SQL Database application development overview

This article walks through the basic considerations that a developer should be aware of when writing code to connect to Azure SQL Database.


For a tutorial showing you how to create a server, create a server-based firewall, view server properties, connect using SQL Server Management Studio, query the master database, create a sample database and a blank database, query database properties, connect using SQL Server Management Studio, and query the sample database, see Get Started Tutorial.

Language and platform

There are code samples available for various programming languages and platforms. You can find links to the code samples at:


You can leverage open-source tools like cheetah, sql-cli, VS Code. Additionally, Azure SQL Database works with Microsoft tools like Visual Studio and SQL Server Management Studio. You can also use the Azure Management Portal, PowerShell, and REST APIs help you gain additional productivity.

Resource limitations

Azure SQL Database manages the resources available to a database using two different mechanisms: Resources governance and enforcement of limits. For more information, see:


Azure SQL Database provides resources for limiting access, protecting data, and monitoring activities on a SQL Database.



When a transient error occurs while connecting to SQL Database, your code should retry the call. We recommend that retry logic use backoff logic, so that it does not overwhelm the SQL Database with multiple clients retrying simultaneously.

Managing connections

  • In your client connection logic, override the default timeout to be 30 seconds. The default of 15 seconds is too short for connections that depend on the internet.
  • If you are using a connection pool, be sure to close the connection the instant your program is not actively using it, and is not preparing to reuse it.

Network considerations

Data sharding with elastic scale

Elastic scale simplifies the process of scaling out (and in).

Next steps

Explore all the capabilities of SQL Database.