Migrate blobs across storage accounts using AzCopy on Windows

This sample copies all blob objects from a user-provided source storage account to a user-provided target storage account.

This is accomplished by making use of the Get-AzureStorageContainer command, which lists all the containers in a storage account. The sample then issues AzCopy commands, copying each container from the source storage account to the destination storage account. If any failures occur, the sample retries $retryTimes (default is 3, and can be modified with the -RetryTimes parameter). If failure is experienced on each retry, the user can rerun the script by providing the sample with the last successfully copied container using the -LastSuccessContainerName parameter. The sample then continues copying containers from that point.

This sample requires the Azure PowerShell Storage module version 4.0.2 or later. You can check your installed version using Get-Module -ListAvailable Azure.storage. If you need to install or upgrade, see Install Azure PowerShell module.

If you don't have an Azure subscription, create a free account before you begin.

This sample also requires the latest version of AzCopy on Windows. The default install directory is C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft SDKs\Azure\AzCopy\

This sample takes in a source storage account name and key, a target storage account name and key, and the full filepath of the AzCopy.exe (if it is not installed at the default directory).

The following are examples of the input for this sample:

If AzCopy is installed at the default directory:

srcStorageAccountName: ExampleSourceStorageAccountName
srcStorageAccountKey: ExampleSourceStorageAccountKey
DestStorageAccountName: ExampleTargetStorageAccountName
DestStorageAccountKey: ExampleTargetStorageAccountKey

If AzCopy is not installed at the default directory:

srcStorageAccountName: ExampleSourceStorageAccountName
srcStorageAccountKey: ExampleSourceStorageAccountKey
DestStorageAccountName: ExampleTargetStorageAccountName
DestStorageAccountKey: ExampleTargetStorageAccountKey
AzCopyPath: C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft SDKs\Azure\AzCopy\AzCopy.exe

If failure is experienced and the sample must be rerun from a particular container:

.\copyScript.ps1 -LastSuccessContainerName myContainerName

Sample script

# Run the script in a new open Powershell window, which has not run other cmdlets, or AzCopy performance could suffer .
# Install Azure PowerShell before runing the script: https://github.com/Azure/azure-powershell/releases
# Install AzCopy before runing the script: https://docs.microsoft.com/azure/storage/common/storage-use-azcopy
# Do not modify the Source or Destination accounts while the script is running

 param (
    [Parameter(Mandatory = $true, 
    HelpMessage= "Source Storage account name.")]
    [ValidatePattern("^[a-z0-9`]{3,24}$")]
    [String]$srcStorageAccountName,

    [Parameter(Mandatory = $true, 
    HelpMessage= "Source Storage account key.")]
    [String]$srcStorageAccountKey,

    [Parameter(Mandatory = $true, 
    HelpMessage= "Destination Storage account name.")]
    [ValidatePattern("^[a-z0-9`]{3,24}$")]
    [String]$DestStorageAccountName,

    [Parameter(Mandatory = $true, 
    HelpMessage= "Destination Storage account key.")]
    [String]$DestStorageAccountKey,

    [Parameter(Mandatory = $false, 
    HelpMessage= "Input the full filePath of the AzCopy.exe, e.g.: C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft SDKs\Azure\AzCopy\AzCopy.exe")]
    [String]$AzCopyPath = "C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft SDKs\Azure\AzCopy\AzCopy.exe",

    [Parameter(Mandatory = $false, 
    HelpMessage='Sets the number of retries in an event of failure. Set to 0 for no retry, set -1 for infinite retry.')]
    [Int32]$RetryTimes = 3,

    [Parameter(Mandatory = $false, 
    ValueFromPipeline = $true, 
    HelpMessage='Used for resume operation. When provided, the script will copy containers that are alphabetically after $LastSuccessContainerName')]
    [String]$LastSuccessContainerName = $nullz
 )

 if( (Get-Item $AzCopyPath).Exists)
 {

    $FileItemVersion = (Get-Item $AzCopyPath).VersionInfo
    $FilePath = ("{0}.{1}.{2}.{3}" -f  $FileItemVersion.FileMajorPart,  $FileItemVersion.FileMinorPart,  $FileItemVersion.FileBuildPart,  $FileItemVersion.FilePrivatePart)

    if([version] $FilePath -lt "7.0.0.2")
    {
        $AzCopyPath = Read-Host "Version of AzCopy found at default install directory is of a lower, unsupported version. Please input the full filePath of the AzCopy.exe that is version 7.0.0.2 or higher, e.g.: C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft SDKs\Azure\AzCopy\AzCopy.exe"
    }
 }
 elseIf( (Get-Item $AzCopyPath).Exists -eq $false)
 {
    $AzCopyPath = Read-Host "Input the full filePath of the AzCopy.exe, e.g.: C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft SDKs\Azure\AzCopy\AzCopy.exe"
 }

# Create and check Storage context
$Error.Clear()
$srcCtx = New-AzureStorageContext -StorageAccountName $srcStorageAccountName -StorageAccountKey $srcStorageAccountKey
if ($srcCtx -eq $null)
{
    Write-Error "Script could not create source Storage Context, possibly due to invalid StorageAccountName or StorageAccount Key terminating: $Error[0]";
    return;
}
$destCtx = New-AzureStorageContext -StorageAccountName $destStorageAccountName -StorageAccountKey $destStorageAccountKey
if ($destCtx -eq $null)
{
    Write-Error "Script could not create destination storage context, possibly due to invalid StorageAccountName or StorageAccount Key terminating: $Error[0]";
    return;
}

