Discover, assess, and migrate Google Cloud Platform (GCP) VMs to Azure

This tutorial shows you how to discover, assess, and migrate Google Cloud Platform (GCP) virtual machines (VMs) to Azure VMs, using Azure Migrate: Server Assessment and Azure Migrate: Server Migration tools.

In this tutorial, you will learn how to:

  • Verify prerequisites for migration.
  • Prepare Azure resources with Azure Migrate: Server Migration. Set up permissions for your Azure account and resources to work with Azure Migrate.
  • Prepare GCP VM instances for migration.
  • Add the Azure Migrate: Server Migration tool in the Azure Migrate hub.
  • Set up the replication appliance and deploy the configuration server.
  • Install the Mobility service on GCP VMs you want to migrate.
  • Enable replication for VMs.
  • Track and monitor the replication status.
  • Run a test migration to make sure everything's working as expected.
  • Run a full migration to Azure.

If you don't have an Azure subscription, create a free account before you begin.

Discover and assess

Before you migrate to Azure, we recommend that you perform a VM discovery and migration assessment. This assessment helps right-size your GCP VMs for migration to Azure, and estimate potential Azure run costs.

Set up an assessment as follows:

  1. Follow the tutorial to set up Azure and prepare your GCP VMs for an assessment. Note that:

    • Azure Migrate uses password authentication when discovering GCP VM instances. GCP instances don't support password authentication by default. Before you can discover, you need to enable password authentication.
      • For Windows machines, allow WinRM port 5985 (HTTP). This allows remote WMI calls.
      • For Linux machines:
        1. Sign into each Linux machine.
        2. Open the sshd_config file : vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config
        3. In the file, locate the PasswordAuthentication line, and change the value to yes.
        4. Save the file and close it. Restart the ssh service.
    • If you are using a root user to discover your Linux VMs, ensure root login is allowed on the VMs.
      1. Sign into each Linux machine
      2. Open the sshd_config file : vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config
      3. In the file, locate the PermitRootLogin line, and change the value to yes.
      4. Save the file and close it. Restart the ssh service.
  2. Then, follow this tutorial to set up an Azure Migrate project and appliance to discover and assess your GCP VMs.

Although we recommend that you try out an assessment, performing an assessment isn’t a mandatory step to be able to migrate VMs.

Prerequisites

  • Ensure that the GCP VMs you want to migrate are running a supported OS version. GCP VMs are treated like physical machines for the purpose of the migration. Review the supported operating systems and kernel versions for the physical server migration workflow. You can use standard commands like hostnamectl or uname -a to check the OS and kernel versions for your Linux VMs. We recommend you perform a test migration to validate if the VM works as expected before proceeding with the actual migration.
  • Make sure your GCP VMs comply with the supported configurations for migration to Azure.
  • Verify that the GCP VMs that you replicate to Azure comply with Azure VM requirements.
  • There are some changes needed on the VMs before you migrate them to Azure.
    • For some operating systems, Azure Migrate makes these changes automatically.
    • It's important to make these changes before you begin migration. If you migrate the VM before you make the change, the VM might not boot up in Azure. Review Windows and Linux changes you need to make.

Prepare Azure resources for migration

Prepare Azure for migration with Azure Migrate: Server Migration tool.

Task Details
Create an Azure Migrate project Your Azure account needs Contributor or Owner permissions to create a new project.
Verify permissions for your Azure account Your Azure account needs permissions to create a VM, and write to an Azure managed disk.

Assign permissions to create project

  1. In the Azure portal, open the subscription, and select Access control (IAM).
  2. In Check access, find the relevant account, and click it to view permissions.
  3. You should have Contributor or Owner permissions.
    • If you just created a free Azure account, you're the owner of your subscription.
    • If you're not the subscription owner, work with the owner to assign the role.

Assign Azure account permissions

Assign the Virtual Machine Contributor role to the Azure account. This provides permissions to:

  • Create a VM in the selected resource group.
  • Create a VM in the selected virtual network.
  • Write to an Azure managed disk.

Create an Azure network

Set up an Azure virtual network (VNet). When you replicate to Azure, the Azure VMs that are created are joined to the Azure VNet that you specify when you set up migration.

