Azure Front Door web application firewall (WAF) protects web applications from common vulnerabilities and exploits. Azure-managed rule sets provide an easy way to deploy protection against a common set of security threats. Since such rule sets are managed by Azure, the rules are updated as needed to protect against new attack signatures.
Default rule sets
Azure-managed Default Rule Set includes rules against the following threat categories:
Local file inclusion
PHP injection attacks
Remote command execution
Remote file inclusion
SQL injection protection
The version number of the Default Rule Set increments when new attack signatures are added to the rule set.
Default Rule Set is enabled by default in Detection mode in your WAF policies. You can disable or enable individual rules within the Default Rule Set to meet your application requirements. You can also set specific actions (ALLOW/BLOCK/REDIRECT/LOG) per rule.
Sometimes you may need to omit certain request attributes from a WAF evaluation. A common example is Active Directory-inserted tokens that are used for authentication. You may configure an exclusion list for a managed rule, rule group, or for the entire rule set.
The Default action is to BLOCK. Additionally, custom rules can be configured in the same WAF policy if you wish to bypass any of the pre-configured rules in the Default Rule Set.
Custom rules are always applied before rules in the Default Rule Set are evaluated. If a request matches a custom rule, the corresponding rule action is applied. The request is either blocked or passed through to the back-end. No other custom rules or the rules in the Default Rule Set are processed. You can also remove the Default Rule Set from your WAF policies.
Microsoft Threat Intelligence Collection rules
The Microsoft Threat Intelligence Collection rules are written in partnership with the Microsoft Intelligence team to provide increased coverage, patches for specific vulnerabilities, and better false positive reduction.
Anomaly Scoring mode
OWASP has two modes for deciding whether to block traffic: Traditional mode and Anomaly Scoring mode.
In Traditional mode, traffic that matches any rule is considered independently of any other rule matches. This mode is easy to understand. But the lack of information about how many rules match a specific request is a limitation. So, Anomaly Scoring mode was introduced. It's the default for OWASP 3.x.
In Anomaly Scoring mode, traffic that matches any rule isn't immediately blocked when the firewall is in Prevention mode. Rules have a certain severity: Critical, Error, Warning, or Notice. That severity affects a numeric value for the request, which is called the Anomaly Score. For example, one Warning rule match contributes 3 to the score. One Critical rule match contributes 5.
There's a threshold of 5 for the Anomaly Score to block traffic. So, a single Critical rule match is enough for the WAF to block a request, even in Prevention mode. But one Warning rule match only increases the Anomaly Score by 3, which isn't enough by itself to block the traffic.
Body inspection is only available on DRS 2.0
DRS 2.0 includes 17 rule groups, as shown in the following table. Each group contains multiple rules, which can be disabled.
DRS 2.0 is only available on Azure Front Door Premium.