_splitpath, _wsplitpath

Break a path name into components. More secure versions of these functions are available, see _splitpath_s, _wsplitpath_s.


void _splitpath(
   const char *path,
   char *drive,
   char *dir,
   char *fname,
   char *ext
void _wsplitpath(
   const wchar_t *path,
   wchar_t *drive,
   wchar_t *dir,
   wchar_t *fname,
   wchar_t *ext


Full path.

Drive letter, followed by a colon (:). You can pass NULL for this parameter if you do not need the drive letter.

Directory path, including trailing slash. Forward slashes ( / ), backslashes ( \ ), or both may be used. You can pass NULL for this parameter if you do not need the directory path.

Base filename (no extension). You can pass NULL for this parameter if you do not need the filename.

Filename extension, including leading period (.). You can pass NULL for this parameter if you do not need the filename extension.


The _splitpath function breaks a path into its four components. _splitpath automatically handles multibyte-character string arguments as appropriate, recognizing multibyte-character sequences according to the multibyte code page currently in use. _wsplitpath is a wide-character version of _splitpath; the arguments to _wsplitpath are wide-character strings. These functions behave identically otherwise.

Security Note These functions incur a potential threat brought about by a buffer overrun problem. Buffer overrun problems are a frequent method of system attack, resulting in an unwarranted elevation of privilege. For more information, see Avoiding Buffer Overruns. More secure versions of these functions are available; see _splitpath_s, _wsplitpath_s.

By default, this function's global state is scoped to the application. To change this, see Global state in the CRT.

Generic-Text Routine Mappings

TCHAR.H routine _UNICODE & _MBCS not defined _MBCS defined _UNICODE defined
_tsplitpath _splitpath _splitpath _wsplitpath

Each component of the full path is stored in a separate buffer; the manifest constants _MAX_DRIVE, _MAX_DIR, _MAX_FNAME, and _MAX_EXT (defined in STDLIB.H) specify the maximum size for each file component. File components that are larger than the corresponding manifest constants cause heap corruption.

Each buffer must be as large as its corresponding manifest constant to avoid potential buffer overrun.

The following table lists the values of the manifest constants.

Name Value
_MAX_DIR 256
_MAX_EXT 256

If the full path does not contain a component (for example, a filename), _splitpath assigns empty strings to the corresponding buffers.

You can pass NULL to _splitpath for any parameter other than path that you do not need.

If path is NULL, the invalid parameter handler is invoked, as described in Parameter Validation. If execution is allowed to continue, errno is set to EINVAL and the function returns EINVAL.


Routine Required header
_splitpath <stdlib.h>
_wsplitpath <stdlib.h> or <wchar.h>

For additional compatibility information, see Compatibility.


See the example for _makepath.

See also

File Handling
_fullpath, _wfullpath
_makepath, _wmakepath
_splitpath_s, _wsplitpath_s