Prepare GCP instances for migration

To prepare for GCP to Azure migration, you need to prepare and deploy a replication appliance for migration.

Prepare a machine for the replication appliance

Azure Migrate: Server Migration uses a replication appliance to replicate machines to Azure. The replication appliance runs the following components.

  • Configuration server: The configuration server coordinates communications between the GCP VMs and Azure, and manages data replication.
  • Process server: The process server acts as a replication gateway. It receives replication data, optimizes it with caching, compression, and encryption, and sends it to a cache storage account in Azure.

Prepare for appliance deployment as follows:

  • Set up a separate GCP VM to host the replication appliance. This instance must be running Windows Server 2012 R2 or Windows Server 2016. Review the hardware, software, and networking requirements for the appliance.

  • The appliance shouldn't be installed on a source VM that you want to replicate or on the Azure Migrate discovery and assessment appliance you may have installed before. It should be deployed on a different VM.

  • The source GCP VMs to be migrated should have a network line of sight to the replication appliance. Configure necessary Firewall rules to enable this. It is recommended that the replication appliance is deployed in the same VPC network as the source VMs to be migrated. If the replication appliance needs to be in a different VPC, the VPCs need to be connected through VPC peering.

  • The source GCP VMs communicate with the replication appliance on ports HTTPS 443 (control channel orchestration) and TCP 9443 (data transport) inbound for replication management and replication data transfer. The replication appliance in turn orchestrates and sends replication data to Azure over port HTTPS 443 outbound. To configure these rules, edit the security group inbound/outbound rules with the appropriate ports and source IP information.

    GCP firewall rules

    Edit firewall rules

  • The replication appliance uses MySQL. Review the options for installing MySQL on the appliance.

  • Review the Azure URLs required for the replication appliance to access public and government clouds.

Set up the replication appliance

The first step of migration is to set up the replication appliance. To set up the appliance for GCP VMs migration, you must download the installer file for the appliance, and then run it on the VM you prepared.

Download the replication appliance installer

  1. In the Azure Migrate project > Servers, in Azure Migrate: Server Migration, click Discover.

    Discover VMs

  2. In Discover machines > Are your machines virtualized?, click Not virtualized/Other.

  3. In Target region, select the Azure region to which you want to migrate the machines.

  4. Select Confirm that the target region for migration is <region-name>.

  5. Click Create resources. This creates an Azure Site Recovery vault in the background.

    • If you've already set up migration with Azure Migrate Server Migration, the target option can't be configured, since resources were set up previously.
    • You can't change the target region for this project after clicking this button.
    • To migrate your VMs to a different region, you'll need to create a new/different Azure Migrate project.

    Note

    If you selected private endpoint as the connectivity method for the Azure Migrate project when it was created, the Recovery Services vault will also be configured for private endpoint connectivity. Ensure that the private endpoints are reachable from the replication appliance: Learn more

  6. In Do you want to install a new replication appliance?, select Install a replication appliance.

  7. In Download and install the replication appliance software, download the appliance installer, and the registration key. You need to the key in order to register the appliance. The key is valid for five days after it's downloaded.

    Download provider

  8. Copy the appliance setup file and key file to the Windows Server 2016 or Windows Server 2012 GCP VM you created for the replication appliance.

  9. Run the replication appliance setup file, as described in the next procedure.
    9.1. Under Before You Begin, select Install the configuration server and process server, and then select Next.
    9.2 In Third-Party Software License, select I accept the third-party license agreement, and then select Next.
    9.3 In Registration, select Browse, and then go to where you put the vault registration key file. Select Next.
    9.4 In Internet Settings, select Connect to Azure Site Recovery without a proxy server, and then select Next.
    9.5 The Prerequisites Check page runs checks for several items. When it's finished, select Next.
    9.6 In MySQL Configuration, provide a password for the MySQL DB, and then select Next.
    9.7 In Environment Details, select No. You don't need to protect your VMs. Then, select Next.
    9.8 In Install Location, select Next to accept the default.
    9.9 In Network Selection, select Next to accept the default.
    9.10 In Summary, select Install.
    9.11 Installation Progress shows you information about the installation process. When it's finished, select Finish. A window displays a message about a reboot. Select OK.
    9.12 Next, a window displays a message about the configuration server connection passphrase. Copy the passphrase to your clipboard and save the passphrase in a temporary text file on the source VMs. You’ll need this passphrase later, during the mobility service installation process.

