mbrtowc

Convert a multibyte character in the current locale into the equivalent wide character, with the capability of restarting in the middle of a multibyte character.

Syntax

size_t mbrtowc(
   wchar_t *wchar,
   const char *mbchar,
   size_t count,
   mbstate_t *mbstate
);

Parameters

wchar
Address of a wide character to receive the converted wide character string (type wchar_t). This value can be a null pointer if no return wide character is required.

mbchar
Address of a sequence of bytes (a multibyte character).

count
Number of bytes to check.

mbstate
Pointer to conversion state object. If this value is a null pointer, the function uses a static internal conversion state object. Because the internal mbstate_t object is not thread-safe, we recommend that you always pass your own mbstate argument.

Return Value

One of the following values:

0 The next count or fewer bytes complete the multibyte character that represents the null wide character, which is stored in wchar, if wchar is not a null pointer.

1 to count, inclusive The next count or fewer bytes complete a valid multibyte character. The value returned is the number of bytes that complete the multibyte character. The wide character equivalent is stored in wchar, if wchar is not a null pointer.

(size_t)(-1) An encoding error occurred. The next count or fewer bytes do not contribute to a complete and valid multibyte character. In this case, errno is set to EILSEQ and the conversion shift state in mbstate is unspecified.

(size_t)(-2) The next count bytes contribute to an incomplete but potentially valid multibyte character, and all count bytes have been processed. No value is stored in wchar, but mbstate is updated to restart the function.

Remarks

If mbchar is a null pointer, the function is equivalent to the call:

mbrtowc(NULL, "", 1, &mbstate)

In this case, the value of the arguments wchar and count are ignored.

If mbchar is not a null pointer, the function examines count bytes from mbchar to determine the required number of bytes that are required to complete the next multibyte character. If the next character is valid, the corresponding multibyte character is stored in wchar if it is not a null pointer. If the character is the corresponding wide null character, the resulting state of mbstate is the initial conversion state.

The mbrtowc function differs from mbtowc, _mbtowc_l by its restartability. The conversion state is stored in mbstate for subsequent calls to the same or other restartable functions. Results are undefined when mixing the use of restartable and nonrestartable functions. For example, an application should use wcsrlen instead of wcslen if a subsequent call to wcsrtombs is used instead of wcstombs.

By default, this function's global state is scoped to the application. To change this, see Global state in the CRT.

Example

Converts a multibyte character to its wide character equivalent.

// crt_mbrtowc.cpp

#include <stdio.h>
#include <mbctype.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <locale.h>
#include <wchar.h>

#define BUF_SIZE 100

int Sample(char* szIn, wchar_t* wcOut, int nMax)
{
    mbstate_t   state = {0}; // Initial state
    size_t      nConvResult,
                nmbLen = 0,
                nwcLen = 0;
    wchar_t*    wcCur = wcOut;
    wchar_t*    wcEnd = wcCur + nMax;
    const char* mbCur = szIn;
    const char* mbEnd = mbCur + strlen(mbCur) + 1;
    char*       szLocal;

    // Sets all locale to French_Canada.1252
    szLocal = setlocale(LC_ALL, "French_Canada.1252");
    if (!szLocal)
    {
        printf("The fuction setlocale(LC_ALL, \"French_Canada.1252\") failed!\n");
        return 1;
    }

    printf("Locale set to: \"%s\"\n", szLocal);

    // Sets the code page associated current locale's code page
    // from a previous call to setlocale.
    if (_setmbcp(_MB_CP_SBCS) == -1)
    {
        printf("The fuction _setmbcp(_MB_CP_SBCS) failed!");
        return 1;
    }

    while ((mbCur < mbEnd) && (wcCur < wcEnd))
    {
        //
        nConvResult = mbrtowc(wcCur, mbCur, 1, &state);
        switch (nConvResult)
        {
            case 0:
            {  // done
                printf("Conversion succeeded!\nMultibyte String: ");
                printf(szIn);
                printf("\nWC String: ");
                wprintf(wcOut);
                printf("\n");
                mbCur = mbEnd;
                break;
            }

            case -1:
            {  // encoding error
                printf("The call to mbrtowc has detected an encoding error.\n");
                mbCur = mbEnd;
                break;
            }

            case -2:
            {  // incomplete character
                if   (!mbsinit(&state))
                {
                    printf("Currently in middle of mb conversion, state = %x\n", state);
                    // state will contain data regarding lead byte of mb character
                }

                ++nmbLen;
                ++mbCur;
                break;
            }

            default:
            {
                if   (nConvResult > 2) // The multibyte should never be larger than 2
                {
                    printf("Error: The size of the converted multibyte is %d.\n", nConvResult);
                }

                ++nmbLen;
                ++nwcLen;
                ++wcCur;
                ++mbCur;
            break;
            }
        }
    }

   return 0;
}

int main(int argc, char* argv[])
{
    char    mbBuf[BUF_SIZE] = "AaBbCc\x9A\x8B\xE0\xEF\xF0xXyYzZ";
    wchar_t wcBuf[BUF_SIZE] = {L''};

    return Sample(mbBuf, wcBuf, BUF_SIZE);
}

Sample Output

Locale set to: "French_Canada.1252"
Conversion succeeded!
Multibyte String: AaBbCcÜïα∩≡xXyYzZ
WC String: AaBbCcÜïα∩≡xXyYzZ

Requirements

Routine Required header
mbrtowc <wchar.h>

See also

Data Conversion
Locale
Interpretation of Multibyte-Character Sequences