wcstombs_s, _wcstombs_s_l

Converts a sequence of wide characters to a corresponding sequence of multibyte characters. A version of wcstombs, _wcstombs_l with security enhancements as described in Security Features in the CRT.

Syntax

errno_t wcstombs_s(
   size_t *pReturnValue,
   char *mbstr,
   size_t sizeInBytes,
   const wchar_t *wcstr,
   size_t count
);

errno_t _wcstombs_s_l(
   size_t *pReturnValue,
   char *mbstr,
   size_t sizeInBytes,
   const wchar_t *wcstr,
   size_t count,
   _locale_t locale
);

template <size_t size>
errno_t wcstombs_s(
   size_t *pReturnValue,
   char (&mbstr)[size],
   const wchar_t *wcstr,
   size_t count
); // C++ only

template <size_t size>
errno_t _wcstombs_s_l(
   size_t *pReturnValue,
   char (&mbstr)[size],
   const wchar_t *wcstr,
   size_t count,
   _locale_t locale
); // C++ only

Parameters

pReturnValue
The size in bytes of the converted string, including the null terminator.

mbstr
The address of a buffer for the resulting converted multibyte character string.

sizeInBytes
The size in bytes of the mbstr buffer.

wcstr
Points to the wide character string to be converted.

count
The maximum number of bytes to store in the mbstr buffer, not including the terminating null character, or _TRUNCATE.

locale
The locale to use.

Return Value

Zero if successful, an error code on failure.

Error condition Return value and errno
mbstr is NULL and sizeInBytes > 0 EINVAL
wcstr is NULL EINVAL
The destination buffer is too small to contain the converted string (unless count is _TRUNCATE; see Remarks below) ERANGE

If any of these conditions occurs, the invalid parameter exception is invoked as described in Parameter Validation . If execution is allowed to continue, the function returns an error code and sets errno as indicated in the table.

Remarks

The wcstombs_s function converts a string of wide characters pointed to by wcstr into multibyte characters stored in the buffer pointed to by mbstr. The conversion will continue for each character until one of these conditions is met:

  • A null wide character is encountered

  • A wide character that cannot be converted is encountered

  • The number of bytes stored in the mbstr buffer equals count.

The destination string is always null-terminated (even in the case of an error).

If count is the special value _TRUNCATE, then wcstombs_s converts as much of the string as will fit into the destination buffer, while still leaving room for a null terminator. If the string is truncated, the return value is STRUNCATE, and the conversion is considered successful.

If wcstombs_s successfully converts the source string, it puts the size in bytes of the converted string, including the null terminator, into *pReturnValue (provided pReturnValue is not NULL). This occurs even if the mbstr argument is NULL and provides a way to determine the required buffer size. Note that if mbstr is NULL, count is ignored.

If wcstombs_s encounters a wide character it cannot convert to a multibyte character, it puts 0 in *pReturnValue, sets the destination buffer to an empty string, sets errno to EILSEQ, and returns EILSEQ.

If the sequences pointed to by wcstr and mbstr overlap, the behavior of wcstombs_s is undefined.

Important

Ensure that wcstr and mbstr do not overlap, and that count correctly reflects the number of wide characters to convert.

wcstombs_s uses the current locale for any locale-dependent behavior; _wcstombs_s_l is identical to wcstombs except that it uses the locale passed in instead. For more information, see Locale.

In C++, using these functions is simplified by template overloads; the overloads can infer buffer length automatically (eliminating the need to specify a size argument) and they can automatically replace older, non-secure functions with their newer, secure counterparts. For more information, see Secure Template Overloads.

Requirements

Routine Required header
wcstombs_s <stdlib.h>

For additional compatibility information, see Compatibility.

Example

This program illustrates the behavior of the wcstombs_s function.

// crt_wcstombs_s.c
// This example converts a wide character
// string to a multibyte character string.
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <assert.h>

#define BUFFER_SIZE 100

int main( void )
{
    size_t   i;
    char      *pMBBuffer = (char *)malloc( BUFFER_SIZE );
    wchar_t*pWCBuffer = L"Hello, world.";

    printf( "Convert wide-character string:\n" );

    // Conversion
    wcstombs_s(&i, pMBBuffer, (size_t)BUFFER_SIZE,
               pWCBuffer, (size_t)BUFFER_SIZE );

    // Output
    printf("   Characters converted: %u\n", i);
    printf("    Multibyte character: %s\n\n",
     pMBBuffer );

    // Free multibyte character buffer
    if (pMBBuffer)
    {
    free(pMBBuffer);
    }
}
Convert wide-character string:
   Characters converted: 14
    Multibyte character: Hello, world.

See also

Data Conversion
Locale
_mbclen, mblen, _mblen_l
mbstowcs, _mbstowcs_l
mbtowc, _mbtowc_l
wctomb_s, _wctomb_s_l
WideCharToMultiByte