environment configuration. This correspondence allows the service to determine whether an image for the given environment already exists for reuse.

Use a prebuilt Docker image

By default, the service automatically uses one of the Ubuntu Linux-based base images, specifically the one defined by azureml.core.environment.DEFAULT_CPU_IMAGE. It then installs any specified Python packages defined by the provided Azure ML environment. Other Azure ML CPU and GPU base images are available in the container repository. It is also possible to use a custom Docker base image.

# Specify custom Docker base image and registry, if you don't want to use the defaults


Azure Machine Learning only supports Docker images that provide the following software:

  • Ubuntu 16.04 or greater.
  • Conda 4.5.# or greater.
  • Python 3.5+.

Use your own Dockerfile

You can also specify a custom Dockerfile. It's simplest to start from one of Azure Machine Learning base images using Docker FROM command, and then add your own custom steps. Use this approach if you need to install non-Python packages as dependencies. Remember to set the base image to None.

# Specify docker steps as a string. 
dockerfile = r"""
RUN echo "Hello from custom container!"

# Set base image to None, because the image is defined by dockerfile.
myenv.docker.base_image = None
myenv.docker.base_dockerfile = dockerfile

# Alternatively, load the string from a file.
myenv.docker.base_image = None
myenv.docker.base_dockerfile = "./Dockerfile"

When using custom Docker images, it is recommended that you pin package versions in order to better ensure reproducibility.

Specify your own Python interpreter

In some situations, your custom base image may already contain a Python environment with packages that you want to use.

To use your own installed packages and disable Conda, set the parameter Environment.python.user_managed_dependencies = True. Ensure that the base image contains a Python interpreter, and has the packages your training script needs.

For example, to run in a base Miniconda environment that has NumPy package installed, first specify a Dockerfile with a step to install the package. Then set the user-managed dependencies to True.

You can also specify a path to a specific Python interpreter within the image, by setting the Environment.python.interpreter_path variable.

dockerfile = """
RUN conda install numpy

myenv.docker.base_image = None
myenv.docker.base_dockerfile = dockerfile
myenv.python.interpreter_path = "/opt/miniconda/bin/python"


If you install some Python dependencies in your Docker image and forget to set user_managed_dependencies=True, those packages will not exist in the execution environment thus causing runtime failures. By default, Azure ML will build a Conda environment with dependencies you specified, and will execute the run in that environment instead of using any Python libraries that you installed on the base image.

Retrieve image details

For a registered environment, you can retrieve image details using the following code where details is an instance of DockerImageDetails (AzureML Python SDK >= 1.11) and provides all the information about the environment image such as the dockerfile, registry, and image name.

details = environment.get_image_details(workspace=ws)

To obtain the image details from an environment autosaved from the execution of a run, use the following code:

details = run.get_environment().get_image_details(workspace=ws)

Use existing environments

If you have an existing Conda environment on your local computer, then you can use the service to create an environment object. By using this strategy, you can reuse your local interactive environment on remote runs.

The following code creates an environment object from the existing Conda environment mycondaenv. It uses the from_existing_conda_environment() method.

myenv = Environment.from_existing_conda_environment(name="myenv",

An environment definition can be saved to a directory in an easily editable format with the save_to_directory() method. Once modified, a new environment can be instantiated by loading files from the directory.

myenv = Environment.save_to_directory(path="path-to-destination-directory", overwrite=False)
# modify the environment definition
newenv = Environment.load_from_directory(path="path-to-source-directory")

Implicitly use the default environment

If you don't specify an environment in your script run configuration before you submit the run, then a default environment is created for you.

from azureml.core import ScriptRunConfig, Experiment, Environment
# Create experiment 
myexp = Experiment(workspace=ws, name = "environment-example")

# Attach training script and compute target to run config
src = ScriptRunConfig(source_directory=".", script="", compute_target="local")

# Submit the run
run = myexp.submit(config=src)

# Show each step of run 

Add packages to an environment

Add packages to an environment by using Conda, pip, or private wheel files. Specify each package dependency by using the CondaDependency class. Add it to the environment's PythonSection.

Conda and pip packages

If a package is available in a Conda package repository, then we recommend that you use the Conda installation rather than the pip installation. Conda packages typically come with prebuilt binaries that make installation more reliable.

The following example adds to the environment myenv. It adds version 1.17.0 of numpy. It also adds the pillow package. The example uses the add_conda_package() method and the add_pip_package() method, respectively.

from azureml.core.environment import Environment
from azureml.core.conda_dependencies import CondaDependencies

myenv = Environment(name="myenv")
conda_dep = CondaDependencies()

# Installs numpy version 1.17.0 conda package

# Installs pillow package

# Adds dependencies to PythonSection of myenv

You can also add environment variables to your environment. These then become available using os.environ.get in your training script.

myenv.environment_variables = {"MESSAGE":"Hello from Azure Machine Learning"}


If you use the same environment definition for another run, the Azure Machine Learning service reuses the cached image of your environment. If you create an environment with an unpinned package dependency, for example numpy, that environment will keep using the package version installed at the time of environment creation. Also, any future environment with matching definition will keep using the old version. For more information, see Environment building, caching, and reuse.

Private Python packages

To use Python packages privately and securely without exposing them to the public internet, see the article How to use private Python packages.

Manage environments

Manage environments so that you can update, track, and reuse them across compute targets and with other users of the workspace.