#Check Source and Destination Storage account Connection
$Error.Clear()
$Containers = Get-AzureStorageContainer -MaxCount 1 -Context $srcCtx
if ($Error.Count -gt 0)
{
    Write-Error "Script failed to connect to source Storage account, terminating: $Error[0]";
    return;
}
$Containers = Get-AzureStorageContainer -MaxCount 1 -Context $destCtx
if ($Error.Count -gt 0)
{
    Write-Error "Script failed to connect to destination Storage account, terminating: $Error[0]";
    return;
}

#Check AzCopy Path
if((Test-Path $AzCopyPath) -eq $false)
{
    Write-Error "Script is terminating since the provided AzCopyPath does not exist: $AzCopyPath ";
    return;
}
elseif((Get-Item $AzCopyPath).BaseName -ne "AzCopy" )
{
    Write-Error "Script is terminating since the provided AzCopyPath does not refer to the AzCopy exe: $AzCopyPath ";
    return;
}
elseif((Get-Item $AzCopyPath).BaseName -eq "AzCopy")
{
    $FileItemVersion = (Get-Item $AzCopyPath).VersionInfo
    $FilePath = ("{0}.{1}.{2}.{3}" -f  $FileItemVersion.FileMajorPart,  $FileItemVersion.FileMinorPart,  $FileItemVersion.FileBuildPart,  $FileItemVersion.FilePrivatePart)

    if([version] $FilePath -lt "7.0.0.2")
    {
        $AzCopyPath = Read-Host "Version of AzCopy found at provided path is of a lower, unsupported version. Please input the full filePath of the AzCopy.exe that is version 7.0.0.2 or higher, e.g.: C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft SDKs\Azure\AzCopy\AzCopy.exe"
    }
}

$OutputLastSuccessContainer = $LastSuccessContainerName;
$HasReachedLastSuccessContainer = $false;

if ($LastSuccessContainerName -eq $null -or $LastSuccessContainerName -eq "")
{
    $HasReachedLastSuccessContainer = $true;
}

# For list container
$MaxReturn = 250
$Token = $Null

do{
    # List source containers
    $retry = 1
    $Error.Clear()
    $srcContainers = Get-AzureStorageContainer -MaxCount $MaxReturn -ContinuationToken $Token -Context $srcCtx

    # If list container fail, retry it
    while(($Error.Count -gt 0) -and ($RetryTimes -eq -1 -or $retry -le $retryTimes))
    {
        Write-Host "Retry List containers $retry"
        $Error.Clear()
        $srcContainers = Get-AzureStorageContainer -MaxCount $MaxReturn -ContinuationToken $Token -Context $srcCtx
        $retry++
    }

    # If list container fail after retry, break script
    if ($Error.Count -gt 0){
        Write-Error "Terminating the script since listing source containers failed: $Error[0]";
        $CopyContainerFail = $true
        break;
    }
    $Token = $srcContainers[$srcContainers.Count -1].ContinuationToken;

    # Transfer containers one by one
    $CopyContainerFail = $false
    foreach ($container in $srcContainers)
    {
        if (!$HasReachedLastSuccessContainer)
        {
            if ($container.Name -eq $LastSuccessContainerName)
            {
                $HasReachedLastSuccessContainer = $true;
            }
            Write-Host "Skipping container copy: $($container.Name)"
            Continue;
        }

        Write-Host "Start copying container: $($container.Name)"
        $retry = 1

        # Get AzCopy command for transfer one container
        $destContainer = $destCtx.StorageAccount.CreateCloudBlobClient().GetContainerReference($container.Name)
        $azCopyCmd = [string]::Format("""{0}"" /source:{1} /dest:{2} /sourcekey:""{3}"" /destkey:""{4}"" /snapshot /y /s",$AzCopyPath, $container.CloudBlobContainer.Uri.AbsoluteUri, $destContainer.Uri.AbsoluteUri, $srcStorageAccountKey, $DestStorageAccountKey)

        # Execute the AzCopy command first time
        Write-Host "$azCopyCmd"
        $result = cmd /c $azCopyCmd
        foreach($s in $result)
        {
            Write-Host $s 
        }

        # If transfer failed, retry it
        while(($LASTEXITCODE -ne 0) -and ($RetryTimes -eq -1 -or $retry -le $retryTimes))
        {
            Write-Host "Retry $retry : $azCopyCmd"
            $result = cmd /c $azCopyCmd
            foreach($s in $result)
            {
                Write-Host $s 
            }
            $retry++
        }

        # If tranfer failed after retry, print error
        if ($LASTEXITCODE -ne 0){
            Write-Error "Container copy failed: $($container.Name)";
            $CopyContainerFail = $true
            break;
        }
        else
        {
            Write-Host "Finished copying container: $($container.Name)"
            Write-Host ""
            $OutputLastSuccessContainer = $container.Name
        }
    }
    if($CopyContainerFail)
    {
        break;
    }
}
While ($Token -ne $Null)

# Summary the copy result
if ($CopyContainerFail)
{
    if(($OutputLastSuccessContainer -ne $null) -and ($OutputLastSuccessContainer -ne ""))
    {
        Write-Warning "To resume, rerun the script and append the parameter: ""-LastSuccessContainer $OutputLastSuccessContainer"""
        return $OutputLastSuccessContainer
    }
    else
    {
        Write-Warning "To resume, rerun the script."
        return $null
    }
}
else
{
    Write-Host "All Containers copied successfully."
    return ""
}

Script explanation

This script uses the following commands to copy data from one storage account to another. Each item in the table links to command-specific documentation.

Command Notes
Get-AzureStorageContainer Returns the containers associated with this Storage account.
New-AzureStorageContext Creates an Azure Storage context.

Next steps

For more information on the Azure PowerShell module, see Azure PowerShell documentation.

Additional storage PowerShell script samples can be found in PowerShell samples for Azure Blob storage.