  10. After the installation completes, the Appliance configuration wizard will be launched automatically (You can also launch the wizard manually by using the cspsconfigtool shortcut that is created on the desktop of the appliance). In this tutorial, we'll be manually installing the Mobility Service on source VMs to be replicated, so create a dummy account in this step and proceed. You can provide the following details for creating the dummy account - "guest" as the friendly name, "username" as the username, and "password" as the password for the account. You will be using this dummy account in the Enable Replication stage.

    Finalize registration

Install the Mobility service

A Mobility service agent must be installed on the source GCP VMs to be migrated. The agent installers are available on the replication appliance. You find the right installer, and install the agent on each machine you want to migrate. Do as follows:

  1. Sign in to the replication appliance.
  2. Navigate to %ProgramData%\ASR\home\svsystems\pushinstallsvc\repository.
  3. Find the installer for the source GCP VMs operating system and version. Review supported operating systems.
  4. Copy the installer file to the source GCP VM you want to migrate.
  5. Make sure that you have the saved passphrase text file that was created when you installed the replication appliance.
    • If you forgot to save the passphrase, you can view the passphrase on the replication appliance with this step. From the command line, run C:\ProgramData\ASR\home\svsystems\bin\genpassphrase.exe -v to view the current passphrase.
    • Now, copy this passphrase to your clipboard and save it in a temporary text file on the source VMs.

Installation guide for Windows GCP VMs

  1. Extract the contents of installer file to a local folder (for example C:\Temp) on the GCP VM, as follows:

    ren Microsoft-ASR_UA*Windows*release.exe MobilityServiceInstaller.exe
    MobilityServiceInstaller.exe /q /x:C:\Temp\Extracted
    cd C:\Temp\Extracted
    
  2. Run the Mobility Service Installer:

    UnifiedAgent.exe /Role "MS" /Silent
    
  3. Register the agent with the replication appliance:

    cd C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Azure Site Recovery\agent
    UnifiedAgentConfigurator.exe  /CSEndPoint <replication appliance IP address> /PassphraseFilePath <Passphrase File Path>
    

Installation guide for Linux GCP VMs

  1. Extract the contents of the installer tarball to a local folder (for example /tmp/MobSvcInstaller) on the GCP VM, as follows:

    mkdir /tmp/MobSvcInstaller
    tar -C /tmp/MobSvcInstaller -xvf <Installer tarball>
    cd /tmp/MobSvcInstaller
    
  2. Run the installer script:

    sudo ./install -r MS -q
    
  3. Register the agent with the replication appliance:

    /usr/local/ASR/Vx/bin/UnifiedAgentConfigurator.sh -i <replication appliance IP address> -P <Passphrase File Path>
    

Enable replication for GCP VMs

Note

Through the portal, you can add up to 10 VMs for replication at once. To replicate more VMs simultaneously, you can add them in batches of 10.

  1. In the Azure Migrate project > Servers, Azure Migrate: Server Migration, click Replicate.

    Replicate VMs

  2. In Replicate, > Source settings > Are your machines virtualized?, select Not virtualized/Other.

  3. In On-premises appliance, select the name of the Azure Migrate appliance that you set up.

  4. In Process Server, select the name of the replication appliance.

  5. In Guest credentials, please select the dummy account created previously during the replication installer setup to install the Mobility service manually (push install is not supported). Then click Next: Virtual machines.

    Replicate Settings

  6. In Virtual Machines, in Import migration settings from an assessment?, leave the default setting No, I'll specify the migration settings manually.

  7. Check each VM you want to migrate. Then click Next: Target settings.

    Select VMs

  8. In Target settings, select the subscription, and target region to which you'll migrate, and specify the resource group in which the Azure VMs will reside after migration.

  9. In Virtual Network, select the Azure VNet/subnet to which the Azure VMs will be joined after migration.

  10. In Cache storage account, keep the default option to use the cache storage account that is automatically created for the project. Use the drop down if you'd like to specify a different storage account to use as the cache storage account for replication.