Register environments

The environment is automatically registered with your workspace when you submit a run or deploy a web service. You can also manually register the environment by using the register() method. This operation makes the environment into an entity that's tracked and versioned in the cloud. The entity can be shared between workspace users.

The following code registers the myenv environment to the ws workspace.


When you use the environment for the first time in training or deployment, it's registered with the workspace. Then it's built and deployed on the compute target. The service caches the environments. Reusing a cached environment takes much less time than using a new service or one that has been updated.

Get existing environments

The Environment class offers methods that allow you to retrieve existing environments in your workspace. You can retrieve environments by name, as a list, or by a specific training run. This information is helpful for troubleshooting, auditing, and reproducibility.

View a list of environments

View the environments in your workspace by using the Environment.list(workspace="workspace_name") class. Then select an environment to reuse.

Get an environment by name

You can also get a specific environment by name and version. The following code uses the get() method to retrieve version 1 of the myenv environment on the ws workspace.

restored_environment = Environment.get(workspace=ws,name="myenv",version="1")

Train a run-specific environment

To get the environment that was used for a specific run after the training finishes, use the get_environment() method in the Run class.

from azureml.core import Run

Update an existing environment

Say you change an existing environment, for example, by adding a Python package. This will take time to build as a new version of the environment is then created when you submit a run, deploy a model, or manually register the environment. The versioning allows you to view the environment's changes over time.

To update a Python package version in an existing environment, specify the version number for that package. If you don't use the exact version number, then Azure Machine Learning will reuse the existing environment with its original package versions.

Debug the image build

The following example uses the build() method to manually create an environment as a Docker image. It monitors the output logs from the image build by using wait_for_completion(). The built image then appears in the workspace's Azure Container Registry instance. This information is helpful for debugging.

from azureml.core import Image
build =

It is useful to first build images locally using the build_local() method. To build a docker image, set the optional parameter useDocker=True. To push the resulting image into the AzureML workspace container registry, set pushImageToWorkspaceAcr=True.

build = env.build_local(workspace=ws, useDocker=True, pushImageToWorkspaceAcr=True)


Changing the order of dependencies or channels in an environment will result in a new environment and will require a new image build. In addition, calling the build() method for an existing image will update its dependencies if there are new versions.

Use environments for training

To submit a training run, you need to combine your environment, compute target, and your training Python script into a run configuration. This configuration is a wrapper object that's used for submitting runs.

When you submit a training run, the building of a new environment can take several minutes. The duration depends on the size of the required dependencies. The environments are cached by the service. So as long as the environment definition remains unchanged, you incur the full setup time only once.

The following local script run example shows where you would use ScriptRunConfig as your wrapper object.

from azureml.core import ScriptRunConfig, Experiment
from azureml.core.environment import Environment

exp = Experiment(name="myexp", workspace = ws)
# Instantiate environment
myenv = Environment(name="myenv")

# Configure the ScriptRunConfig and specify the environment
src = ScriptRunConfig(source_directory=".", script="", target="local", environment=myenv)

# Submit run 
run = exp.submit(src)


To disable the run history or run snapshots, use the setting under src.run_config.history.

If you don't specify the environment in your run configuration, then the service creates a default environment when you submit your run.

Use environments for web service deployment

You can use environments when you deploy your model as a web service. This capability enables a reproducible, connected workflow. In this workflow, you can train, test, and deploy your model by using the same libraries in both your training compute and your inference compute.

If you are defining your own environment for web service deployment, you must list azureml-defaults with version >= 1.0.45 as a pip dependency. This package contains the functionality that's needed to host the model as a web service.

To deploy a web service, combine the environment, inference compute, scoring script, and registered model in your deployment object, deploy(). For more information, see How and where to deploy models.

In this example, assume that you've completed a training run. Now you want to deploy that model to Azure Container Instances. When you build the web service, the model and scoring files are mounted on the image, and the Azure Machine Learning inference stack is added to the image.

from azureml.core.model import InferenceConfig, Model
from azureml.core.webservice import AciWebservice, Webservice

# Register the model to deploy
model = run.register_model(model_name = "mymodel", model_path = "outputs/model.pkl")

# Combine scoring script & environment in Inference configuration
inference_config = InferenceConfig(entry_script="", environment=myenv)

# Set deployment configuration
deployment_config = AciWebservice.deploy_configuration(cpu_cores = 1, memory_gb = 1)

# Define the model, inference, & deployment configuration and web service name and location to deploy
service = Model.deploy(
    workspace = ws,
    name = "my_web_service",
    models = [model],
    inference_config = inference_config,
    deployment_config = deployment_config)


This article provides information about how to install a Conda environment as a kernel in a notebook.

Deploy a model using a custom Docker base image demonstrates how to deploy a model using a custom Docker base image.

This example notebook demonstrates how to deploy a Spark model as a web service.

Create and manage environments with the CLI

The Azure Machine Learning CLI mirrors most of the functionality of the Python SDK. You can use it to create and manage environments. The commands that we discuss in this section demonstrate fundamental functionality.

The following command scaffolds the files for a default environment definition in the specified directory. These files are JSON files. They work like the corresponding class in the SDK. You can use the files to create new environments that have custom settings.

az ml environment scaffold -n myenv -d myenvdir

Run the following command to register an environment from a specified directory.

az ml environment register -d myenvdir

Run the following command to list all registered environments.

az ml environment list

Download a registered environment by using the following command.

az ml environment download -n myenv -d downloaddir

Next steps