    Note

    • If you selected private endpoint as the connectivity method for the Azure Migrate project, grant the Recovery Services vault access to the cache storage account. Learn more
    • To replicate using ExpressRoute with private peering, create a private endpoint for the cache storage account. Learn more
  11. In Availability options, select:

    • Availability Zone to pin the migrated machine to a specific Availability Zone in the region. Use this option to distribute servers that form a multi-node application tier across Availability Zones. If you select this option, you'll need to specify the Availability Zone to use for each of the selected machine in the Compute tab. This option is only available if the target region selected for the migration supports Availability Zones
    • Availability Set to place the migrated machine in an Availability Set. The target Resource Group that was selected must have one or more availability sets in order to use this option.
    • No infrastructure redundancy required option if you don't need either of these availability configurations for the migrated machines.
  12. In Disk encryption type, select:

    • Encryption-at-rest with platform-managed key
    • Encryption-at-rest with customer-managed key
    • Double encryption with platform-managed and customer-managed keys

Note

To replicate VMs with CMK, you'll need to create a disk encryption set under the target Resource Group. A disk encryption set object maps Managed Disks to a Key Vault that contains the CMK to use for SSE.

  1. In Azure Hybrid Benefit:

    • Select No if you don't want to apply Azure Hybrid Benefit. Then click Next.
    • Select Yes if you have Windows Server machines that are covered with active Software Assurance or Windows Server subscriptions, and you want to apply the benefit to the machines you're migrating. Then click Next.

    Target settings

  2. In Compute, review the VM name, size, OS disk type, and availability configuration (if selected in the previous step). VMs must conform with Azure requirements.

    • VM size: If you're using assessment recommendations, the VM size dropdown shows the recommended size. Otherwise Azure Migrate picks a size based on the closest match in the Azure subscription. Alternatively, pick a manual size in Azure VM size.
    • OS disk: Specify the OS (boot) disk for the VM. The OS disk is the disk that has the operating system bootloader and installer.
    • Availability Zone: Specify the Availability Zone to use.
    • Availability Set: Specify the Availability Set to use.

Compute settings

  1. In Disks, specify whether the VM disks should be replicated to Azure, and select the disk type (standard SSD/HDD or premium managed disks) in Azure. Then click Next.

    • You can exclude disks from replication.
    • If you exclude disks, won't be present on the Azure VM after migration.

    Disk settings

  2. In Review and start replication, review the settings, and click Replicate to start the initial replication for the servers.

Note

You can update replication settings any time before replication starts, Manage > Replicating machines. Settings can't be changed after replication starts.

Track and monitor replication status

  • When you click Replicate a Start Replication job begins.
  • When the Start Replication job finishes successfully, the VMs begin their initial replication to Azure.
  • After initial replication finishes, delta replication begins. Incremental changes to GCP VM disks are periodically replicated to the replica disks in Azure.

You can track job status in the portal notifications.

You can monitor replication status by clicking on Replicating servers in Azure Migrate: Server Migration.

Monitor replication

Run a test migration

When delta replication begins, you can run a test migration for the VMs, before running a full migration to Azure. The test migration is highly recommended and provides an opportunity to discover any potential issues and fix them before you proceed with the actual migration. It is advised that you do this at least once for each VM before you migrate it.

  • Running a test migration checks that migration will work as expected, without impacting the GCP VMs, which remain operational, and continue replicating.
  • Test migration simulates the migration by creating an Azure VM using replicated data (usually migrating to a non-production VNet in your Azure subscription).
  • You can use the replicated test Azure VM to validate the migration, perform app testing, and address any issues before full migration.

Do a test migration as follows:

  1. In Migration goals > Servers > Azure Migrate: Server Migration, click Test migrated servers.

    Test migrated servers

  2. Right-click the VM to test, and click Test migrate.

    Test migration

  3. In Test Migration, select the Azure VNet in which the Azure VM will be located after the migration. We recommend you use a non-production VNet.

  4. The Test migration job starts. Monitor the job in the portal notifications.

  5. After the migration finishes, view the migrated Azure VM in Virtual Machines in the Azure portal. The machine name has a suffix -Test.

  6. After the test is done, right-click the Azure VM in Replicating machines, and click Clean up test migration.

    Clean up migration

    Note

    You can now register your servers running SQL server with SQL VM RP to take advantage of automated patching, automated backup and simplified license management using SQL IaaS Agent Extension.

    • Select Manage > Replicating servers > Machine containing SQL server > Compute and Network and select yes to register with SQL VM RP.
    • Select Azure Hybrid benefit for SQL Server if you have SQL Server instances that are covered with active Software Assurance or SQL Server subscriptions and you want to apply the benefit to the machines you're migrating.hs.

Migrate GCP VMs

After you've verified that the test migration works as expected, you can migrate the GCP VMs.

  1. In the Azure Migrate project > Servers > Azure Migrate: Server Migration, click Replicating servers.

    Replicating servers

  2. In Replicating machines, right-click the VM > Migrate.

  3. In Migrate > Shut down virtual machines and perform a planned migration with no data loss, select Yes > OK.

    • If you don't want to shut down the VM, select No.
  4. A migration job starts for the VM. You can view the job status by clicking the notification bell icon on the top right of the portal page or by going to the jobs page of the Server Migration tool (Click Overview on the tool tile > Select Jobs from the left menu).

  5. After the job finishes, you can view and manage the VM from the Virtual Machines page.

Complete the migration

  1. After the migration is done, right-click the VM > Stop migration. This does the following:
    • Stops replication for the GCP VM.
    • Removes the GCP VM from the Replicating servers count in Azure Migrate: Server Migration.
    • Cleans up replication state information for the VM.
  2. Verify and troubleshoot any Windows activation issues on the Azure VM.
  3. Perform any post-migration app tweaks, such as updating host names, database connection strings, and web server configurations.
  4. Perform final application and migration acceptance testing on the migrated application now running in Azure.
  5. Cut over traffic to the migrated Azure VM instance.
  6. Update any internal documentation to show the new location and IP address of the Azure VMs.

Post-migration best practices

Troubleshooting / Tips

Question: I cannot see my GCP VM in the discovered list of servers for migration
Answer: Check if your replication appliance meets the requirements. Make sure Mobility Agent is installed on the source VM to be migrated and is registered the Configuration Server. Check the firewall rules to enable a network path between the replication appliance and source GCP VMs.

Question: How do I know if my VM was successfully migrated
Answer: Post-migration, you can view and manage the VM from the Virtual Machines page. Connect to the migrated VM to validate.

Question: I am unable to import VMs for migration from my previously created Server Assessment results
Answer: Currently, we do not support the import of assessment for this workflow. As a workaround, you can export the assessment and then manually select the VM recommendation during the Enable Replication step.

Question: I am getting the error “Failed to fetch BIOS GUID” while trying to discover my GCP VMs
Answer: Use root login for authentication and not any pseudo user. If you are not able to use a root user, ensure the required capabilities are set on the user, as per the instructions provided in the support matrix. Also review supported operating systems for GCP VMs.

Question: My replication status is not progressing
Answer: Check if your replication appliance meets the requirements. Make sure you’ve enabled the required ports on your replication appliance TCP port 9443 and HTTPS 443 for data transport. Ensure that there are no stale duplicate versions of the replication appliance connected to the same project.

Question: I am unable to Discover GCP Instances using Azure Migrate due to HTTP status code of 504 from the remote Windows management service
Answer: Make sure to review the Azure migrate appliance requirements and URL access needs. Make sure no proxy settings are blocking the appliance registration.

Question: Do I have to make any changes before I migrate my GCP VMs to Azure
Answer: You may have to make these changes before migrating your EC2 VMs to Azure:

  • If you are using cloud-init for your VM provisioning, you may want to disable cloud-init on the VM before replicating it to Azure. The provisioning steps performed by cloud-init on the VM maybe GCP specific and won't be valid after the migration to Azure. ​
  • Review the prerequisites section to determine whether there are any changes necessary for the operating system before you migrate them to Azure.
  • We always recommend you run a test migration before the final migration.

Next steps

Investigate the cloud migration journey in the Azure Cloud Adoption Framework.